Courses of Study: Science

Number of Standards matching query: 231
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 5
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths and directions act upon them (e.g., object being pushed, object being pulled, two objects colliding).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths act upon them.
  • Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different directions act upon them.
  • Predict the effect of the push or pull on the motion of an object, based on prior experiences.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Push
  • Pull
  • Collide
  • Investigate
  • Result
  • Motion
  • Objects
  • Forces
  • Strengths
  • Directions
  • Refute
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
  • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Investigate forces and interactions.
  • Describe objects and their motions.
  • Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
*Push and Pull
*Balls and Ramps, Insights
*Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Use observations and data from investigations to determine if a design solution (e.g., designing a ramp to increase the speed of an object in order to move a stationary object) solves the problem of using force to change the speed or direction of an object.*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use observations from investigations to determine if a design solution causes the intended change in the speed or direction of the motion of the object.
  • Use data from investigations to determine if a design solution solves a problem of using a push or pull to change an object's motion.
  • Describe the goal of the design solution.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Force
  • Speed
  • Direction
  • Data
  • Observe
  • Describe
  • Engineering
  • Investigation
  • Ask
  • Imagine
  • Plan
  • Create
  • Improve
  • Solution
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The relative speed or direction of the object before a push or pull is applied (e.g., faster, slower).
  • The relative speed or direction of the object after a push or pull is applied.
  • How the relative strength of a push or pull affects the speed or direction of an object (e.g., harder, softer).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Conduct an investigation.
  • Collect and record observations from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.
  • Organize information in a usable format.
  • Analyze data from tests to determine change in speed or direction.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about the effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Push and Pull
*Balls and Ramps, Insights
*Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 10
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 7
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Distinguish between living and nonliving things and verify what living things need to survive (e.g., animals needing food, water, and air; plants needing nutrients, water, sunlight, and air).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Distinguish between living and nonliving things.
  • Verify what living things need to survive
  • Use observations to distinguish between living and nonliving things and describe patterns of what plants and animals need to survive.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Distinguish
  • Living
  • Nonliving
  • Verify
  • Need
  • Survive
  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Nutrients
  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Air
  • Food
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • All animals need food, water, and air in order to survive.
  • Animals obtain their food from plants and other animals.
  • Plants need water, light and air to survive.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Distinguish between living (including humans) and nonliving things.
  • Verify what living things, including plants and animals, need to survive.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed and used as evidence when distinguishing between living and nonliving things and determining the needs of living things.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Gather evidence to support how plants and animals provide for their needs by altering their environment (e.g., tree roots breaking a sidewalk to provide space, red fox burrowing to create a den to raise young, humans growing gardens for food and building roads for transportation).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Make a claim using evidence to show how plants and animals sometimes alter their environment to ensure their needs are met.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Gather
  • Evidence
  • Support
  • Plant
  • Animal
  • Provide
  • Needs
  • Alter
  • Environment
  • Claim
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Plants and animals meet their needs.
  • Plants change their environment to meet their needs.
  • Animals change their environment to meet their needs.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather data (evidence) to support a claim that plants and animals alter the environment when meeting their needs.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Systems in the natural and designed world have parts that work together like the plants and animals within their environments.
AMSTI Resources:
*vocabulary related to specific examples
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Construct a model of a natural habitat (e.g., terrarium, ant farm, diorama) conducive to meeting the needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Construct a model of a natural habitat conducive to meeting the needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.
  • Use the model to describe the relationships between the different plants and animals and the materials they need to survive.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Construct
  • Model
  • Natural
  • Habitat
  • Conducive
  • Needs
  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Native
  • Alabama
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.
  • How to construct a model of a natural habitat and can identify and describe the components of the model
  • Places where the different plants and animals live.
  • The relationship between where plants and animals live and the resources those places provide
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Construct a model of interactions that occur in a natural habitat.
  • Use a model to represent and describe the relationships between the components.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Systems in the natural environments of Alabama have parts that work together and can be represented.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 19
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 15
Unit Plans: 1
6 ) Identify and plan possible solutions (e.g., reducing, reusing, recycling) to lessen the human impact on the local environment.*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify possible solutions to lesson the human impact on the local environment.
  • Plan possible solutions to lesson the human impact on the local environment.
  • Identify potential human impacts on the local environment.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Identify
  • Plan
  • Solution
  • Human impact
  • Local
  • Environment
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Causes
  • Create
  • Ask
  • Imagine
  • Improve
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Human impact can have both positive and negative impact on the environment.
