Courses of Study: Science

Number of Standards matching query: 15
Earth's Place in the Universe
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the lifespan of the sun, including energy released during nuclear fusion that eventually reaches Earth through radiation.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Order the events a star progresses through during its lifespan from initial formation, through its main sequence, to its eventual death after fuel exhaustion.
  • Model the proton-proton chain of nuclear fusion occurring at the core of the Sun.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • mass
  • temperature
  • nuclear fusion
  • radiation
  • convection
  • hydrostatic equilibrium
  • flux
  • random walk
  • red giant
  • planetary nebula
  • white dwarf
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The sun is a star The sun is changing and will burn out eventually.
  • Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun release energy that reaches Earth as radiation. Hydrogen is the sun's fuel.
  • Helium and energy are products of fusion processes in the sun.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The scale of the energy released by the fusion process is much larger than the scale of the energy released by chemical processes.
AMSTI Resources:
This standard establishes many fundamental principles of stellar nature that are essential to learning the elements of E&SS standard 3.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare various theories for the formation and changing nature of the universe and our solar system (e.g., Big Bang Theory, Hubble's law, steady state theory, light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, composition of matter in the universe).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Determine distance and recession velocity of a given galaxy from its redshift value.
  • Argue for the existence of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe using information gained from published astronomical observations of galaxy behavior and supernovas.
  • Compare and contrast evidences for and observations supporting both the Big Bang and Steady State theories.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • spectral lines
  • emission spectra
  • absorption spectra
  • redshift
  • blueshift
  • Hubble's Law
  • scientific theory
  • evidence
  • cosmology
  • hot Big Bang
  • Steady State
  • cosmic microwave background radiation
  • Big Bang nucleosynthesis
  • dark matter
  • dark energy
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The stars' light spectra and brightness may be used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth.
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed-only moved between one place and another place.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a claim based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources.
  • Identify and describe evidence supporting the claim.
  • Use examples to construct oral and/or written logical arguments.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted.
  • If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.
  • The universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
AMSTI Resources:
This standard demands a firm understanding of the nature of observational evidence, the character of physical laws and the role of reproducibility and prediction in scientific theories.
The ability of both the teacher and the student to argue from evidence should be a special focus when addressing this standard.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Evaluate and communicate scientific information (e.g., Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) in reference to the life cycle of stars using data of both atomic emission and absorption spectra of stars to make inferences about the presence of certain elements.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Compare and contrast stars according to color-spectral types based on temperature and luminosity.
  • Make inferences of stellar mass, size and final state through analysis of Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams.
  • Explain why medium and small stars will not produce black holes.
  • Explain how large mass stars produce the heavy elements of the periodic table.
  • Differentiate among stars by mass to predict life span, elements produced, sequence of stages, and final state.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
  • temperature
  • luminosity
  • planetary nebula
  • main sequence
  • red giant
  • white dwarf
  • neutron star
  • black hole
  • event horizon
  • blackbody curve
  • Stefan-Boltzmann Law
  • Wien's Law
  • emission spectrum
  • absorption spectrum
  • continuous spectrum
  • classification
  • nuclear fusion
  • Balmer series for Hydrogen
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The study of the stars' light spectra and brightness is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth.
  • Nuclear fusion within stars produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including iron, and the process releases electromagnetic energy (other than hydrogen and helium).
  • Heavier elements are produced when certain massive stars achieve a supernova stage and explode.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Communicate scientific information (using oral, graphical, textual, or mathematical formats) and cite origin as appropriate.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved.
AMSTI Resources:
This would be best following E&SS standard 1 and before E&SS standard 2.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Apply mathematics and computational thinking in reference to Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws to predict the orbital motion of natural and man-made objects in the solar system.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Using Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, make qualitative inferences of how the force of attraction between two objects will vary according to changes in mass or separation distance.
  • Use Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion to qualitatively describe the motions of planets around the Sun.
  • Use computational thinking to determine the parameters (period, distance) of an object's orbit around a much larger body (e.g., planet/Sun, moon/planet).
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Orbital period
  • Ellipse
  • Focal point
  • Semi-major axis
  • Eccentricity
  • Gravitation
  • Force
  • Weight
  • Mass
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun are described using Kepler's laws.
  • Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use algebraic thinking (no use of calculus is necessary) to example scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another.
