# Courses of Study : Science

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Describe the motion of an object in terms of time, displacement, velocity, and acceleration in both one and two dimensions by analyzing a graph of that motion.
• Use data obtained from observation or experimental design of an investigation to analyze and explain the motion of an object in one and two dimensions.
• Use kinematic equations to solve for the displacement, velocity and acceleration of an object undergoing constant acceleration in both one and two dimensions using correct units.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• model
• graph
• instant
• interval
• position
• velocity
• acceleration
• displacement
• distance
• speed
• average speed
• average velocity
• experimental design
• kinematic equations
• investigation
• analyze
• trajectory
• projectile
• range
• slope
• area under curve
• intercepts
• vector
• scalar
• coordinates
• origin
• magnitude
• units of measure
• significant figures
• trigonometric functions
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to use mathematical computations to solve for the motion of an object.
• How to analyze both linear and nonlinear graphs of motion.
• Laboratory safety procedures.
• Appropriate units of measure.
• Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.
• How to determine area under a curve on a graph.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Manipulate kinematic equations of motion.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Create graphical representations of data.
• Collect and organize experimental data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Make measurements of distance and time using standard units.
• Manipulate laboratory equipment.
• Work safely in collaborative lab groups.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• The motion of an object can be predicted using mathematical models and graphical models.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Intro to Graphing; Traveling Washer in 1D; Match the Graph; Motion of a Toy Car; Constant Velocity; Comparing Linear Speed and Circular Speed; Changing Velocity; Motion of a Falling Marble; Motion on an Incline; Motion Graphs; Treasure Hunt; Journey of a Physics Student; Tractor Pull; Projectile Motion Photo Worksheet; Horizontal Launch; Range vs. Angle; Basketball Toss; Acceleration on an Incline; Coefficient of Friction; Horizontal Circular Motion; Impulse Momentum; Collisions in 2D; Rotational Motion; Moment of Inertia; Conservation of Angular Momentum; Energy Exchange; Simple Harmonic Motion

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion.

a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton's second law.

b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Identify external forces in a system graphically using models such as free body diagrams.
• Determine the sum of the forces on an object.
• Apply Newton's laws to explain the motion of an object.
• Explain how motion, from simple to complex including circular motion, is affected by external forces.
• Derive kinematics equations for variables like displacement, time, velocity and acceleration from Newton's second law.
• Solve kinematics equations for variables like displacement, time, velocity and acceleration from Newton's second law.
• Explain the nature of forces related to Newton's second and third laws using computations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• model
• graph
• instant
• interval
• position
• velocity
• acceleration
• displacement
• distance
• speed
• average speed
• average velocity
• kinematic equations
• analyze
• slope
• intercepts
• vector
• scalar
• coordinates
• origin
• magnitude
• units of measure
• significant figures
• circular motion
• centripetal force
• friction
• tension
• normal
• trigonometric functions
• perpendicular
• circumference
• period
• frequency
• pi
• trajectory
• projectile
• range
• free-body diagram
• force diagram
• net force
• inertia
• action-reaction
• proportional
• force
• mass
• system
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to use mathematical computations to solve for net force on an object.
• How to use mathematical computations to solve for kinematics variables.
• Appropriate units of measure.
• How to identify the system.
• Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Manipulate equations.
• Complete mathematical computations.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Create graphical representations of data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Draw force diagrams.
• Identify the forces acting on an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Net force causes objects to change their motion.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Forces Poster; Weight Versus Mass; Forces as Vectors; Force Tables; Newton's 3rd Law; Free Body Diagrams; Force and Motion; Newton's 2nd Law; Acceleration on an Incline; Coefficient of Friction; Horizontal Circular Motion; Pool Ball Inertia; Hooke's Law; Archimedes' Principle; Work and Kinetic Energy; Simple Harmonic Motion

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
3 ) Evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between the force acting on an object, the time of interaction, and the change in momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Explain the relationship between force acting on an object, time of interaction and the change in momentum using the impulse momentum theorem.
• Make predictions about the effects of changing variables in the relationship.
• Use the impulse momentum theorem to solve for the force acting on an object, time of interaction, mass or the change in velocity given three of the variables.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• model
• graph
• position
• velocity
• acceleration
• displacement
• distance
• speed
• instant
• interval
• kinematic equations
• analyze
• slope
• area under curve
• intercepts
• vector
• scalar
• coordinates
• origin
• magnitude
• units of measure
• significant figures
• friction
• free-body diagram
• force diagram
• net force
• inertia
• action-reaction
• proportional
• force
• mass
• system
• momentum
• impulse
• peak
• trough
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to use mathematical computations to solve for unknown variables in the impulse momentum theorem.
• How to interpret area under a curve of a graph.
• How to solve for kinematics variables using mathematical computations.
• Appropriate units of measure.
• How to identify the system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Manipulate equations.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Draw force diagrams.
• Identify the forces acting on an object.
• Solve mathematical equations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• The same change in momentum can be caused by different force—time combinations.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard is closely related to standard 6 — conservation of momentum. An engineering design task such as air bags can be implemented easily for this standard. ~Impulse Momentum

