Courses of Study: Science

Number of Standards matching query: 13
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body to locate organs and systems.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Develop and use models to appropriately identify the anatomical planes and anatomical directions associated with the human body.
  • Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify the anatomical regions and cavities in the human body.
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology, anatomical landmarks and models to locate major organs and organ systems in the human body.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Transverse plane
  • Coronal plane/ frontal plane
  • Sagittal plane
  • Midsagittal line
  • Coelom
  • Dorsal cavity
  • Ventral cavity
  • Thoracic cavity
  • Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Cranial cavity
  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Dorsal
  • Ventral
  • Medial
  • Lateral
  • Proximal
  • Distal
  • Superficial
  • Visceral/deep
  • Plantar
  • Superior
  • Inferior
  • Abdominopelvic region
  • right/left hypochondriac region
  • epigastric region
  • right/left lumbar region
  • umbilical region
  • right/left iliac region
  • hypogastric region
  • right/left upper quadrant
  • right/left lower quadrant
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • In the human body there are eleven major organ systems, including the circulatory, digestive, nervous, excretory, respiratory, and reproductive systems. The skeletal, muscular, integumentary, immune, and endocrine systems complete the list of organ systems.
  • The cavities of the human body contain organ system components, and specific regions within these cavities house specific organs.
  • The use of appropriate terminology is necessary to accurately identify anatomical regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body.
  • The location of anatomical features, such as organs, within the human body and/or their relative position to other anatomical features of the human body can be accurately communicated using appropriate anatomical terminology.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate the locational relationship of organs and organ systems in the human body.
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify and evaluate the location of organs and organ systems in the human body.
  • Interpret and accurately apply terminology related to the human body.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The human body, like all multicellular organisms, has a hierarchical structural organization where any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level.
  • Humans are coelomates, meaning the human body contains fluid-filled cavities that are fully lined by mesoderm (skinlike tissue), and these cavities house specific organs.
  • Features of the human body, both internal and external, can be accurately landmarked using anatomical planes, cavities, and regions and anatomical directional terminology.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Human Body Organization and Anthropometry
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 4
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Analyze characteristics of tissue types (e.g., epithelial tissue) and construct an explanation of how the chemical and structural organizations of the cells that form these tissues are specialized to conduct the function of that tissue (e.g., lining, protecting).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Evaluate the different types of tissue and the basic characteristics of each tissue type.
  • Explain how the chemical and structural organizations of a tissue's cells are specialized to perform the function of that tissue.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Epithelial tissue (ancillary structures, e.g., cilia and goblet cells)
  • Squamous epithelium
  • Cuboidal epithelium
  • Columnar epithelium
  • Simple epithelial tissue
  • Stratified epithelial tissue
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  • Transitional epithelium
  • Connective tissue (associated cell(s) and matrix/ fibers)
  • Loose connective tissue
  • Areolar
  • Adipose
  • Reticular
  • Dense connective tissue
  • Dense regular connective tissue
  • Dense irregular connective tissue
  • Elastic connective tissue
  • Cartilage
  • Chondrocyte
  • Matrix/fibers
  • Lacunae
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fibrocartilage
  • Bone
  • Osteocyte
  • Osteon
  • Haversian canal
  • lamellae
  • Lacunae
  • Canaliculi
  • Blood
  • Plasma
  • Erythrocyte
  • Leucocyte
  • Thrombocyte
  • Muscle Tissue
  • Smooth muscle
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The function of a particular type of tissue is determined by the specialized chemical and structural organization of cells that make up that tissue.
  • There are four major tissue types in the human body and each type can be broken down into sublevel components that have unique features and functionality.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Examine characteristics of the major types of tissue.
  • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and technical information from multiple legitimate sources to analyze the structural components and organization of the cells that form a particular type of tissue, and interpret how this architecture affects the function(s) of that particular tissue.
  • Construct an explanation of how cellular architecture is specialized to conduct the function(s) of the tissue type it forms.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Tissues are composed of groups of cells that are comparable in structure and function(s) (epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle). Similarly, groups of different types of tissues form an organ that performs a specific bodily function.
  • The function, or functions, of a particular type of tissue are directly related to the type, composition, and arrangement of its unique cells and ancillary components.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Build a Muscle
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the integumentary system's structure and function, including layers and accessories of skin and types of membranes.

