Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 12
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion.

a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton's second law.

b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
3 ) Evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between the force acting on an object, the time of interaction, and the change in momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Identify and analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion and develop an understanding of the effect of rotational inertia on the motion of a rotating object (e.g., merry-go-round, spinning toy, spinning figure skater, stellar collapse [supernova], rapidly spinning pulsar).

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Investigate collisions, both elastic and inelastic, to evaluate the effects on momentum and energy conservation.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

NAEP Statement::
P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g., heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and low-temperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done).

a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction (e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight).

b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
8 ) Investigate the nature of wave behavior to illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns, constructive and destructive interference, and standing waves (e.g., organ pipes, tuned exhaust systems).

a. Predict and explore how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena such as the Doppler effect and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 0
9 ) Obtain and evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation and compare it to sound propagation. (e.g., wireless telephones, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microwave systems, Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], SONAR, ultrasound).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
10 ) Plan and carry out investigations that evaluate the mathematical explanations of light as related to optical systems (e.g., reflection, refraction, diffraction, intensity, polarization, Snell's law, the inverse square law).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 8 Classroom Resources: 8
11 ) Develop and use models to illustrate electric and magnetic fields, including how each is created (e.g., charging by either conduction or induction and polarizing; sketching field lines for situations such as point charges, a charged straight wire, or a current carrying wires such as solenoids; calculating the forces due to Coulomb's laws), and predict the motion of charged particles in each field and the energy required to move a charge between two points in each field.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
12 ) Use the principles of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws to design, construct, and analyze combination circuits using typical components (e.g., resistors, capacitors, diodes, sources of power).