Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 15
Earth's Place in the Universe
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
1 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the lifespan of the sun, including energy released during nuclear fusion that eventually reaches Earth through radiation.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.3a: Stars, like the Sun, transform matter into energy in nuclear reactions.

NAEP Statement::
E12.9a: Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The Sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from Earth's original formation.

NAEP Statement::
E12.9b: Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The Sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from Earth's original formation.

NAEP Statement::
E8.11a: The Sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth's surface.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.1- Describe observable effects of the sun on Earth, such as changes in light and temperature.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
2 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare various theories for the formation and changing nature of the universe and our solar system (e.g., Big Bang Theory, Hubble's law, steady state theory, light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, composition of matter in the universe).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.1: The origin of the universe remains one of the greatest questions in science. The "big bang" theory places the origin approximately 13.7 billion years ago when the universe began in a hot, dense state. According to this theory, the universe has been expanding ever since.

NAEP Statement::
E12.5: Theories of planet formation and radioactive dating of meteorites and lunar samples have led to the conclusion that the Sun, Earth, and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
3 ) Evaluate and communicate scientific information (e.g., Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) in reference to the life cycle of stars using data of both atomic emission and absorption spectra of stars to make inferences about the presence of certain elements.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.2: Early in the history of the universe, matter (primarily the light atoms hydrogen and helium) clumped together by gravitational attraction to form countless trillions of stars and billions of galaxies.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 0
4 ) Apply mathematics and computational thinking in reference to Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws to predict the orbital motion of natural and man-made objects in the solar system.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.4- Identify the main components of the solar system; recognize that planets move in orbits.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
5 ) Use mathematics to explain the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis (e.g., zenith angle, solar angle, surface area) and its revolution about the sun, addressing intensity and distribution of sunlight on Earth's surface.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.5- Use a model of the Earth and the sun to recognize how Earth's tilt and orbit around the sun corresponds with the four seasons.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
6 ) Obtain and evaluate information about Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein to communicate how their findings challenged conventional thinking and allowed for academic advancements and space exploration.

Earth's Systems
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 3
Classroom Resources: 3
7 ) Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics, including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic crusts.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.8: Mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, evidence of sea floor spreading, and subduction provided crucial evidence in support of the theory of plate tectonics. The theory currently explains plate motion as follows: the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat propels the plates comprising Earth's surface across the face of the globe. Plates are pushed apart where magma rises to form midocean ridges, and the edges of plates are pulled back down where Earth materials sink into the crust at deep trenches.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
8 ) Develop a time scale model of Earth's biological and geological history to establish relative and absolute age of major events in Earth's history (e.g., radiometric dating, models of geologic cross sections, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.4: Early methods of determining geologic time, such as the use of index fossils and stratigraphic sequences, allowed for the relative dating of geological events. However, absolute dating was impossible until the discovery that certain radioactive isotopes in rocks have known decay rates, making it possible to determine how many years ago a given rock sample formed.

NAEP Statement::
E12.6: Early Earth was very different from today's planet. Evidence for one-celled forms of life (bacteria) extends back more than 3.5 billion years. The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere, which did not originally contain molecular oxygen.

NAEP Statement::
E12.7: Earth's current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale; however, many geological processes, such as the building of mountain chains and shifting of entire continents, take place over hundreds of millions of years.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
9 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains, valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.7: Earth's current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale; however, many geological processes, such as the building of mountain chains and shifting of entire continents, take place over hundreds of millions of years.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
10 ) Construct an explanation from evidence for the processes that generate the transformation of rocks in Earth's crust, including chemical composition of minerals and characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.6: Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers with each having a different chemical composition and texture.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
11 ) Obtain and communicate information about significant geologic characteristics (e.g., types of rocks and geologic ages, earthquake zones, sinkholes, caves, abundant fossil fauna, mineral and energy resources) that impact life in Alabama and the southeastern United States.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.11- Identify significant geologic characteristics of Alabama and the southeastern United States (e.g., types of rocks, mineral and energy resources).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
12 ) Develop a model of Earth's layers using available evidence to explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials (e.g., seismic waves, movement of tectonic plates).


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.12- Using a model, identify Earth's layers.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
13 ) Analyze and interpret data of interactions between the hydrologic and rock cycles to explain the mechanical impacts (e.g., stream transportation and deposition, erosion, frost-wedging) and chemical impacts (e.g., oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonation) of Earth materials by water's properties.

Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
14 ) Construct explanations from evidence to describe how changes in the flow of energy through Earth's systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar output, ocean circulation, surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, Coriolis effect) impact the climate.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.10a: Climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
E12.10b: This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover, atmospheric gases, and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as the positions of mountain ranges, oceans, seas, and lakes.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 2
15 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to verify that weather (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, dew point, adiabatic cooling, condensation, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, barometric pressure, wind velocity) is influenced by energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

a. Analyze patterns in weather data to predict various systems, including fronts and severe storms.

b. Use maps and other visualizations to analyze large data sets that illustrate the frequency, magnitude, and resulting damage from severe weather events in order to predict the likelihood and severity of future events.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.10b: This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover, atmospheric gases, and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as the positions of mountain ranges, oceans, seas, and lakes.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.15- Identify weather conditions, including temperature, wind speed, humidity, and severe weather events (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, floods).