a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., burns, skin cancer, bacterial and viral infections, chemical dermatitis) to determine the body's attempt to maintain homeostasis.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function; Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure of the integumentary system, including layers and their substructure and the accessory structures.
  • Obtain information about the function of the integumentary system, including the function(s) of each layer and its substructure and the accessory structures.
  • Communication information to explain the structure and function of the integumentary system, its layers and their substructure, and its accessory structures.
  • Obtain and communicate information to explain the structure and function of the types of membranes associated with the integumentary system.
  • Analyze the effects of pathological conditions affecting the integumentary system.
  • When pathological conditions affect the integumentary system, determine how the body responds in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • serous membrane
  • serous fluid
  • mucous membrane
  • mucous
  • synovial membrane
  • synovial fluid
  • cutaneous membrane
  • skin
  • hair
  • follicle
  • shaft
  • nails
  • keratinocytes
  • keratin
  • keratinization/cornification
  • melanocytes
  • melanin
  • carotene
  • hemoglobin
  • Epidermis
  • stratified squamous epithelium
  • stratum basale
  • stratum spinosum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum lucidum
  • stratum corneum
  • Dermis
  • Arrector pili muscle
  • sensory receptors/ nerve fibers
  • exocrine glands
  • sebaceous glands
  • sebum
  • sweat/ sudoriferous glands
  • apocrine sweat glands
  • eccrine/ merocrine sweat glands
  • capillary
  • Hypodermis/subcutaneous layer
  • ceruminous glands
  • cerumen/earwax
  • Collagen
  • Elastic fibers
  • Adipose tissue
  • Protection
  • Excretion
  • Temperature regulation
  • Sensory perception
  • Carcinoma
  • Melanoma
  • sunburn
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • Partial thickness burn
  • Full thickness burn
  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Eczema
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Three of the four types of membrane are composed of epithelium covering connective tissue. The fourth membrane type, synovial membranes, is composed solely of connective tissue.
  • The four types of membrane are specialized according to structure, location, and function.
  • The integumentary system is composed of the skin and its accessory structures.
  • The layered structure of the epidermis provides a regenerative, protective barrier to the body's interior.
  • Dermis is the deep inner layer of skin that gives strength and elasticity to skin and that contains the majority of strutures associated with the skin, such as hair follicles, sensory receptors, and glands.
  • The skin is comprosed of various cell types that each have a unique function within the skin.
  • Each of the accessory structures of the integumentary system has a specific structure and location within the skin.
  • Each of the accessory structures of the integumentary system has a particular function within the structure of the skin.
  • The integumentary system is responsible for specific functions, several of which are integral to maintaining homeostasis.
  • The integumentary system is affected by an array of pathological conditions. The effect of such conditions determines how the body responds.
  • The integumentary system is integral to maintaining homeostasis.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Obtain and communicate information to explain the structure and function of the types of membranes.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the integumentary system and its structure, including layers and accessory structures.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the integumentary system and its function, including layers and accessory structures.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the integumentary system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the integumentary system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The integumentary system is a complex system comprised of organs that have a primary function to protect the body from homeostatic imbalances such as foreign invaders (viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites) and the environment.
  • The integumentary system is comprised of the skin as well as accessory structures that allow the skin to accomplish its various homeostatic functions.
  • Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for compmlex systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
  • Changes in systems may have various causes that may not have equal effects.
  • The body's response to the disease process is complex and involves numerous systems working synergetically to respond to homeostatic imbalances.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Use models to identify the structure and function of the skeletal system (e.g., classification of bones by shape, classification of joints and the appendicular and axial skeletons).

a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the growth and development of the skeletal system (e.g., bone growth and remodeling).

b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system (e.g., types of bone fractures and their treatment, osteoporosis, rickets, other bone diseases).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use models to identify the structure of the skeletal system.
  • Use models to identify the function of the skeletal system.
  • Use models to identify and classify bones according to shape.
  • Use models to identify and classify the joints of the human skeleton.
  • Use models to identify the components of the appendicular and axial skeletons.
  • Gather, read, and synthesize information about the growth and development of the skeletal system.
  • Communicate information, based on evidence, to demonstrate understanding of bone growth and development.
  • Gather, read, and synthesize information about common pathology of the skeletal system.
  • Communicate information, based on evidence, to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • support
  • protection
  • assists in movement
  • hemopoiesis
  • storage of mineral and energy reserves
  • axial skeleton
  • skull (including all bones and significant landmarks)
  • vertebral column (including all bones and significant landmarks)
  • rib cage (including all bones, significant landmarks, and costal cartilages)
  • appendicular skeleton
  • bones of arms/legs (including all bones and significant landmarks)
  • pectoral girdle (including all bones and significant landmarks)
  • pelvic girdle (including all bones and significant landmarks)
  • long bones
  • short bones
  • flat bones
  • irregular bones
  • sesamoid bones
  • synarthrosis/ immovable joint
  • sutures
  • amphiarthrosis/ slightly movable joint
  • vertebral joints
  • symphysis pubis
  • diarthrosis/ synovial joint
  • hinge joint
  • ball and socket joint
  • pivot joint
  • saddle joint
  • gliding joint/ plane joint
  • condyloid joint/ ellipsoidal joint
  • synovial fluid
  • articular cartilage
  • bursa
  • osseous (bone) tissue
  • osteocytes
  • long bones
  • periosteum
  • endosteum
  • medullary canal
  • diaphysis
  • epiphysis
  • bone marrow
  • yellow bone marrow
  • red bone marrow
  • articular cartilage
  • epiphyseal line
  • matrix
  • flat bones
  • compact bone
  • osteon/ Haversian system
  • lacunae
  • canaliculi
  • lamellae
  • central canal
  • spongy bone
  • trabeculaeosseous tissue
  • osteogenesis/ bone growth
  • epiphyseal plate/ growth plate
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • osteocytes
  • interstitial growth
  • chondroblasts
  • hyaline cartilage
  • appositional growth
  • bone remodeling
  • callus
  • Osteoporosis
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons and provides movement, protection and shape.
  • The axial skeleton is composed of the spine, rib cage and skull.
  • The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the arms, hips, legs and shoulders.
  • Bones can be categorized by shape: flat, irregular, long, and short.
  • Joints can be categorized by their structural components—cartilaginous, fibrous, and synovial—or by their function—amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis, and synarthrosis.
  • Endochondral bones form from cartilage pegs in the embryo—they usually produce long bones and parts of irregular and short bones. They have primary and secondary ossification centers, and a region that produces the bone collar.
  • Dermal bones form in subcutaneous membranes, are mostly composed of cancellous bone with a covering of boney plates and usually produce flat bones and parts of irregular bones.
  • Bone fractures can be simple, commuted or compound, or open.
  • Bone healing involves four stages: fracture, granulation, callus, and normal contour.—sometimes classified as three phases: reactive, reparative and restorative.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information to explain the skeletal system and its function in the human body.
  • Use models to identify and communicate the structure and function of the skeletal system.
  • Communicate an understanding of bone growth and development by compiling and summarizing data about bone growth (compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification, describe the process of long bone growth at the epiphyseal plates).
  • Communicate an understanding of the pathophysiology of bone by compiling and summarizing data about bone growth (bone remodeling and bone repair).
  • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and technical information from multiple sources about the types and causes of bone disease and the treatment for those diseases.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The bones give shape to the body and provide protection and support for the body's organs. The skeletal system, with the support of muscles which attach to bones via tendons allow movement of body parts. The body's joints make up of determines the type of body movements that are possible.
  • Small scale changes in bone construction occur continually. The body frequently recycles bone which allows for prevention of fractures and self-repairs.
  • Any imbalances in bone deposit and bone reabsorption may cause the disease process to occur in the human skeleton. Therefore, maintaining homeostatic balance of bone growth and remodeling is an important component to skeletal disease prevention.
  • By the eighth week of embryonic development human bone has been almost completely constructed. Throughout early life (neonate-pre-adolescence) the long bones continue to lengthen by way of interstitial growth. For most under normal homeostatic conditions growth continues until about the end of adolescence when ceases.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Bones of the Human Skeleton; Bone Growth
There are many diseases and disorders that affect the skeletal system. The Teacher Vocabulary includes some of the more common ones, in addition to the examples specifically given in the course of study document. Note that these should be considered as suggestions and listing them here does not imply that they must be taught nor does it imply these are the only diseases and disorders that could be taught during instruction.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the anatomy of the muscular system, including muscle locations and groups, actions, origins and insertions.

