2 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare various theories for the
formation and changing nature of the universe and our solar system (e.g., Big
Bang Theory, Hubble's law, steady state theory, light spectra, motion of distant
galaxies, composition of matter in the universe).
3 ) Evaluate and communicate scientific information (e.g., Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram) in reference to the life cycle of stars using data of both atomic
emission and absorption spectra of stars to make inferences about the presence
of certain elements.
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Earth and Space Science
4 ) Apply mathematics and computational thinking in reference to Kepler's laws,
Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws to predict the orbital
motion of natural and man-made objects in the solar system.
5 ) Use mathematics to explain the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of
Earth's axis (e.g., zenith angle, solar angle, surface area) and its revolution
about the sun, addressing intensity and distribution of sunlight on Earth's
6 ) Obtain and evaluate information about Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton,
and Einstein to communicate how their findings challenged conventional thinking
and allowed for academic advancements and space exploration.
7 ) Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics,
including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in
undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic
8 ) Develop a time scale model of Earth's biological and geological history to
establish relative and absolute age of major events in Earth's history (e.g.,
radiometric dating, models of geologic cross sections, sedimentary layering,
fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions).
9 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive
and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate
tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains,
valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).
10 ) Construct an explanation from evidence for the processes that generate the
transformation of rocks in Earth's crust, including chemical composition of
minerals and characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.
11 ) Obtain and communicate information about significant geologic
characteristics (e.g., types of rocks and geologic ages, earthquake zones,
sinkholes, caves, abundant fossil fauna, mineral and energy resources) that
impact life in Alabama and the southeastern United States.
13 ) Analyze and interpret data of interactions between the hydrologic and rock
cycles to explain the mechanical impacts (e.g., stream transportation and
deposition, erosion, frost-wedging) and chemical impacts (e.g., oxidation,
hydrolysis, carbonation) of Earth materials by water's properties.
14 ) Construct explanations from evidence to describe how changes in the flow
of energy through Earth's systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar output, ocean
circulation, surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes,
sea levels, Coriolis effect) impact the climate.
15 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to verify that weather
(e.g., temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, dew point, adiabatic
cooling, condensation, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, barometric
pressure, wind velocity) is influenced by energy transfer within and among the
atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.
a. Analyze patterns in weather data to predict various systems, including
fronts and severe storms.
b. Use maps and other visualizations to analyze large data sets that
illustrate the frequency, magnitude, and resulting damage from severe weather
events in order to predict the likelihood and severity of future events.