  • We can create possible solutions to reduce the negative impacts on the environment.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify possible solutions to lessen human impact on the environment.
  • Plan possible solutions to lessen human impact on the environment.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Human impact has a positive and negative effect on the local environment.
  • There are solutions that can lessen the negative impacts on a local environment.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC
Earth's Systems
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
7 ) Observe and describe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface (e.g., heat from the sun causing evaporation of water or increased temperature of soil, rocks, sand, and water).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Observe the effects of sunlight on the Earth's surface.
  • Describe the effects of sunlight on the Earth's surface.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Observe
  • Describe
  • Sunlight
  • Earth
  • Surface
  • Evaporation
  • Temperature
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Sunlight warms the Earth's surface.
  • Know different patterns of relative warmth of materials in sunlight and in shade (e.g., hotter, warmer, cooler, and colder)
  • Materials on the Earth's surface can be investigated (e.g., dirt, sand, water) and described.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Investigate the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
  • Observe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
  • Describe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Sunlight causes an observable effect on the Earth's surfaces including: water, soil, rocks, sand, grass.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
8 ) Design and construct a device (e.g., hat, canopy, umbrella, tent) to reduce the effects of sunlight.*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.
  • Construct a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Design
  • Construct
  • Device
  • Sunlight
  • Reduce
  • Effects
  • Create
  • Ask
  • Imagine
  • Improve
  • Plan
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The problem.
  • The design solution.
  • What way the design solution uses the given scientific information about the warming effect of the Sun on Earth's surface.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that reduces the effects of sunlight.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Structures can reduce the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
  • Whether or not a device meets expectations in terms of cause (device reduces effects of sunlight) and effect (less warming).
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
9 ) Observe, record, and share findings of local weather patterns over a period of time (e.g., increase in daily temperature from morning to afternoon, typical rain and storm patterns from season to season).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Observe local weather patterns over a period of time.
  • Record local weather patterns over a period of time.
  • Share findings of local weather patterns over a period of time.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Observe
  • Record
  • Share
  • Findings
  • Weather
  • Patterns
  • Period of Time
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The number of sunny, cloudy, rainy, windy, cool, or warm days.
  • The relative temperature at various times of the day (e.g., cooler in the morning, warmer during the day, cooler at night).
  • The relative number of days of different types of weather conditions in a month.
  • The change in the relative temperature over the course of the day.
  • Certain months have more days of some kinds of weather than do other months (e.g., some months have more hot days, some have more rainy days).
  • The differences in relative temperature over the course of a day (e.g., between early morning and the afternoon, between one day and another) are directly related to the time of day.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Observe weather patterns over a period of time.
  • Record findings of weather patterns over a period of time.
  • Share findings of weather patterns over a period of time.
  • Describe patterns in the weather data.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns of weather can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Whether events have causes that generate observable patterns.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE
Earth and Human Activity
Science (2015)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
10 ) Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasts in planning for, preparing for, and responding to severe weather.*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast in planning for severe weather.
  • Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast in preparing for severe weather.
  • Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast for responding to severe weather.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Weather
  • Forecasting
  • Severe
  • Purpose
  • Obtain Information
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • There are patterns related to local severe weather that can be observed (e.g., certain types of severe weather happen more in certain places).
  • Weather patterns (e.g., some events are more likely to occur in certain regions) help scientist predict severe weather before it happens.
  • Severe weather warnings are used to communicate predictions about severe weather.
  • Weather forecasting can help people plan for, and respond to, specific local weather (e.g., responses: stay indoors during severe weather, go to cooling centers during heat waves; preparations: evacuate coastal areas before a hurricane, cover windows before storms).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the world.
  • Obtain, evaluate and communicate information from observations and grade appropriate text or media.
  • Obtain information to describe patterns in the natural world.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Severe weather has causes that generate observable patterns.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 4
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Conduct experiments to provide evidence that vibrations of matter can create sound (e.g., striking a tuning fork, plucking a guitar string) and sound can make matter vibrate (e.g., holding a piece of paper near a sound system speaker, touching your throat while speaking).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Conduct experiments to provide evidence that vibrations of matter can create sound.
  • Conduct experiments to provide evidence that sound can make matter vibrate.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • vibrations/vibrate
  • matter
  • sound
  • evidence
  • experiments
  • conduct
  • create
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Sound can cause matter to vibrate.
  • Vibrating matter can cause sound.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Conduct investigations to provide evidence that sound makes matter vibrate and vibrating matter makes sound.