a. Plan and conduct investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system (e.g., muscle contraction/relaxation, muscle fatigue, muscle tone), including pathological conditions (e.g., muscular dystrophy).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design and use models to show the different types of muscles and muscle groups to include where they are located in the human body.
  • Design and use models to show the muscles and muscle group actions.
  • Design and use models to show the muscles and muscle groups, origins, insertions, and locations.
  • Design and carry out scientific investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system.
  • Design and carry out scientific investigations to explain pathological conditions (diseases) of the muscular system.
  • Assess an ergonomic design solution to decrease work-related musculoskeletal disorders including the associated costs and benefits.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Each muscle has a stabel immovable attachment point known as its origin and a second attachment point which connects it to the body part that it moves called the insertion.
  • Parallel muscles are sheets of muscle cells that provide contractions for moving light loads over long distances, while pinnate muscles are feather patterned adn provide great strength for moving large loads over short distances.
  • There are different gross muscle shapes such as deltoid, trapezoid, rhomboideus, rectus, and serratus muscles.
  • Biceps muscles have two origins while triceps have three.
  • The largest muscle of a group is referred to as maximus while the smallest is called the minimus, the longest is called the longus and the shortest is called the brevis muscle.
  • There are many types of muscle actions, including: abductor, adductor, depressor, extensor, flexor, levator, pronator, rotator, sphincter, supinator, tensor.
  • Muscles can counteract (antagonistic) or assist (synergistic) other muscles.
  • Muscle contractions can be categorized as isotonic or isometric.
  • Overuse of muscles can cause strains, stiffness or sprains.
  • Muscle damage can produce muscle pathology such as contusions, cramps, paralysis, and sensitivity.
  • Some muscle diseases are genetic or developmental—including myopethies
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model that allows for manipulation and testing of a proposed process or system (different types of muscles and muscle groups).
  • Develop and/or use a model to generate data to support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems and show the different types of muscles and muscle groups to include where they are located in the human body.
  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources, (theories, simulations, peer review).
  • Apply scientific ideas, principles, and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems taking into account possible unanticipated results.
  • Design, evaluate and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
  • Collect data about a complex model of a proposed process or system (ergonomic design solution to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) to identify failure points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables (to include cost and benefit).
  • Evaluate the impact of new data (ergonomic design to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) on a working explanation and/or model of a proposed process or system.
  • Analyze data to identify design features or characteristics of the components of a proposed process or system related to ergonomic design to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) to optimize it relative to criteria for success (cost and benefits).
  • Use mathematical, computational, and/or algorithmic representations of phenomena to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations (cost benefit analysis of solutions to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders).
  • Compare, integrate, and evaluate sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address/solve the problem of how to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders to include cost and benefit).
  • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source in relation to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The arrangement of muscles enables them to work congruently to yield an assortment of movements. In order for these movements to take place the muscular system must work with several other body systems (skeletal, circulatory, nervous). Muscles function produces movement, stabilizes joints, maintains posture and body position, generates heat, and assists in protecting internal organs.
  • There are several phases that lead to muscle fiber contraction. At the neuromuscular junction the muscle fiber is activated so that there is a change in membrane potential which precipitates the formation of an electrical current (action potential). This action potential is then disseminated along the sarcolemma which prompts a rise in calcium ions that in turn leads to the stimulation of muscle contraction. In a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the patient's sarcolemma tears during a contraction which permits extra calcium ions that damages contractile fibers, lymphocytes, and macrophages that accumulate in surrounding connective tissue. This homeostatic imbalance causes the damaged cells to atrophy resulting in a debilitating loss in muscle mass for the patient with DMD.
  • Work-related musculoskeletal disorders/ injuries are a major concern for employers. Therefore it is imperative that ergonomic design solutions prevent and or reduce the incidence of these disorders. Annually, these disorders/injuries cost employers vast amounts of money, time, and resources. With that said, employers are continually seeking ergonomic design solutions to remedy this dilemma.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Build a Muscle
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
6 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information regarding how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate, including how these systems affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.

a. Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology on the nervous system (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral palsy, head trauma) and argue possible prevention and treatment options.