  • Use mathematical or computational representations to describe explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Relevant components in a mathematical or computational representation of orbital motion may be used to depict Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Use mathematics to explain the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis (e.g., zenith angle, solar angle, surface area) and its revolution about the sun, addressing intensity and distribution of sunlight on Earth's surface.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain that seasons are not due to the Earth's proximity to the sun
  • Show that sunlight concentrated in a small area will produce warmer temperatures than when spread out over a larger area.
  • Explain that the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere have opposite seasons due to the axial tilt.
  • Mathematically compute the sun angle for a given day of the year at a given latitude.
  • Create a data set and graph that can be used to determine the solar energy expected at a specified location and date on the Earth's surface.
  • Graphically display the variations over one year of seasons of the sunlight received on the Earth's surface.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • zenith
  • solar angle
  • surface area
  • horizon
  • north/ south pole
  • axis
  • revolution
  • rotation
  • hemisphere
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Earth's spin axis is fixed in direction over the short term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use mathematical representations to describe cyclic patterns of the seasons.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The seasons are a result of Earth's tilt relative to its orbit around the sun and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
  • Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
6 ) Obtain and evaluate information about Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein to communicate how their findings challenged conventional thinking and allowed for academic advancements and space exploration.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Compare and contrast the arguments for the geocentric system of planetary motions (i.e., the Ptolemaic system) and the heliocentric system (Copernican) providing explanations for why each system was widely accepted for many centuries.
  • Graphically organize the claims and declarations of Copernicus, Galielo, Kepler and Newton, showing the correlation and development of the varioul Laws and principles that resulted in modern understanding of the motion of all objects.
  • Gather, read and evaluate scientific information from other disciplines (e.g., chemistry or biology) showing how initial non-traditional ideas were developed and extended by a progression of scientists into a modern view.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Copernicus
  • Galileo
  • Kepler
  • Newton
  • Einstein
  • heliocentric
  • orbit
  • gravity
  • relativity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Copernicus contributed the heliocentric or sun-centered conception of the universe.
  • Kepler contributed the three laws of planetary motion Galileo contributed through telescopic observations that materials in universe were more earth like rather than ethereal.
  • Newton contributed the laws of motion and universal gravitation.
  • Einstein contributed the theories of relativity.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify relevant evidence found in case studies from the history of science on Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein.
  • Evaluate the validity, reliability of evidence along with its ability to support reasonable arguments.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Science knowledge is a result of human endeavor, imagination, and creativity.
  • Individuals and teams from many nations and cultures have contributed to science and to advances in engineering.
  • Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology.
Earth's Systems
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
7 ) Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics, including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic crusts.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze major geologic formations occurring at plate boundaries to determine the frequency of earthquakes to be expected.
  • Interpret topographical features presented on geologic maps to predict the associated type of plate boundary.
  • Draw diagrams that depict circulation within the mantle as it affects tectonic plate movement.
  • Analyze magnetic seafloor patterns to calculate oceanic crustal ages and directions of motion.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • continental plate
  • Pangaea
  • continental drift
  • rift
  • continental crust
  • oceanic crust
  • mantle
  • hot spot
  • magnetometer
  • magnetic reversal
  • paleomagnetism
  • isochron
  • seafloor spreading
  • plate boundary
  • topography
  • divergent boundary
  • convergent boundary
  • transform boundary
  • subduction zone
  • ridge push
  • slab pull
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth's crust.
  • Spontaneous radioactive decays follow a characteristic exponential decay law.
  • Radiometric dating is used to determine the ages of rocks and other materials.
  • The youngest rocks are at the top, and the oldest are at the bottom in an undisturbed column of rock, .
  • Rock layers have sometimes been rearranged by tectonic forces and the rearrangements can be seen or inferred, such as inverted sequences of fossil types.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Organize data that represents patterns that can be attributed to plate tectonic activity and formation of new rocks.
  • Measure ratio of parent to daughter atoms produced during radioactive decay as a means for determining the ages of rocks.
  • Use analyzed data to determine age and location of continental rocks, ages and locations of rocks found on opposite sides of mid-ocean ridges, and the type and location of plate boundaries relative to the type, age, and location of crustal rocks.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth's surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history.