  • Make observations that can be used as evidence about sound.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Sound can cause matter to vibrate.
  • Vibrating matter can cause sound.
  • There is a cause/effect relationship between vibrating materials and sound.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Sound, Light, and Sky
Sound and Light, FOSS
Sundial, GLOBE
Sky, Delta
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Construct explanations from observations that objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them (e.g., moon being illuminated by the sun, colors and patterns in a kaleidoscope being illuminated when held toward a light).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain based on observations that objects can be seen only when there is a light source.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • light
  • illuminate
  • construct
  • explanation
  • observation
  • available
  • objects
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Light comes from different sources (natural/man-made).
  • Objects can be seen only when there is a light source.
  • Objects can be seen if they give off their own light.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather evidence from observations to support the explanation that objects can only be seen when illuminated.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Objects can be seen only when a light source causes it to be illuminated.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Sound, Light, and Sky
Sound and Light, FOSS
Sundial, GLOBE
Sky, Delta
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Investigate materials to determine which types allow light to pass through (e.g., transparent materials such as clear plastic wrap), allow only partial light to pass through (e.g., translucent materials such as wax paper), block light (e.g., opaque materials such as construction paper), or reflect light (e.g., shiny materials such as aluminum foil).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Given materials, determine if light passes through, partially passes through, is blocked or is reflected.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • transparent
  • translucent
  • opaque
  • reflect
  • investigate
  • observe
  • light
  • partial
  • block
  • material
  • record
  • data
  • shiny
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Some materials allow all light to pass through.
  • Some materials allow partial light to pass through.
  • Some materials block all the light from passing through.
  • Some materials reflect light, which changes its direction.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Investigate to determine the effect of placing objects made of different materials in a beam of light.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Simple tests can gather evidence to determine that placing different materials in a beam of light will cause light to either: pass through, partially pass through, block, or reflect.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Sound and Light, Foss
Sky, Delta
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Design and construct a device that uses light or sound to send a communication signal over a distance (e.g., using a flashlight and a piece of cardboard to simulate a signal lamp for sending a coded message to a classmate, using a paper cup and string to simulate a telephone for talking to a classmate).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use tools and materials provided to design and construct a device that uses light or sound to communicate signals over a distance.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • design
  • construct
  • device
  • light
  • sound
  • communication signal
  • distance
  • receive
  • simulate
  • design process
  • ask
  • imagine
  • plan
  • create
  • improve
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Light travels over a given distance.
  • Light can be used to communicate over a distance.
  • Sound travels over a given distance.
  • Sound can be used to communicate over a distance.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use tools and materials provided to solve the specific problem of being able to communicate using signals over distance using light or sound.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • People depend on various technologies in their lives like devices that can be created to communicate over a distance using light or sound.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Sound and Light (Foss)
Sundial, GLOBE
Sky, Delta
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 6
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Design a solution to a human problem by using materials to imitate how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs (e.g., outerwear imitating animal furs for insulation, gear mimicking tree bark or shells for protection).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use given materials to design a device that imitates how plants and/or animals survive, grow and/or meet their needs.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • materials
  • design
  • solution
  • human problem
  • imitate
  • external parts
  • survive
  • needs
  • insulation
  • mimicry
  • camouflage
  • protection
  • ask
  • plan
  • imagine
  • create
  • improve
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • How plants use their external parts to survive, grow and meet their needs.
  • How animals use their external parts to survive, grow and meet their needs.
  • People can imitate how plants and animals survive and grow to help us solve a human problem.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Design a device that attempts to solve a human problem.
  • Use materials to imitate external structures of plants and animals.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Organisms, STC
Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 1
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
6 ) Obtain information to provide evidence that parents and their offspring engage in patterns of behavior that help the offspring survive (e.g., crying of offspring indicating need for feeding, quacking or barking by parents indicating protection of young).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Provide evidence about behaviors of animal parents that help offspring survive.
  • Provide evidence about behaviors of animal offspring that help the offspring survive.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • obtain information
  • evidence
  • offspring
  • parents
  • patterns
  • survive
  • engage
  • behavior
Knowledge:
Students know:
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Obtain information to provide evidence of the patterns of protective behavior engaged in by animal parents and their offspring,
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Animals have behavior patterns that help the offspring survive.
    AMSTI Resources:
    AMSTI Module:
    Organisms, STC
    Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind
    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 2
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    7 ) Make observations to identify the similarities and differences of offspring to their parents and to other members of the same species (e.g., flowers from the same kind of plant being the same shape, but differing in size; dog being same breed as parent, but differing in fur color or pattern).