b. Design a medication to treat a disorder associated with neurotransmission, including mode of entry into the body, form of medication, and desired effects.*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Engaging in Argument from Evidence; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain and evaluate information about the central nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Obtain and evaluate information about the peripheral nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Evaluate how the central and peripheral nervous systems interrelate.
  • Communication information to explain how the central and peripheral nervous systems interrelate, including how they affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Obtain information about pathology of the nervous system.
  • Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology of the nervous system on the human body.
  • Obtain information about possible prevention options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
  • Obtain information about possible treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
  • Develop and argument based on evidence about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
  • Identify and describe major neurotransmitters and receptors.
  • Classify neurotransmitters by function.
  • Identify and describe disorders associated with neurotransmission and how they affect the body.
  • Identify medications that act as neurotransmitters.
  • Identify different modes of entry for neurotransmitter medications into the body.
  • Identify, compare and contrast side effects of neurotransmitter medications that are associated with different modes of transmission into the human body.
  • Identify desired effects of neurotransmitter medications.
  • Hypothesize and design a medication that will show desired outcomes of neurotransmitters in the body with the least amount of adverse side effects.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Lumbar puncture
  • MRI Scan
  • PET Scan
  • SPECT Scan
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cerebral palsy
  • traumatic brain injury
  • Glutamate and Aspartate
  • GABA
  • Serotonin
  • Acetylcholine
  • Dopamine
  • Norepinephrine
  • Endorphins and Enkephalins
  • Dynorphins
  • Channel link receptors (ionotopic)
  • G-Protein-Linked receptors
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The nervous system is a complex arrangement of neuroglia and neurons bundled into the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) extends beyond the brain and sprinal cord—composed of somatic nerves, autonomic nerves, and ganglia.
  • Nerves are bundles of neurons—afferent nerves carry sensory information while efferent nerves carry motor information.
  • The PNS is divided into the somatic nervous system, which enables the voluntary control of body movements and the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions in order to maintain a stable internal environment for body.
  • The autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic nerve system which promotes relaxation and digestion and the sympathetic nervous system which prepares the body to react to stress. These two systems tend to counteract each other to maintain homeostasis.
  • Structural diseases of the nervous system are categorized as trauma, cerebrovascular and neurovascular diseases, CNS tumors, developmental disorders, metabolic and toxic diseases, nervous system infection, or neurodegenerative disease.
  • Neurons communicate to other cells with neurotransmitters which can be excitatory(stimulate a neuron) or inhibitory (hinder a neuron).
  • A neuron must be excited past its threshold before propgating an action potential.
  • The actions of neurotransmitters are the basis of many diseaseas and many drugs modify their actions.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the central nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the peripheral nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the nervous system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention and treatment options in regards to pathology of the nervous system.
  • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
  • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system
  • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
  • Define a design problem that involves the development of a process or system with interacting components, criteria, and constraints (medication to treat homeostatic brain imbalance).
  • Create a hypothesis that specifies what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is manipulated.
  • Collect data about a complex model of a proposed process or system to identify failure points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables (nervous system functionality in regards to neurotransmitter medications and their effect on the homeostatic imbalances in the disease process).
  • Analyze data to identify design features or characteristics of the components of a proposed process or system to optimize it relative to criteria for success (action and effect of different neurotransmitter medications on the nervous system).
  • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and or models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
  • Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
  • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources, assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source.
  • Evaluate the validity and reliability of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and ;or designs that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible.
  • Use empirical evidence to identify patterns use empirical evidence to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
  • Design a medication to cause a desired effect investigating a system or structure requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal their function and /or solve a problem.
  • The functions and properties of natural and designed objects and systems can be inferred from their overall structure, the way their components are shaped and used, and the molecular substructures of their various materials.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves). This nervous system is responsible for aiding and sustaining homeostasis in the human body where it monitors and analyzes environmental information and responds).
  • Homeostatic imbalances may occur in the brain for various reasons. The causes of these imbalances include traumatic brain injuries (contusions, concussions), degenerative brain disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease), and cerebrovascular accidents (strokes).
  • Degenerative brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease occur when beta-amyloid peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles occur. These tangles are delineated by an insufficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Whereas degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are caused by too much or too little of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Treatments for the symptoms of these diseases include medications such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, glutamate pathway modifiers, and MAO-B inhibitors). These medication treatments are not a cure for the diseases; they only slow disease progression. Research for new medication therapy is ongoing with the hope of developing better medications that halt the disease process and have minimal adverse side effects.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 7
Learning Activities: 4
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).