  • At the boundaries where plates are moving apart, such as mid-ocean ridges, material from the interior of the Earth must be emerging and forming new rocks with the youngest ages.
  • The regions furthest from the plate boundaries (continental centers) will have the oldest rocks because new crust is added to the edge of continents at places where plates are coming together, such as subduction zones.
  • The oldest crustal rocks are found on the continents because oceanic crust is constantly being destroyed at places where plates are coming together, such as subduction zones.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
8 ) Develop a time scale model of Earth's biological and geological history to establish relative and absolute age of major events in Earth's history (e.g., radiometric dating, models of geologic cross sections, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Develop a graphical organizer that arranges the broad geologic eons and epochs of Earth's history according to key fossils and radiometric results.
  • Use geologic principles of superposition, original horizontality and relative dating to order the events involved in creating a given rock sequence.
  • Establish radiometrically the age of a rock sample, given the percent of a parent element remaining and a table of half-life data.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • fossil
  • fossilization
  • folding
  • faulting
  • igneous intrusions
  • rocks
  • time scale
  • Precambrian Era
  • Paleozoic Era
  • Mesozoic Era
  • Cenozoic Era
  • petrification
  • mold
  • cast
  • Principle of superposition
  • Principle of crosscutting relationships
  • index fossil
  • half-life
  • Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The early Earth and other objects in the solar system were bombarded by impacts. (combined 2)
    • Erosion and plate tectonics on Earth have destroyed much of the evidence of bombardment by impacts, explaining the scarcity of impact craters on Earth.
    • Earth's plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart based on evidence of ancient land and water patterns found in rocks and fossils.
    • The geological time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history.
    • Major historical events include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution and extinction of particular living organisms, volcanic eruptions, periods of massive glaciation, and development of watersheds and rivers through glaciation and water erosion.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Identify age and composition of Earth's oldest rocks and meteorites as determined by radiometric dating.
    • Use evidence to organize the components of the model including a geographical scale showing the geological and biological history of Earth.
    • Describe relationships in the model between components in the model, such as the age and composition of Earth's oldest rocks as determined by radiometric dating, observations of size and distribution of impact craters on the surface of the Earth, and the activity of plate tectonic processes operating on the Earth, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, and igneous intrusions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Analyses of rock formations and the fossil record are used to establish relative ages.
    • Radiometric ages of lunar rocks, meteorites and the oldest Earth rocks point to the creation of a solid Earth crust about 4.4 billion years ago.
    • Other planetary surfaces and their patterns of impact cratering can be used to infer that Earth had many impact craters early in history.
    • Processes such as volcanism, plate tectonics, and erosion have reshaped Earth's surface.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 2
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    9 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains, valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
    Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Obtain information about changes to rocks and geologic formations by mechanical and chemical weathering, erosion, volcanism and gravity.
    • Evaluate varying models of tectonic uplift, mountain-building (orogenic) forces and continental drift to explain the location and features of major mountain belts and chain on Earth.
    • Communicate information about submerged sea features such as seamounts, trenches and ridges, relating their locations to the actions of plate tectonics.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    Students:
    • From a given explanation, identify the claims, the evidence and the reasoning that will require evaluation.
    • Based on evidence, evaluate the mode and ease with which energy moves from one Earth system to another.
    • Evaluate explanations for changes in Earth's mean temperature via changes in the energy budget of Earth's systems.
    • Research and compile a set of explanations both supporting and disavowing the impact of human activities on the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth's crust.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Develop the claim based on evidence that constructive and destructive processes shape Earth's land features.
    • Identify and describe evidence supporting the claim, such as specific internal processes like volcanism, mountain building or tectonic uplift as causal agents in building up Earth's surface over time; specific surface processes, like weathering and erosion as causal agents in wearing down Earth's surface over time.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • The appearance of land features and sea-floor features are a result of both constructive forces and destructive mechanisms.
    • Earth's systems, being dynamic and interacting, cause feedback effects that can increase or decrease the original changes.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    10 ) Construct an explanation from evidence for the processes that generate the transformation of rocks in Earth's crust, including chemical composition of minerals and characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
    Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Compare and contrast rocks, minerals, metals and crystals.
    • Construct a graphical depiction of the transition of a mineral grain through a rock cycle containing igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
    • Evaluate the evidence for the intrusive or extrusive genesis of an igneous rock.