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
    Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Make observations, firsthand or from media, to identify similarities and differences of plant and animal parents to their offspring.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • identify
    • observation
    • similarities
    • differences
    • offspring
    • parents
    • members
    • species
    • evidence
    • pattern
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like their parents.
    • Plants are very much, but not exactly, like their parents.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Use observations as evidence to identify similarities and differences between parents and offspring and between offspring and other members of the same species.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Patterns can be used as evidence that individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways.
    AMSTI Resources:
    AMSTI Module:
    Organisms, STC
    Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind
    Earth's Place in the Universe
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Unit Plans: 0
    8 ) Observe, describe, and predict patterns of the sun, moon, and stars as they appear in the sky (e.g., sun and moon appearing to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; stars other than our sun being visible at night, but not during the day).

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Analyzing and Interpreting Data
    Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Observe, describe, and predict patterns of objects visible in the day and night sky.
    • Observe, describe, and predict the position of the sun and moon in the day or night sky.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • observe
    • describe
    • predict
    • pattern
    • sun
    • moon
    • star
    • sky
    • day
    • night
    • sunset
    • sunrise
    • motion
    • appear
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Stars are not seen in the sky during the day, but are seen in the sky at night.
    • The sun is at different positions in the sky at different times of the day, appearing to rise in one part of the sky in the morning and appearing to set in another part of the sky in the evening.
    • The moon can be seen during the day and at night, but the sun can only be seen during the day.
    • The moon is at different positions in the sky at different times of the day or night, appearing to rise in one part of the sky and appearing to set in another part of the sky.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Organize data from observations in order to describe objects in the day/night sky
    • Use patterns found in data from observations to describe and predict the position of objects in the day/night sky.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Patterns related to the appearance of objects in the sky can be observed and used to provide evidence that future appearances of those objects can be predicted.
    AMSTI Resources:
    AMSTI Module:
    Organisms, STC
    Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind
    Science (2015)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    9 ) Observe seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of year (e.g., more hours of daylight during summer as compared to winter).

    Insight Unpacked Content
    Scientific and Engineering Practices:
    Planning and Carrying out Investigations
    Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
    Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Make observations, firsthand or from media, to collect data and use it to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of the year.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • observe
    • seasonal
    • patterns
    • sunrise
    • sunset
    • describes
    • relationship
    • hours
    • daylight
    • year
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • There is a relationship between the relative length of the day and the season of the year.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described and predicted.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Sound and Light, Foss
      Sundial, GLOBE
      Sky, Delta
      Matter and Its Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Conduct an investigation to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties (e.g., milk being a liquid, not clear in color, assuming shape of its container, mixing with water; mineral oil being a liquid, clear in color, taking shape of its container, floating in water; a brick being a solid, not clear in color, rough in texture, not taking the shape of its container, sinking in water).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Conduct an investigation to produce data that is used as evidence to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Solid
      • Liquid
      • Physical Properties
      • Investigate
      • Classify
      • Opaque
      • Transparent
      • Translucent
      • Rough
      • Smooth
      • Float
      • Sink
      • Shape
      • Various
      • Substances
      • Conduct
      • Describe
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Different kinds of matter exists.
      • Properties of both solids (opaque, transparent, translucent, rough, smooth, float, sink, has its own shape) and liquids (color, assumes shape of container, opaque, transparent, translucent).
      • Many types of matter can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan and conduct an investigation to produce data that is used to describe and classify substances according to physical properties.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Observable patterns in the properties of materials provide evidence to classify the different kinds of materials.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter
      Solids and Liquids, FOSS
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Collect and evaluate data to determine appropriate uses of materials based on their properties (e.g., strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, absorbency).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Collect data about the properties of materials and evaluate the appropriate uses of materials based on those properties.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evaluate
      • Data
      • Graphs
      • Properties
      • Purpose
      • Strength
      • Flexibility
      • Hardness
      • Texture
      • Absorbency
      • Collect
      • Appropriate
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Properties of materials (e.g., strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, absorbency) Different uses for the materials.
      • The relationship between properties of materials and some potential uses (metal is strong, paper is absorbent, etc.).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Conduct simple tests to collect and display data about the physical properties of various materials.
      • Analyze data to identify and describe relationships between properties and their potential uses.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence about the relationship between properties of materials and their intended uses.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter
      Solids and Liquids, FOSS
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Demonstrate and explain how structures made from small pieces (e.g., linking cubes, blocks, building bricks, creative construction toys) can be disassembled and then rearranged to make new and different structures.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Demonstrate the disassembling of a structure into small pieces.