b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure of the cardiovascular system, including various types of structures that aid in circulation through the heart and throughout the systems of the body.
  • Obtain information about the function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use models to explain the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and its accessory structures.
  • Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain information about the structure of blood and it's function, including information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to describe how structure is related to function in the components of blood.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible prevention options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible treatment options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about possible prevention or treatment options related to pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system.
  • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
  • Obtain and evaluate information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular system function.
  • Design an experiment that can be used to test cardiovascular function in varying conditions.
  • Describe the data that wil be collected and the evidence to be derived from the data during the experiment.
  • Conduct the experiment and collect data and record changes to the external environment and organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment by assessing the accuracy and precision of the data as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Make suggestions for refinement if needed.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • blood pressure
  • blood vessels
  • circulatory system
  • heart
  • pulse
  • vascularization
  • arteries
  • veins
  • lymphatic vessels
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • microcirculation
  • tunica adventitia
  • tunica media
  • tunica intima
  • lumen
  • constriction/ vasoconstriction
  • dilation/ vasodilation
  • arterioles
  • venules
  • capillaries
  • circulation (systemic, pulmonary)
  • pericardium (fibrous, serous, epicardium)
  • myocardium
  • endocardium
  • coronary arteries, veins
  • cardiac infarction
  • vasculature
  • septum
  • chambers
  • atrium
  • ventricle
  • valves (atrioventricular, semilunar, mitral, bicuspid, tricuspid)
  • Papillary muscles
  • venae cavae
  • superior/ inferior vena cava
  • aorta
  • pulmonary artery, valve, veins
  • SA node, AV node
  • bundle of His
  • Purkinje system
  • diastole
  • systole
  • heart rate
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • electrocardiogram
  • plasma
  • RBC's/ erythrocytes
  • hemoglobin
  • reticulocytes/ erythroblasts
  • complete blood count (CBC)
  • blood type
  • ABO blood group system
  • Rh factor
  • erythroblastosis fetalis
  • WBC's/ leukocytes
  • neutrophils
  • lymphocytes
  • eosinophils
  • monocytes
  • basophils
  • differential white blood cell count
  • granulocytes/ polymorphonuclear WBC
  • agranulocytes/ mononuclear WBC
  • B or T lymphocytes
  • platelet/ thrombocyte
  • megakaryocyte
  • percent saturation
  • carbon dioxide intoxication
  • phagocytosis
  • macrophages
  • kupffer cell
  • prostacyclin
  • clotting factors
  • prothrombin
  • thrombin
  • Fibrinogen/ fibrin
  • plasminogen
  • erythropoiesis
  • hematopoietic stem cell
  • Myeloid stem cell
  • lymphoid stem cell
  • myocardial infarction
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • varicose veins
  • arteriosclerosis,
  • anemia
  • hypertension
  • angina
  • systolic
  • diastolic
  • electrocardiogram
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Arteries and arterioles carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
  • Veins and venules carry blood from the body to the heart.
  • Capillaries are small blood vessels that exchange materials with tissues.
  • Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of a vessel while vasodialation is the widening of a vessel.
  • The heart is made of mycardium covered by pericardium and is composed of four chambers.
  • The left half of the heart controls systemic circulation while the right half controls pulmonary circulation.
  • One pumping action of the heart is called the cardiac cycle—diastole is the filling of the atria and ventricles and systole is the emptying of the ventricles.
  • Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements and transports materials needed to maintain body homeostasis.
  • Blood cell types: 1) RBC's—contain the protein hemaglobin which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 2) WBC's—granulocytic (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) produce secretions that kill micoorganisms and agrnulocytic (lymphocytes and monocytes)—lymphocytes produce an immune respons and monocytes are phagocytic. 3) Platelets—assist with blood clotting.
  • Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow by hematopoiesis and are derived from a multipotent stem cell.
  • Blood type is a way of categorizing RBCs according to variations in proteins on the cell membrane surface—these proteins can be classified as types A, B or D.
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system affect either blood vessels or the heart and are either congenital, produced by lifestyle factors, or produced by microorganisms.
  • Common vascular diseases interrupt blood flow while common heart diseases prevent the chambers and/or valves from working properly.
  • Electrocardiography measures the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Pulse is an indicator of heartbeat and heartbeat is produced by blood pressure.
  • Heart rate is the number of cardiac cycles per minute.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the cardiovascular system, including its structures and their function.
  • Use a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the cardiovascular system and its components.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to relate structure to function for the components of blood.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular function.
  • Design a experiment to collect data in relation to cardiovascular function.
  • Determine how the change in the variables will be measured or identified.
  • Determine how the response within the cardiovascular system will be measured or identified.
  • Use a tool to collect and record changes in the external environment (variables) and the organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment for accuracy and precision of data collection, as well as limitations.
  • Make revisions to experiment if needed to produce more accurate and precise results.
  • Manipulate variables that will cause changes in cardiovascular test investigation results.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The cardiovascular system's main function is to transport various items throughout the body (oxygen, digested nutrients, systemic waste, etc.).
  • Various cardiovascular organs serve in different capacities to move blood (its transport agent) around the body.
  • Cardiovascular organs are made up of various tissues that work together to carry out the organs' functions.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. affect cardiovascular health.
  • Lifestyle changes can be used to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. change cardiovascular output.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Blood Typing; Electrocardiogram
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
8 ) Communicate scientific information to explain the relationship between the structures and functions, both mechanical (e.g., chewing, churning in stomach) and chemical (e.g., enzymes, hydrochloric acid [HCl] in stomach), of the digestive system, including the accessory organs (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas).

a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the digestive system (e.g., ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze scientific information about the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion and their function.
  • Analyze scientific information about the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion and their function.
  • Communicate information to explain the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to both chemical and mechanical digestion and how their structure is related to their function.
  • Communicate synthesized information to differentiate among the causes and effects of digestive disorders.
  • Communicate synthesized information to differentiate among the treatment and prevention of digestive disorders.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • digestive tract/ alimentary canal
  • accessory digestive organs: salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
  • gastrulation
  • ingestion
  • mastication
  • salivary amylase
  • esophagus
  • reverse peristalsis
  • protease
  • mucosa
  • cholecystokinin
  • gastrin
  • secretin
  • chyme
  • enerokinases
  • parenteral nutrition
  • hepatic
  • flatulence
  • feces
  • buccal/ oral cavity
  • palate (hard and soft)
  • intrinsic/ extrinsic tongue muscles
  • glands (salivary, parotid, sublingual, submandibular)
  • teeth (incisors, canine/ cuspid, bicuspid/ premolars, molars, wisdom)
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • lamina propria
  • mucosae, submucosa
  • adventitia/ serosa
  • cardiac sphincter
  • reflux
  • regions—upper (cardiac), middle (fundic), lower (pyloric)
  • cells (parietal, chief, mucous neck, gastric stem)
  • glands (cardiac, fundic, pyloric)
  • pyloric sphincter
  • intestine (small and large)
  • duodenum
  • jejunum
  • ileum
  • villi
  • mesentery
  • cecum
  • cecum
  • appendix
  • colon (transverse, descending, sigmoid)
  • rectum
  • anus
  • dysphagia
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Crohn's disease
  • Celiac disease
  • Diverticulitus
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Ameobic dysentery
  • polyps
  • hepatitis
  • hernia
  • pancreatitis
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The digestive system is composed of the digestive tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) and accessory digestive organs (salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder).
  • Mechanical digestion includes chewing (mastication), swallowing, peristalsis, churning in the stomach).
  • Chemical digestion is contributed to by enzymes, acids, and hormones.
  • The hypothalamus regulates hunger and thirst.
  • Chemical and mechanical digestion begin in the mouth.
  • Perstalsis moves food through the digestive tract.
  • The stomach uses enzymes and acids (chemical) and churning(mechanical) to digest proteins.
  • Hormones produced by the stomach and small intestine regulate digestion.
  • Digestion of most food takes place in the proximal portions of the small intestine while absorption of digested food takes place in the distal portions.
  • The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes in its proximal components and feces is formed in the distal portions.
  • Exocrine functions of the pancreas involve the production of digestive enzymes.
  • The endocrine function of the pancreas involves insulin and glucagon, which regulate sugar.
  • Bile production is a major function of the liver.
  • The gallbladder stores and releases bile, which helps with fat digestion.
  • Food intolerances are caused by the inability to absorb or digest food.
  • Polyps are outgrowths of the mucosa that can devlop into cancer.
  • Ulcers are caused by erosion fo the digestive tract mucosa.
  • Digestive system gland disorders include cirrhosis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the function of the structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the function of the structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the mechanical and chemical digestive system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the digestive system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The digestive system is made of several different tissues, organs, and accessory organs that ultimately break down food into smaller, usable molecules that can be absorbed and transported by the blood to the rest of the body's tissues.
  • The digestive system creates and eliminates solid waste from the parts of foods that aren't transported into the bloodstream.
  • Numerous organs/accessory organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the digestion process.
  • Several reactions/systems (glycolysis, electron transport chain, glucogenesis, amination, TCA cycle, etc. occur and contribute to metabolism.
  • Several factors (genetics, diet, exercise, stress, etc.) can contribute to the development of digestive disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate digestive disorders.
  • Multiple systems interact to play a part in digestive pathology.
  • Various organs and locations within those organs are affected, depending on each digestive disorder.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
9 ) Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.