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Identify and analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion and develop an understanding of the effect of rotational inertia on the motion of a rotating object (e.g., merry-go-round, spinning toy, spinning figure skater, stellar collapse [supernova], rapidly spinning pulsar).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Identify forces responsible for changes in rotational motion.
• Analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion.
• Predict changes in motion of various rotating bodies based on changes in their rotational inertia.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• angular position
• rotational inertia
• center of gravity
• model
• graph
• force
• rotational motion
• circular motion
• torque
• lever arm
• angle
• circumference
• diameter
• arc
• angular momentum
• angular velocity
• angular acceleration
• angle of rotation
• distance
• perpendicular
• system
• clockwise
• counterclockwise
• equilibrium
• translational equilibrium
• rotational equilibrium
• axis of rotation
• center of mass
• Newton's laws
• tangential
• moment of inertia
• free body diagram
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to identify the system.
• Apply Newton's Second Law of Motion.
• What rotational inertia is and how it affects the motion of a rotating object.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Draw rigid body diagrams.
• Solve for net force.
• Extrapolate their understanding of a physical illustration of a phenomenon (e.g., spinning figure skater, merry-go-round) to an intangible example of the same phenomenon (e.g., rapidly spinning pulsar, supernova).
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Objects in rotational motion experience varied changes in motion depending upon their rotational inertia and the net force acting upon them.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Introduction to Torque
Rotational Motion
Moment of Inertia
Conservation of Angular Momentum

This standard should be enhanced by a deep level of mathematical analysis and laboratory experience.
Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object.
• Explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• area under curve
• model
• graph
• work
• energy
• gravitational potential energy
• kinetic energy
• elastic potential energy
• thermal energy
• sound energy
• friction
• force
• velocity
• mass
• distance
• law of conservation of energy
• systems
• work-energy theorem
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The different forms of energy.
• How to recognize work being done.
• The law of conservation of energy.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Construct models to illustrate phenomena.
• Recognize different forms of energy.
• Apply the law of conservation of energy to a system.
• Graph data.
• Determine the area under a curve on a graph.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Energy is the ability to do work and energy can be transformed into different forms of energy while obeying the law of conservation of energy.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard should be enhanced by a deep level of mathematical analysis and laboratory experience. An engineering design task can be implemented easily for this standard. ~Hooke's Law ~Energy Exchange ~Work ~Work and Kinetic Energy ~Energy Using PhET ~Simple Harmonic Motion.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Investigate collisions, both elastic and inelastic, to evaluate the effects on momentum and energy conservation.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Investigate elastic collisions in the laboratory to provide evidence of whether or not energy and/or momentum is conserved.
• Investigate inelastic collisions in the laboratory to provide evidence of whether or not energy and/or momentum is conserved.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• instant
• interval
• model
• graph
• position
• velocity
• displacement
• distance
• speed
• kinematic equations
• analyze
• intercepts
• vector
• scalar
• coordinates
• origin
• magnitude
• units of measure
• significant figures
• friction
• inertia
• action-reaction
• proportional
• mass
• system
• momentum
• impulse
• kinetic energy
• elastic
• inelastic
• collision
• conservation
• energy
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Kinetic energy, how to identify other forms of energy, and have a general understanding of the conservation of energy.
• Momentum and have an understanding of the conservation of momentum.
• The appropriate units of measure.
• How to identify the system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Collect and organize experimental data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Make measurements of velocity and mass using standard units.
• Effectively manipulate laboratory equipment.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Work safely in collaborative lab groups.
• Manipulate equations.
• Solve mathematical equations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Momentum and energy are always conserved.
• Kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions, but is not conserved in inelastic collisions.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard is closely related to standard 3—impulse momentum. An engineering design task can be implemented easily for this standard. Impulse Momentum; Conservation of Momentum; Conservation of Momentum 2D

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

NAEP Statement::
P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g., heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and low-temperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done).

a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction (e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight).