      • Demonstrate the rearranging of the same small pieces into a new and different structure.
      • Explain orally or in writing how the structure was disassembled and reassembled into a new and different structure.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Demonstrate
      • Explain
      • Structure
      • Pieces
      • Disassemble
      • Rearrange
      • Different
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Different properties are suited for different purposes.
      • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces.
      • Structures can be disassembled and rearranged into new and different structures.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Disassemble a structure into small pieces.
      • Assemble a new structure using the same small pieces.
      • Provide a written and/or oral explanation that correlates with a demonstration detailing the characteristics of the new object or objects.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Structures may be broken into smaller pieces and a new structure, that is different in size or shape, can be formed from the same pieces.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter
      Solids and Liquids, FOSS
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Provide evidence that some changes in matter caused by heating or cooling can be reversed (e.g., heating or freezing of water) and some changes are irreversible (e.g., baking a cake, boiling an egg).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Properties
      • Evidence
      • Change
      • Matter
      • Heating
      • Cooling
      • Reversible
      • Irreversible
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Characteristics of materials before heating or cooling.
      • Characteristics of materials after heating and cooling.
      • Characteristics of materials when heating or cooling is reversed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze evidence to support a claim that heating and cooling causes change in matter.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible and sometimes they are not.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter
      Solids and Liquids, FOSS
      Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Plan and carry out an investigation, using one variable at a time (e.g., water, light, soil, air), to determine the growth needs of plants.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan and carry out an investigation of the growth needs of plants to collect data on the effects of providing/withholding enough water, light, nutrients, and air.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigation
      • Variable
      • Water
      • Light
      • Soil
      • Air
      • Nutrients
      • Causes
      • Effects
      • Isolate
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Basic growth needs of plants include water, nutrients, light, and air.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Conduct an investigation to produce data used as evidence.
      • Determine the growth needs of plants.
      • Collaboratively develop an investigation plan that describes key features of the investigation and isolates variables as needed.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are observable patterns present in the growth of plants that can be used to determine the needs of plants.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Plants and Bugs
      Plant Growth and Development, STC
      The Best of Bugs: Designing Hand Pollinators, EiE
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Design and construct models to simulate how animals disperse seeds or pollinate plants (e.g., animals brushing fur against seed pods and seeds falling off in other areas, birds and bees extracting nectar from flowers and transferring pollen from one plant to another).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a simple model that simulates the function of an animal in seed dispersal or pollination of plants.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Design
      • Construct
      • Explain
      • Simulate
      • Disperse
      • Pollen
      • Pollinate
      • Mimic
      • Structure
      • Function
      • Transfer
      • Extract
      • Ask
      • Imagine
      • Plan
      • Create
      • Improve
      • Engineering Design Process
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The structure of a plant.
      • The relevant structures of the animal.
      • The process of plant pollination.
      • The relationship between components of their model that allow for movement of pollen or seeds.
      • Relationships between the parts of the model they are developing and the parts of the animal they are simulating.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop and use a simple model to simulate how animals disperse seeds.
      • Develop and use a simple model to simulate how animals pollinate plants.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The shape and structure of plants and animals are designed to interact with their environment and function to disperse seeds or pollinate plants.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Plants and Bugs
      Plant Growth and Development, STC
      The Best of Bugs: Designing Hand Pollinators, EiE
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 24
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 21
      Unit Plans: 1
      7 ) Obtain information from literature and other media to illustrate that there are many different kinds of living things and that they exist in different places on land and in water (e.g., woodland, tundra, desert, rainforest, ocean, river).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Illustrate the diversity of living things in different habitats, including both land and water.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Literature
      • Media
      • Diversity
      • Habitats
      • Woodland
      • Tundra
      • Desert
      • Rainforest
      • Ocean
      • River
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Plants and animals are diverse within different habitats.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information from literature and other media.
      • Illustrate the different kinds of living things and the different habitats in which they can be found.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different places on land and in water.
      AMSTI Resources:
      Be sure students are aware of credible media resources when obtaining information.