a. Engage in argument from evidence describing how environmental (e.g., cigarette smoke, polluted air) and genetic factors may affect the respiratory system, possibly leading to pathological conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain and analyze information about the respiratory system, including its structure and function.
  • Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.
  • Develop and use a model to test respiratory function.
  • Use a model to predict and explain relationships between parts of the respiratory system and its function.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on environmental factors that may affect the respiratory system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on genetic factors that may affect the respiratory system.
  • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about environmental or genetic factors that may lead to pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
  • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Lung
  • ventilation
  • lower/ upper respiratory system
  • nose
  • quadrangular cartilage
  • nostrils/ nares
  • nasal cavity
  • paranasal sinuses
  • turbinates
  • pharynx
  • nasopharynx
  • adenoids
  • oropharynx
  • tonsils
  • laryngopharynx
  • glottis
  • larynx
  • vocal cords
  • epiglottis
  • thyroid cartilage
  • laryngeal prominence (adam's apple)
  • cricoid cartilage
  • arytenoid cartilage
  • trachea
  • primary bronchi
  • tracheal cartilage
  • bronchial tree
  • bronchi (secondary and tertiary)
  • bronchioles (terminal, respiratory)
  • brochoconstriction
  • bronchodilation
  • pleura (parietal, visceral), pleuritis
  • lobes, lobule
  • surfactant
  • alveolus
  • diaphragm
  • inspiration/ inhalation
  • expiration/ exhalation
  • phrenic nerve
  • intrapleural pressure
  • partial pressure
  • bronchitis
  • emphysema
  • ARDS
  • atelectasis
  • pneumothorax
  • bronchiectasis
  • COPD
  • sleep apnea
  • lung cancer
  • pneumonia
  • tuberculosis
  • tidal volume
  • vital capacity
  • residual volume
  • lung capacity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The respiratory system is composed of the upper respiratory system (nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx),and the lower respiratory system (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and lungs).
  • Breathing is due to the action of the muscles and bones of the thorax and is controled by the antonomic and somatic nervous systems.
  • Inspiration is due to the contraction of the diaphram and expansion of the rib cage.
  • Alveoli expand and fill with air upon inspiration
  • The partial pressure of gases in the air determines the direction of diffusion during breathing.
  • Diseases of the respiratory system are either developmental (due to genetic conditions or lifestyle factors) or infectious (due to microorganisms).
  • Lifestyle plays a significant role in respiratory system aging. Aging can lead to a reduced ability to carry out respiration and reduced diffusion of gases across the alveoli.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the respiratory system including its structures and their function.
  • Use evidence to develop a model of the respiratory system.
  • Develop a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the respiratory system and its components.
  • Use a model to collect respiratory function data.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about environmental factors that may affect the respiratory system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about genetic factors that may affect the respiratory system.
  • Use evidence to form an argument about environmental or genetic factors that may cause pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
  • Use evidence to defend an argument about environmental or genetic factors that may cause pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
  • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The respiratory system is made of several different tissues, and organs that move air in and out of the body.
  • The respiratory system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system performing gas exchange between capillaries and alveoli.
  • Numerous organs organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the respiratory process.
  • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of respiratory disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate respiratory disorders.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
10 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to differentiate between the male and female reproductive systems, including pathological conditions that affect each.