    • Identify and classify samples of rocks.
    • Differentiate among clastic, chemical, and organic sedimentary rocks.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • igneous
    • sedimentary
    • metamorphic
    • minerals
    • ore
    • magma
    • quartz
    • feldspar
    • mica
    • intrusive rock
    • extrusive rock
    • basalt
    • volcanic eruption
    • obsidian
    • clastic rock
    • conglomerate
    • chemical rock
    • organic rock
    • calcium carbonate
    • limestone
    • foliated rock
    • cleavage
    • nonfoliated rock
    • marble
    • rock cycle
    • weathering
    • erosion
    • heat
    • pressure
    • melting
    • coal
    • shale
    • pumice
    • sandstone
    • slate
    • granite
    • rhyolite
    • schist
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Minerals make up rocks.
    • Rocks are formed in many environments upon and within the Earth's crust.
    • Igneous rock is formed by the cooling of magma inside the Earth or on the surface.
    • Sedimentary rock is formed from the products of weathering by cementation or precipitation on the Earth's surface.
    • Metamorphic rock, is formed by temperature and pressure changes inside the Earth.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Construct an explanation that includes specific cause and effect relationships for formation of each type of rock.
    • Identify and describe evidence to construct an explanation such as cooling of magma at different rates form various types of igneous rocks, cementing of materials together or precipitation to form different sedimentary rocks, and pressure and temperature changes within the crust and upper mantle to form metamorphic rock.
    • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to explain transformation of rocks in the Earth's crust.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Earth is a complex system of interacting subsystems: the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
    • The geosphere includes a hot and mostly metallic inner core: a mantle of hot, soft, solid rock: and a crust of rock, soil, and sediments.
    • Solid rocks can be formed by the cooling of molten rock, the accumulation and consolidation of sediments, or the alteration of older rocks by heat, pressure, and fluids.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 1
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    11 ) Obtain and communicate information about significant geologic characteristics (e.g., types of rocks and geologic ages, earthquake zones, sinkholes, caves, abundant fossil fauna, mineral and energy resources) that impact life in Alabama and the southeastern United States.

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
    Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Create an organized list of the state's fossil finds that have been notable contributions to the understanding of changes over time in both the flora and fauna of the region.
    • Depict on a map the locations of significant mineral and energy deposits within the state, correlated to the physiographic regions in which they are found.
    • List the names and dates of recorded earthquakes within the state and find estimates of the future likelihood of destructive earthquakes in the region.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • earthquake zone
    • sinkholes
    • caves
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Major historical events in Alabama and the southeastern United States include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, volcanic activity, the evolution and extinction of living organisms, and development of watersheds and rivers.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to Earth forces.
    • The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 1
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    12 ) Develop a model of Earth's layers using available evidence to explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials (e.g., seismic waves, movement of tectonic plates).

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Developing and Using Models
    Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Model the convective heat flow within the mantle of the Earth with respect to the locations and characteristics of convergent and divergent plate boundaries.
    • Compare and contrast the four types of seismic waves in terms of speed, ability to traverse Earth's core, direction of energy transport, and destructive potential.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • crust
    • mantle
    • core
    • convective currents
    • tectonic plate
    • volcano
    • vents
    • cinder cone
    • shield volcano
    • composite volcano
    • folding
    • fault
    • normal fault
    • reverse fault
    • strike-slip fault
    • earthquake
    • seismic waves
    • seismograph
    • Pressure waves (P-waves)
    • Shear waves (S-waves)
    • Lateral waves (L-waves)
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Tectonic plates are the top parts of giant convection cells that bring matter from the hot inner mantle up to the cool surface.
    • The movements are driven by the release of energy and by the cooling and gravitational downward motion of the dense material of the plates after subduction.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Develop a model (i.e., graphical, verbal, or mathematical) in which components are described based on seismic and magnetic evidence.
    • Describe relationships between components in the model such as thermal energy is released at the surface of the Earth as new crust is formed and cooled; the flow of matter by convection in the solid mantle and the sinking of cold, dense crust back into the mantle exert forces on crustal plates that then move, producing tectonic activity; matter is cycled between the crust and the mantle at plate boundaries.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions of historical changes in Earth's surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid mantle and crust.
    • Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth's interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior.
    • Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 1
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    13 ) Analyze and interpret data of interactions between the hydrologic and rock cycles to explain the mechanical impacts (e.g., stream transportation and deposition, erosion, frost-wedging) and chemical impacts (e.g., oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonation) of Earth materials by water's properties.

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data
    Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Correlate the mechanical and chemical agents of weathering of rocks with the varied products of those actions.
    • Graphically display the role and ubiquity of water in both mechanical and chemical weathering processes.
    • Develop a model of the sorting and layering of weathered materials achieved by the depositional processes of water, wind, and gravitational transport.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • weathering
    • mechanical weathering
    • frost wedging
    • exfoliation
    • chemical weathering
    • oxidation
    • erosion
    • deposition
    • hydrolysis
    • carbonation
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Heat capacity of water, density of water in its solid and liquid states, and the polar nature of the water molecule due to its molecular structure are properties of water that affect Earth materials.
    • Transportation, deposition, and erosion are three processes occurring in water that depend on the amount of energy in the water.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Analyze and interpret data showing the connection between the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • The abundance of liquid water on Earth's surface and its unique combination of physical and chemical properties are central to the planet's dynamics.
    • Water's exceptional capacity to absorb, store and release large amounts of energy, transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and lower the viscosities and melting points of rocks are due to its physical and chemical properties that are central to the planet's dynamics.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 2
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    14 ) Construct explanations from evidence to describe how changes in the flow of energy through Earth's systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar output, ocean circulation, surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, Coriolis effect) impact the climate.

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
    Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • volcanic eruption
    • solar output
    • ocean circulation
    • surface temperature
    • precipitation patterns
    • glacial ice volumes
    • sea levels
    • Coriolis effect
    • jet stream
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Climate changes can occur if any of Earth's systems change.
    • Some climate changes were rapid shifts (volcanic eruptions, meteoric impacts, changes in ocean currents), other were gradual and longer term-due, for example to the rise of plants and other life forms that modified the atmosphere via photosynthesis.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Analyze data to explain aspects of how energy flow impacts climate.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Natural factors that cause climate changes over human time scales include variations in the sun's energy output, ocean circulation patterns, atmospheric composition, and volcanic activity.
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 9 - 12
    Earth and Space Science
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    15 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to verify that weather (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, dew point, adiabatic cooling, condensation, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, barometric pressure, wind velocity) is influenced by energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

    a. Analyze patterns in weather data to predict various systems, including fronts and severe storms.

    b. Use maps and other visualizations to analyze large data sets that illustrate the frequency, magnitude, and resulting damage from severe weather events in order to predict the likelihood and severity of future events.

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
    Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Energy and Matter
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Compare and contrast the means of describing weather conditions.
    • Classify the variety of instruments that measure weather conditions.
    • Use the concept of energy flow to show how air masses and fronts create weather.
    • Analyze a sequence of weather maps for a region over time to show the consistency of weather models.
    • Depict graphically the flow of energy throughout the stages of thunderstorm development.
    • Communicate information detailing Earth's major climate zones.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • weather
    • air temperature
    • humidity
    • fronts
    • air pressure
    • storms
    • precipitation
    • wind direction
    • wind speed
    • air masses
    • barometer
    • thermometer
    • anemometer
    • wind vane
    • rain gauge
    • psychrometer
    • front
    • warm front
    • cold front
    • air mass
    • highs
    • lows
    • isobar
    • tornado
    • lightning
    • thunder
    • hurricane
    • climate zone
    • temperate
    • tropical
    • polar
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a given place and time.
    • Weather and climate are shaped by complex interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things.
    • Energy is redistributed globally through ocean currents and also through atmospheric circulation.
    • Sunlight heats Earth's surface, which in turn heats the atmosphere.
    • Temperature patterns, together with the Earth's rotation and the configuration of continents and oceans, control the large-scale patterns of atmospheric circulation.
    • Winds gain energy and water vapor content as they cross hot ocean regions, which can lead to tropical storms.
    • Prediction Center maps provide weather forecasts and climate patterns based on analyses of observational data.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Analyze data in patterns to predict the outcome of an event.
    • Analyze data models to predict outcome of an event.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns.
    • Weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings protect life and property.
    • Weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings protect life and property.