      AMSTI Module:
      Plants and Bugs
      Plant Growth and Development, STC
      The Best of Bugs: Designing Hand Pollinators, EiE
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Make observations from media to obtain information about Earth's events that happen over a short period of time (e.g., tornados, volcanic explosions, earthquakes) or over a time period longer than one can observe (e.g., erosion of rocks, melting of glaciers).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use information from several sources to determine patterns and provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Earth events/natural phenomena
      • Earthquake
      • Flood
      • Tornado
      • Volcanic explosions
      • Glaciers
      • Erosion
      • Landslides
      • Weathering
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Earth events and the results of those events may occur slowly or rapidly.
      • Some events are much longer than can be observed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make observations and obtain information from multiple sources to provide evidence about Earth events.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Eart's events may change the Earth slowly or rapidly.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Soils and Shores
      Pebbles, Sand, and Silt, FOSS
      Shrinking Shore, ETA/hand2mind
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Create models to identify physical features of Earth (e.g., mountains, valleys, plains, deserts, lakes, rivers, oceans).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model, like a map, to represent the physical features of land and bodies of water in an area.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Physical features
      • Models
      • Mountains
      • Valleys
      • Plains
      • Deserts
      • Lakes
      • Rivers
      • Oceans
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The physical features of Earth can be modeled, as on a map.
      • The relationship between components their model and kinds of land and bodies of water in a given area.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Create a model that represents both land and bodies of water in an area.
      • Make connections between their model and the shapes and kinds of land and water in an area.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Models can represent patterns in the natural world like the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Soils and Shores
      Pebbles, Sand, and Silt, FOSS
      Shrinking Shore, ETA/hand2mind
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Collect and evaluate data to identify water found on Earth and determine whether it is a solid or a liquid (e.g., glaciers as solid forms of water; oceans, lakes, rivers, streams as liquid forms of water).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Collect
      • Evaluate
      • Solid
      • Liquid
      • Glaciers
      • Oceans
      • Lakes
      • Rivers
      • Streams
      • Frozen
      • Ponds
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Water is found in many places on Earth.
      • Water exists as solid ice and in liquid form.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify which sources of information are likely to provide scientific information.
      • Collect and evaluate data to identify water found on Earth.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are observable patterns as to where water is found on Earth and what form it is in.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Soils and Shores
      Pebbles, Sand, and Silt, FOSS
      Shrinking Shore, ETA/hand2mind
      Earth and Human Activity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 2
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Examine and test solutions that address changes caused by Earth's events (e.g., dams for minimizing flooding, plants for controlling erosion).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Compare and test multiple solutions designed to address changes in the shape of the land caused by Earth events.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Examine
      • Compare
      • Test solutions
      • Earth's events/natural phenomena
      • Flooding
      • Erosion
      • Wind breaks/technology
      • Dams/dikes/technology
      • Ask
      • Imagine
      • Plan
      • Create
      • Improve
      • Engineering Design Process
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Wind and water can change the shape of the land on Earth, sometimes slowly and sometimes quickly.
      • Solutions that can slow or prevent wind or water from changing the land impacts the natural world.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Examine changes caused by Earth's events, like winds and floods.
      • Test, compare, and evaluate solutions (technologies) that address changes caused by Earth's events.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Earth's events may change the land slowly or rapidly.
      • Developing and using technology has an impact on the natural world.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Soils and Shores
      Pebbles, Sand, and Silt, FOSS
      Shrinking Shore, ETA/hand2mind
      Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Plan and carry out an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time, including number, size, direction, speed, position, friction, or air resistance (e.g., balanced forces pushing from both sides on an object, such as a box, producing no motion; unbalanced force on one side of an object, such as a ball, producing motion), and communicate these findings graphically.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Planned an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time.
      • Carried out an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time.
      • Collected data from experiment to serve as the basis of evidence for how balanced and unbalanced forces on an object determines an object's motion.
      • Communicated evidence and findings from experiment graphically.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Experiment
      • Variable
      • Motion
      • Force (push and pull)
      • Balanced forces
      • Unbalanced forces
      • Cause and effect
      • Number
      • Size
      • Direction
      • Position
      • Friction
      • Air resistance
      • Communicate
      • Graphically
      • Net force
      • Sum
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and direction.
      • An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object.
      • Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object's speed or direction of motion.
      • Objects in contact exert forces on each other.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Collaboratively plan an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time.
      • Carry out an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time.
      • Collect and record data from experiment.
      • Describe how the investigation plan addresses the purpose of the investigation.
      • Communicate findings graphically.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships provide evidence when investigating balanced and unbalanced forces.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Forces and Investigations
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Investigate, measure, and communicate in a graphical format how an observed pattern of motion (e.g., a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, two children teetering on a see-saw, a model vehicle rolling down a ramp of varying heights, a pendulum swinging) can be used to predict the future motion of an object.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify the phenomenon under investigation.