b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models; Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the first and second law of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work.
• Carry out an investigation to provide evidence that the first and second law of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work.
• Create models to illustrate how heat is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.
• Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• model
• thermodynamics
• entropy
• convection
• conduction
• scientific argumentation
• open system
• closed system
• heat transfer
• laws of thermodynamics
• work
• internal energy
• temperature
• heat
• thermometer
• thermal equilibrium
• average kinetic energy
• kinetic theory of matter
• specific heat capacity
• conservation of energy
• thermal energy
• thermal conductivity
• heat exchanger
• heat sink
• heat reservoir
• isovolumetric
• isothermal
• cyclic processes
• heat engine
• efficiency
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to recognize open and closed systems.
• How to utilize models for understanding.
• Temperature scales and conversions.
• How to perform graphical analysis.
• The relationship between work and energy.
• The difference between heat and temperature.
• How to develop models.
• The differences among conduction, convection and radiation.
• How to use evidence to support an argument/claim.
• How the second law of thermodynamics applies to entropy of an open system.
• How the second law of thermodynamics applies to entropy of a closed system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Develop an appropriate experimental procedure.
• Create a data sheet.
• Collect and organize experimental data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Make measurements using standard units.
• Manipulate laboratory equipment.
• Work safely in collaborative lab groups.
• Communicate results of research.
• Manipulate equations.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Solve mathematical equations.
• Develop models to illustrate a phenomenon.
• Engage in scientific argumentation using valid evidence.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Heat energy can be transferred in various ways and used to do work within the limits defined by the laws of thermodynamics.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard could be enhanced by including the study of internal combustion engines, external combustion engines and heat pumps. Heat Transfer; Mass Lifter; Cold Specific Heat (supports DCI)
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
8 ) Investigate the nature of wave behavior to illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns, constructive and destructive interference, and standing waves (e.g., organ pipes, tuned exhaust systems).

a. Predict and explore how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena such as the Doppler effect and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Investigate the nature of wave behavior.
• Illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns.
• Illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for constructive and destructive interference.
• Illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for standing waves.
• Explore and explain how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena such as the Doppler Effect and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR).
• Predict what the wave pattern would be for an object at rest or an object moving toward or away from an observer using the Doppler Effect and SONAR.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• model
• Doppler Effect
• constructive interference
• destructive interference
• standing wave
• superposition principle
• wave
• wave speed
• frequency
• period
• speed of light
• speed of sound
• wavelength
• medium
• SONAR
• Red shift
• ultrasound
• crest
• trough
• amplitude
• node
• antinode
• sound
• mechanical
• electromagnetic
• compression
• rarefaction
• longitudinal
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The concept of the superposition principle.
• The relationship among frequency, wavelength and speed.
• The relationship between frequency and pitch.
• The relationship between wavelength and color.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Illustrate/model the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns.
• Illustrate/model waveforms to show interference.
• Illustrate/model waveforms to show standing waves.
• Explore wave behavior.
• Make predictions about wave behavior as applied to phenomena such as Doppler and SONAR.
• Locate information from multiple sources.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• When waves interfere they form wave patterns predicted by the law of superposition.
• Wave behavior, known as the Doppler Effect, can be used to determine the relative speed of objects producing or reflecting waves.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Wave Behavior; Vibrating String; Doppler Demo; Properties of Sound; Palm Pipes; Speed of Sound; Spectrum of Stars; Double Slit Diffraction
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 0
9 ) Obtain and evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation and compare it to sound propagation. (e.g., wireless telephones, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microwave systems, Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], SONAR, ultrasound).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Obtain information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation.
• Obtain information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of sound wave.
• Evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation.
• Evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of sound wave.
• Compare the wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation to sound wave propagation.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• evaluate
• model
• Doppler Effect
• constructive interference
• destructive interference
• standing wave
• superposition principle
• wave
• wave speed
• frequency
• period
• speed of light
• speed of sound
• wavelength
• medium
• SONAR
• Red shift
• ultrasound
• crest
• trough
• amplitude
• electromagnetic spectrum
• technical devices
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How sound waves propagate.
• How electromagnetic waves propagate.
• General wave properties and wave behavior.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Conduct research.
• Evaluate the reliability of multiple sources.
• Effectively communicate results of research by designated means.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Waves are used in modern technologies to obtain and transfer information.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Standard 8 lays the foundation for standard 9 and should be mastered prior to standard. Comparing Sound and Light; GPS and Relativity.
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
10 ) Plan and carry out investigations that evaluate the mathematical explanations of light as related to optical systems (e.g., reflection, refraction, diffraction, intensity, polarization, Snell's law, the inverse square law).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Based on evidence from investigations, students can trace the path of light refracted through a lens or reflected off a mirror and find the focal point.
• Based on evidence from investigations, students determine the relationship between intensity and distance from a light source.
• Experimentally demonstrate Snell's Law.
• Experimentally demonstrate the mirror and lens equations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• medium
• model
• graph
• image distance
• object distance
• focal point
• magnification
• critical angle
• refraction
• reflection
• diffraction
• interference
• constructive interference
• destructive interference
• principal axis
• center of curvature
• intensity
• inverse
• angle of incidence
• angle of reflection
• angle of refraction
• index of refraction
• speed of light
• system
• velocity
• polarization
• minima
• maxima
• order
• slit width
• slit separation
• object
• image
• real
• virtual
• inverted
• erect
• spherical aberration
• chromatic aberration
• total internal reflection
• law of reflection
• Snell's lLaw
• prism
• ray
• concave
• convex
• plane
• divergent
• convergent
• ray diagrams
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How light interacts at boundaries of different media.
• The wave properties of light.
• Basic trigonometric equations.
• How to do graphical analysis.
• Inverse and inverse square relationships.
• Types of images and how images are formed.
• Appropriate units of measure.
• How to identify a system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Develop an appropriate experimental procedure.
• Create a data sheet.
• Collect and organize experimental data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Make measurements using standard units.
• Effectively manipulate laboratory equipment.
• Work safely in collaborative lab groups.
• Manipulate equations.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Solve mathematical equations.
• Draw a light ray diagram and identify the location of an image.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• The behavior of light is predictable mathematically allowing the development of optical devices to improve vision macroscopically and microscopically.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard is related to standard 8—waves and should be a continuation of the discussion of waves. Light is discussed in earlier grades and that learning should be reinforced. This standard does not address color but color should be included when working on this standard. This standard provides examples covering an extremely wide range of optics. In this document, emphasis was placed on refraction and reflection; however, the topics of diffraction and interference should also be considered for historical and mathematical relevance. Illuminance; Plane and Curved Mirrors; Concave Mirror; Snell's Law; Convex and Concave Lenses; Convex Lens; Polarized Filters and Meter Basics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 8 Classroom Resources: 8
11 ) Develop and use models to illustrate electric and magnetic fields, including how each is created (e.g., charging by either conduction or induction and polarizing; sketching field lines for situations such as point charges, a charged straight wire, or a current carrying wires such as solenoids; calculating the forces due to Coulomb's laws), and predict the motion of charged particles in each field and the energy required to move a charge between two points in each field.