a. Use models to demonstrate what occurs in fetal development at each stage of pregnancy.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Read and draw conclusions from literature concerning the female reproductive system's anatomy and processes.
  • Read and draw conclusions from literature concerning the male reproductive system's anatomy and processes.
  • Compare and contrast the male and female reproductive systems by evaluating multiple sources of evidence.
  • Communicate reproductive system contrasts in multiple formats (orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).
  • Evaluate data regarding reproductive disease, comparing multiple pieces of evidence to synthesize reliable claims.
  • Use models to explain changes that occur during fetal development at different stages of pregnancy.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Specialized germ cells
  • sexual dimorphism
  • secondary sex characteristics
  • puberty
  • genitalia (external and internal)
  • reproductive tract
  • mammary gland
  • uterus/ womb
  • myometrium
  • endometrium
  • menstrual cycle
  • uterine fundus
  • cervix
  • ovarian ligament
  • ovum
  • ovarian follicles
  • oocytes
  • graafian follicle
  • ovulation
  • estrogen
  • fallopian tubes
  • oviducts
  • broad ligaments
  • vagina
  • perineum
  • vulva
  • labia majora
  • clitoris
  • erectile tissue
  • hymen
  • lactiferous ducts
  • nipple
  • areola
  • lactation
  • scrotum
  • undescescended testis/ cryptorchidism
  • seminiferous tubules
  • epididymis
  • vas deferens
  • seminal vesicles
  • semen
  • ejaculatory ducts
  • prostate gland
  • Cowper's glands
  • penis/ phallus
  • corpus spongiosum
  • circumcision
  • corpus cavernosum
  • dorsal vein
  • erection
  • ovarian cycle
  • uterine cycle
  • preovulation phase
  • postovulation phase
  • proliferative phase
  • menses
  • embryogenesis
  • blastula/ blastocyst
  • zygote
  • gastrula
  • embryo
  • fetus
  • germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
  • amniotic sac
  • amniotic fluid
  • sexually transmitted diseases
  • hypospadias
  • cancers (prostate, testicular, breast, cervical)
  • genital warts
  • fibroids
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • placenta previa
  • vesicoureteral reflux
  • andropause
  • impotence
  • menopause
  • prolapse
  • Prostatic hypertrophy
  • Testicular, ovarian, breast cancer
  • Endometriosis
  • Testicular torsion
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The female reproductive system is designed to produce, store, and transport eggs.
  • The female reproductive system is composed of the reproductive tract (ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina) and the mammary glands.
  • The male reproductive system is designed to produce, store and transport sperm.
  • The male reproductive system is composed of the testes, seminal vessels, and penis.
  • Diseases of the reproductive tract are 1) congenital—affect the function of the gonads or development of reproductive organs, 2) infectious—STD's caused by arthropods, bacteria, protista or viruses, or 3) degenerative—abnormal growths, including cancer.
  • Basic understanding of mitosis and meiosis.
  • Ebryogenesis occurs when the fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes it's first mitosis. It continues mitosis about once every seven hours, forming a blastula, which imbeds in the uterine lining. The blastula then develops into a gastrula, at which stage the germ layers form. The gastrula then develops into a embryo and then a fetus, at which time all the major organ systems form from the three germ layers.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the female reproductive system and its structure, including structures that help in the production, storage and transport of eggs.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the female reproductive system and its function, including the production, storage and transport of eggs.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the male reproductive system and its structure, including structures that help in the production, storage and transport of sperm.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the male reproductive system and its function, including the production, storage and transport of sperm.
  • Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the female and male reproductive systems.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain differences between the structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the reproductive system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
  • Use a model to illustrate and describe what occurs during each stage of fetal development.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The reproductive system is made of several different tissues, and organs that produce, nourish, store, and release gametes.
  • The reproductive system closely interacts with the nervous and endocrine systems to regulate several reproductive processes (menstruation, ovulation, hormonal cycles.
  • Numerous cells, tissues, and organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the reproductive process.
  • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of reproductive disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate reproductive disorders.
  • Multiple systems interact to play a part in reproductive function and pathology.
  • The mother's circulatory system functions as a mode of transport (nutrient, gas, waste, etc.) for a developing baby.
  • The fetus develops various cells, tissues, organs, and systems that mature over a scheduled set of events that occur over a period of nine months.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Reproduction and Development
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
11 ) Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system and to describe their functions.

a. Analyze and interpret data related to the urinary system to show the relationship between homeostatic imbalances and disease (e.g., kidney stones, effects of pH imbalances).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system.
  • Obtain information about the structures of the urinary system and their functions.
  • Use models to describe how structure is related to function within the urinary system.
  • Describe the process of how urine is formed within the urinary system and how this helps the body maintain homeostasis.
  • Determine relationship between urinary system disease the body's homeostatic conditions.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • kidneys
  • umbilical cord
  • adipose capsule
  • hilus
  • renal artery
  • renal vein
  • renal fascia
  • retroperitoneal
  • renal cortex
  • renal medulla
  • renal pyramids
  • renal columns
  • renal pelvis
  • ureters
  • urinary bladder
  • transitional epithelium
  • internal urinary sphincter
  • rugae
  • urethra
  • external urethral sphincter
  • urethral orifice
  • micturition
  • incontinence
  • anuria
  • urinary retention
  • catheter
  • oliguria
  • polyuria
  • nephrons
  • renal tubules
  • glomerulus
  • bowman's capsule
  • corpuscle
  • afferent arteriole
  • peritubular capillary system
  • convoluted tubule (proximal and distal)
  • glomurular filtration
  • tubular reabsortion
  • tubular secretion
  • urinalysis
  • water conservation
  • urine concentration
  • diuresis
  • polycystic kidney disease
  • hemodialysis
  • glycosuria
  • aminoaciduria
  • urinary tract infection
  • urethritis
  • cystitis
  • pyelitis
  • pyelonephritis
  • dysuria
  • pyuria
  • glomeruleonephritis
  • hematuria
  • proteinuria
  • diuretics
  • renal failure (chronic and acute)
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • nephroptosis
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The kidneys are positioned on either side of the midline of the superior abdominal cavity. A renal vein and artery exit or enter each kidney at its hilus. The inside of the kidneys have an outer cortex, and inner medulla and a renal pelvis. Urine is collected in the renal pyramids of the medulla and then trains into calyces that lead to the renal pelvis. The ureters transport urine to the bladder for temporary storage until it is released from the body through the urethra.
  • Urination is controlled reflexively and voluntarily.
  • Urine is formed in three stages glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.
  • A combination of active and passive transport are responsible for water, nutrients and electrolytes being filtered back into the blood during reabsorption.
  • Homeostasis is maintained in the urinary system through urine formation, which is regulated by hormones.
  • Urinary system disorders are usually one of the following: congenital disorders, infection and inflammation, immune disorders, hormonal disorders, degenerative disorders or tumors. These can affect urine formation and therefore, homeostasis.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the urinary system and its structure, including accessory structures.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the urinary system and its function, including accessory structures.
  • Use models to identify urinary system organs.
  • Use models (macro and microscopic) to observe and determine difference in structure among urinary organs and tissues.
  • Use models to describe the function of the urinary system as it relates to its structure.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the urinary system system.
  • Gather and examine urinary disease empirical evidence to draw correlations and predict cause and effect relationships.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The urinary system plays a major role in the removal of wastes to maitain homeostasis in the body by acting as a filtering system for the blood in a series of processes that ends in the production of urine.
  • The urinary system is made of several different tissues, and organs that filter blood and create liquid waste.
  • The urinary system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system performing different types of cell transport between capillaries and nephrons.
  • Homeostatic factors contribute to the development of urinary disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate urinary disorders.
  • Multiple systems interact to play a part in urinary function and pathology.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Blood Typing; The Urinary System
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
12 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the lymphatic organs and their structure and function.

