Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 

1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one and twodimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. NAEP Framework



2 ) Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as freebody diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion. a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for
various systems using Newton's second law. b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws. NAEP Framework



3 ) Evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between the
force acting on an object, the time of interaction, and the change in
momentum using the impulsemomentum theorem. NAEP Framework



4 ) Identify and analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion and develop an understanding of the effect of rotational inertia on the motion of a rotating object (e.g., merrygoround, spinning toy, spinning figure skater, stellar collapse [supernova], rapidly spinning pulsar). 

Energy
 

5 ) Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the workenergy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and springmass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object). NAEP Framework



6 ) Investigate collisions, both elastic and inelastic, to evaluate the effects
on momentum and energy conservation. NAEP Framework



7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and
second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in
internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g.,
heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and
lowtemperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir
and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done). a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction
(e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from
the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight). b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of
thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems. 

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 

8 ) Investigate the nature of wave behavior to illustrate the concept of the
superposition principle responsible for wave patterns, constructive and
destructive interference, and standing waves (e.g., organ pipes, tuned exhaust
systems). a. Predict and explore how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena
such as the Doppler effect and Sound Navigation and
Ranging (SONAR). 


9 ) Obtain and evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation and compare it to sound propagation. (e.g., wireless telephones, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microwave systems, Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], SONAR, ultrasound). 


10 ) Plan and carry out investigations that evaluate the mathematical
explanations of light as related to optical systems (e.g., reflection,
refraction, diffraction, intensity, polarization, Snell's law, the inverse
square law). 


11 ) Develop and use models to illustrate electric and magnetic fields,
including how each is created (e.g., charging by either conduction or induction
and polarizing; sketching field lines for situations such as point charges, a
charged straight wire, or a current carrying wires such as solenoids;
calculating the forces due to Coulomb's laws), and predict the motion of charged
particles in each field and the energy required to move a charge between two
points in each field. NAEP Framework



12 ) Use the principles of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws to design, construct, and analyze combination circuits using typical components (e.g., resistors, capacitors, diodes, sources of power). 