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Develop models to illustrate electric fields.
• Develop models to illustrate magnetic fields.
• Use models to illustrate how electric fields are created.
• Use models to illustrate how magnetic fields are created.
• Predict the motion of a charged particle in an electric field.
• Predict the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field.
• Predict the energy required to move a charged particle between two points in an electric field.
• Predict the energy required to move a charged particle between two points in a magnetic field.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• voltmeter
• model
• fields
• field force
• energy
• potential energy
• electric potential
• electric charge
• positive
• negative
• like
• unlike
• electric field strength
• north and south magnetic poles
• magnet
• magnetic field strength
• conduction
• induction
• charge
• current
• conductors
• insulators
• compass
• multimeter
• work
• vector
• point charge
• test charge
• Coulomb's law
• proton
• electron
• attract
• repel
Knowledge:
Students know:
• How to develop and use models.
• Understanding of static electricity.
• Phenomena of electric and magnetic fields.
• How charges interact and how they behave in a field.
• How fields interact.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Properly use a voltmeter or mulimeter.
• Develop and use models to make predictions and to illustrate explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Some forces act over a distance, creating fields.
• The behavior of objects in a field is predictable and caused by interaction of fields and charged particles.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard could be met by minimal use of mathematics, however, the incorporation of mathematics would deepen the students' knowledge of how objects and fields interact. Forces Poster; A Sticky Situation; Neon Bulb and Charge; Electroscopes; Electric Field Mapping; Charges and Fields PhET; Van de Graaff; Coulomb's Law Video; Magnetic Fields and Electromagnetic Induction.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
12 ) Use the principles of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws to design, construct, and analyze combination circuits using typical components (e.g., resistors, capacitors, diodes, sources of power).

Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Design combination circuits using typical components.
• Construct combination circuits using typical components.
• Analyze combination circuits using Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• ammeter
• voltmeter
• series
• parallel
• model
• Kirchhoff's laws
• Ohm's law
• resistance
• current
• electric potential
• multimeter
• positive
• negative
• electrical components
• circuit
• voltage source
• conductors
• resistor color code
• circuit diagram
• heat
• charge
• static electricity
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The color code for the resistance of resistors.
• The basic principles of static electricity.
• How to construct electrical circuits.
• Several different components can be used to build an electrical circuit.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Design and use models.
• Develop an appropriate experimental procedure.
• Create a data sheet.
• Collect and organize experimental data.
• Follow written and verbal instructions.
• Make measurements using standard units.
• Effectively manipulate laboratory equipment.
• Work safely in collaborative lab groups.
• Manipulate equations.
• Interpret graphical data.
• Solve mathematical equations.
• Use a multimeter.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Circuits are complete pathways through which current will flow predictably and will provide energy to the connected component(s).
• Circuits may be simple or complex.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
This standard could be met by minimal use of mathematics, however, the incorporation of more rigorous mathematics would deepen the students' knowledge. Circuit Basics; Ohm's Law; Resistors in Series; Resistors in Parallel; Kirchhoff's Rules.