      • Identify the evidence to address the purpose of the investigation.
      • Plan the investigation.
      • Collect data.
      • Investigate the phenomenon, which includes observable patterns in the motion of an object.
      • Measure how an observed pattern of motion can be used to predict the future motion of an object.
      • Communicate in graphical form how an observed pattern of motion can be used to predict the future motion of an object.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigate
      • Measure
      • Communicate
      • Graphical format
      • Motion
      • Pattern
      • Predict
      • Phenomenon
      • Data
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured.
      • When past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Investigate the motion of an object.
      • Identify patterns in the motion of an object.
      • Measure the motion of an object.
      • Communicate graphically the pattern of motion of an object.
      • Use patterns of motion of an object to predict future motion of that object.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The pattern in the motion of the object can be used to predict future motion.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Forces and Investigations
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Explore objects that can be manipulated in order to determine cause-and-effect relationships (e.g., distance between objects affecting strength of a force, orientation of magnets affecting direction of a magnetic force) of electric interactions between two objects not in contact with one another (e.g., force on hair from an electrically charged balloon, electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper) or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with one another (e.g., force between two permanent magnets or between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Asking Questions and Defining Problems
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Observe and manipulate objects to identify cause and effect relationships of electrical interactions between two objects not in contact with one another.
      • Observe and manipulate objects to identify cause and effect relationships of magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with one another.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Explore
      • Manipulate
      • Cause and Effect
      • Electrical Interactions
      • Magnetic Interactions
      • Magnet
      • Repel
      • Attract
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The size of the force can affect the electrical and magnetic interaction of two objects not in contact with one another.
      • The orientation of magnets can affect the magnetic interaction of two objects not in contact with one another.
      • The repulsion or attraction of magnets can affect the magnetic interaction of two objects not in contact with one another.
      • The presence of a magnet and the force the magnet exerts on other objects affects the magnetic force of two objects not in contact with one another.
      • The electrical charge of an object can affect the electrical force of two objects not in contact with one another.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Explore electrical interactions between two objects not in contact with one another.
      • Explore magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with one another.
      • Determine cause-and-effect relationships of electrical interactions between two objects not in contact with one another.
      • Determine cause-and-effect relationships of magnetic interactions not in contact with one another.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.
      • Magnetic and electrical forces affect the way objects interact.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Forces and Investigations
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Apply scientific ideas about magnets to solve a problem through an engineering design project (e.g., constructing a latch to keep a door shut, creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other such as a maglev system).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify and describe a simple design problem that can be solved by applying a scientific understanding of the forces between interacting magnets.
      • Identify and describe the scientific ideas necessary for solving the problem.
      • Identify and describe the criteria for a successful solution to the problem.
      • Identify and describe the constraints (limits) for solving the problem.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Magnet
      • Properties
      • Engineering Design Process (Ask, Imagine, Plan, Create, Improve)
      • Attract
      • Repel
      • Forces
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact with each other.
      • The sizes of the forces in a magnetic situation depend on the properties of the objects, the distances apart, and their orientation relative to each other.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Define a problem that can be solved with magnets.
      • Apply scientific ideas about magnets.
      • Solve a problem with scientific ideas about magnets through an engineering design project.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Scientific discoveries about the natural world, such as magnets, can often lead to new and improved technologies, which are developed through the engineering design process.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Forces and Investigations
      From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Obtain and combine information to describe that organisms are classified as living things, rather than nonliving things, based on their ability to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information from multiple sources and combine it to describe that organisms are classified as living things rather than nonliving things.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Organisms
      • Living things
      • Nonliving things
      • Growth
      • Resources
      • Reproduce
      • Stable conditions
      • Internal conditions
      • External environment
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Resources obtained and used by living things.
      • Organisms can be classified as living things based on the following: their ability to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.
      • The life cycles of different organisms can look different, but all follow a pattern.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information from a variety of resources to describe organisms that are classified as living things, rather than nonliving things.
      • Combine information to describe that organisms are classified as living things, rather than nonliving things.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Patterns can be used when determining that organisms are living things.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Create representations to explain the unique and diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans (e.g., flowering plants, frogs, butterflies), including commonalities such as birth, growth, reproduction, and death.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create representations to explain the unique life cycles of organisms other than humans.
      • Create representations to explain the diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans.
      • Identify relevant components (organisms, birth, growth, reproduction, and death) of their representations.
