Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 11
Matter and Its Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 5
Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 3
Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Develop and use models of atomic nuclei to explain why the abundance-weighted average of isotopes of an element yields the published atomic mass.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.4: In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 19
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 2
Classroom Resources: 14
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.

Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
5 ) Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.

b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 11
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 9
6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.

a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.

b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.

c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.7: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. An important example is carbon atoms, which can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form, along with other kinds of atoms (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur), a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 6
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 5
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.

a. Use mathematics to describe the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas when only the amount of gas is constant.

b. Use mathematical and computational thinking based on the ideal gas law to determine molar quantities.

Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 3
Classroom Resources: 3
8 ) Refine the design of a given chemical system to illustrate how LeChâtelier's principle affects a dynamic chemical equilibrium when subjected to an outside stress (e.g., heating and cooling a saturated sugar- water solution).*

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
9 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.


Energy
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 0
10 ) Plan and conduct experiments that demonstrate how changes in a system (e.g., phase changes, pressure of a gas) validate the kinetic molecular theory.

a. Develop a model to explain the relationship between the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance and the temperature of the substance (e.g., no kinetic energy equaling absolute zero [0K or -273.15oC]).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.

NAEP Statement::
P12.8: Atoms and molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, or vibrational).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 5
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 4
11 ) Construct an explanation that describes how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends upon changes in the components of the system.

a. Develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.

b. Plan and conduct an investigation that demonstrates the transfer of thermal energy in a closed system (e.g., using heat capacities of two components of differing temperatures).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.14: Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

NAEP Statement::
P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement::
P12.5: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has a very high specific heat, meaning it can absorb a large amount of energy while producing only small changes in temperature.