a. Develop and use a model to explain the body's lines of defense and immunity.

b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the immune system (e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure of the lymphatic system and its components.
  • Obtain information about the function of the lymphatic system and its components.
  • Communication information to explain the structure and function of the lymphatic system and its components.
  • Develop and use models to explain the body's line of defense and immunity, including those of innate and acquired immunities.
  • Obtain information about disorders of the immune system.
  • Communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of disorders of the immune system.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • edema
  • hilum (lymph node)
  • lymph
  • lymph gland
  • lymph node
  • lymph vessel
  • lymphatic sinuses
  • lymphatic trunk
  • spleen (red pulp, white pulp)
  • tonsils
  • acquired immunity
  • antibody (IgG, IgE, IgA, IgM, and IgD)
  • antigen
  • cell-mediated immunity
  • complement
  • Immunoglobulin
  • Inflammatory response
  • innate immunity
  • interferons
  • memory cell
  • natural killer cells
  • nonspecific immunity
  • plasma cell
  • primary immune response
  • secondary immune response
  • supressor T lymphocyte
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • hypersensitivities
  • allergies
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]
  • severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic glands, lymph nodes and lymph vessels.
  • The lymphatic system uses its own components, and cells derived from blood, to prevent and fight off infections.
  • The immune system is composed of several components: WBC's protect the body from disease and assist with repair after an injury, and the lymphatic system organs along with organs from other systems act as barriers and fight off many micoorganisms.
  • Innate immunity provides barriers agains infections while acquired immunity permits the body to recognize and fight specific infections.
  • The primary immune response is the first reaction to an antigen while the secondary immune response protects against subsequent infections.
  • A variety of disorders can diminish immune system function or increase its sensitivity
  • Immunodeficiency disorders (such as AIDS, HIV or SCID) cause the body to lose its ability to fight disease. Hypersensitivities are disorders in which the immune system overreacts to an antigen (allergies).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the lymphatic system and its structure, including its various components.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the lymphatic system and its function, including its various components.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the lymphatic system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
  • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate and explain the body's lines of defense and innate immunity.
  • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate and explain the body's lines of defens and acquired immunity.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the lymphatic system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The lymphatic system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system circulating along with it, helping with distributing hormones, nutrients, and wastes.
  • The lymphatic system is often called a secondary circulatory system and helps to maintain blood volume homeostasis.
  • Numerous organs and tissues are structurally designed to play several different roles in the lymphatic system.
  • The lymphatic system is made of several different tissues, and organs that provide defense again infections and environmental hazards.
  • The lymphatic system interacts with all other systems in the body to create specific immune responses.
  • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of lymphatic disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate some lymphatic disorders.
  • Multiple systems interact to play a part in lymphatic function and pathology.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Lymphatic System
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that the endocrine glands secrete hormones that help the body maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.

a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., pituitary dwarfism, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus) caused by imbalance of the hormones of the endocrine glands.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure and function of various endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete.
  • Obtain and evaluate information regarding hormones secreted by the endocrine system that help maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.
  • Use evidence from research to support and communicate the claim that hormones released by the endocrine system help the body maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.
  • Obtain information to determine the causes of endocrine pathological condition
  • Analyze the effects of endocrine pathological conditions caused by imbalance of the hormones of the endocrine glands.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • ductless glands
  • endocrine glands
  • endocrine secretions
  • environmental signals
  • exocrine glands
  • exocrine secretions
  • hormones
  • receptors
  • target cells
  • ligand
  • surface receptor
  • internal receptor
  • effector
  • negative feedback
  • agonists
  • antagonists
  • peptide hormones
  • lipid hormones
  • pituitary gland (anterior and posterior)
  • hypothalamus
  • releasing hormones
  • oxytocin
  • prolactin
  • growth hormone
  • pineal gland
  • melatonin
  • serotonin
  • adrenal glands
  • glucocorticosterioids
  • cortisol
  • mineralcorticosteroids
  • adrenaline
  • epinephrine
  • thyroid gland
  • parathyroid gland
  • calcitonin
  • parathyroid hormone
  • pancreas
  • insulin
  • glucagon
  • thymus gland
  • thymosin
  • gonads (ovaries, testes)
  • estrogen
  • progesterone
  • testosterone
  • pituitary dwarfism
  • Addison's disease
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes insipidus
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The endocrine system is composed of glands that produce endocrine secretions that go directly into the blood and are cellular signals.
  • Hormones work through a feedback loop—they attach to receptors on target cells, cause a metabolic change within the target cell, which causes the target cell (effector) to act in response to the stimulus or signal.
  • Chemicals that carry out the job of a hormone by turning on a cell response are called agonists.
  • Chemicals that carry out the job of a hormone by turning off a cell response are called antagonists.
  • There are two types of hormones—peptide hormones are usually involved in rapid body changes and lipid hormones play a role in body fluid control and sexual reproduction.
  • The human endocrine system is composed of ten endocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, parathyroid glands, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary and testis.
  • Each of the endocrine glands produces specific hormones that effect various functions within the body.
  • Each endocrine gland needs some type of feedback signal to control its level of hormone production.
  • Diseases of the endocrine system can cause too much or too little hormone secretion.
  • Changes in hormone production contribute to aging.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the endocrine system and its structure, including endocrine glands and the hormones they produce.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, the claim that endocrine glands secrete hormones that help the body maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.
  • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the endocrine system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
  • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the endocrine system.
  • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
  • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
  • Analyze data to determine a correlation and possible cause and effect relationship.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The endocrine system is composed of several glands throughout the body that secrete hormones to specific target tissues.
  • The endocrine system uses feedback loops to maintain homeostasis within the human body.
  • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of endocrine disorders.
  • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate some endocrine disorders.
  • Multiple systems interact to play a part in endocrine function and pathology.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Endocrine System: Time to Regulate!