      • Describe relationships between components in their representations.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Create
      • Explain
      • Representations
      • Unique
      • Diverse
      • Commonalities
      • Life cycles
      • Organisms
      • Birth
      • Growth
      • Reproduction
      • Death
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Organisms are born, grow, reproduce and die in a pattern known as a life cycle.
      • Organisms have unique and diverse life cycles.
      • An organism can be classified as either a plant or an animal.
      • There is a causal direction of the cycle (e.g., without birth, there is no growth; without reproduction, there are no births).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Create representations to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
      • Explain the unique and diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans.
      • Explain commonalities of organisms such as birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Patterns of change can be used to make predictions about the unique life cycles of organisms.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Examine data to provide evidence that plants and animals, excluding humans, have traits inherited from parents and that variations of these traits exist in groups of similar organisms (e.g., flower colors in pea plants, fur color and pattern in animal offspring).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Examine data to provide evidence of inherited traits in plants and animals.
      • Examine data to provide evidence that there are variations in traits in groups of similar organisms.
      • Identify and describe patterns in the data.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Examine
      • Data
      • Evidence
      • Traits
      • Inherited
      • Variations
      • Organisms
      • Offspring
      • Siblings
      • Phenomena
      • Measurable
      • Humans
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Traits of plant and animal parents (excluding humans).
      • Traits of plant and animal offspring (excluding humans).
      • Variations in similar traits in a grouping of similar organisms.
      • Describe that the pattern of differences in traits between parents and offspring, and between siblings, provides evidence that traits are inherited (excluding humans).
      • Describe that the pattern of differences in traits between parents and offspring, and between siblings, provides evidence that inherited traits can vary (excluding humans).
      • Describe that the variation in inherited traits results in a pattern of variation in traits in groups of organisms that are of a similar type (excluding humans).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Examine data and use it to provide evidence of inherited traits.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Similarities and differences in patterns can be used as evidence about inherited traits.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Engage in argument from evidence to justify that traits can be influenced by the environment (e.g., stunted growth in normally tall plants due to insufficient water, change in an arctic fox's fur color due to light and/or temperature, stunted growth of a normally large animal due to malnourishment).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Evaluate the given evidence to determine its relevance, and use it to justify the claim that traits can be influenced by the environment.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Engage
      • Argument
      • Evidence
      • Justify
      • Traits
      • Influenced
      • Environment
      • Cause
      • Effect
      • Claim
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Characteristics result from individuals' interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment.
      • The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Support explanations about environmental influences on inherited traits in organisms.
      • Use evidence to support an explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified and used to explain change such as the possibility that environmental factors may influence an organism's traits.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Unity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Analyze and interpret data from fossils (e.g., type, size, distribution) to provide evidence of organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago (e.g., marine fossils on dry land, tropical plant fossils in arctic areas, fossils of extinct organisms in any environment).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data from fossils to provide evidence of organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
      • Interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
      • Provide evidence of organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Analyze
      • Interpret
      • Data
      • Fossils
      • Type (mold fossils, cast fossils, trace fossils, true form fossils)
      • Size
      • Distribution
      • Evidence
      • Organisms
      • Environment
      • Extinct
      • Relationships
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • That fossils represent plants and animals that lived long ago.
      • The relationships between the fossils of organisms and the environments in which they lived.
      • The relationships between types of fossils and the current environments where similar organisms are found.
      • That some fossil represent organisms that lived long ago and have no modern counterparts.
      • The relationships between fossils of organisms that lived long ago and their modern counterparts.
      • The relationships between existing animals and the environments in which they currently live.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize data about fossils of animals and plants.
      • Identify and describe relationships in the data to make sense of fossils.
      • Interpret data to make sense of fossils.
      • Provide evidence based on data from fossils.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Fossils provide evidence of organisms that lived long ago.
      • Features of fossils provide evidence of organisms that lived long ago and of what types of environments those organisms must have lived in.
      • Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems (based on relationships found in the data).
      • Environments can look very different now than they did a long time ago.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Investigate how variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing (e.g., plants having larger thorns being less likely to be eaten by predators, animals having better camouflage coloration being more likely to survive and bear offspring).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify given characteristics of a species (e.g., thorns on a plant).
      • Describe the patterns of variation of a given characteristic among individuals in a species (e.g., longer or shorter thorns on an individual plant).
      • Describe potential benefits of a given variation of a characteristic.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigate
      • Evidence
      • Explanation
      • Variation
      • Characteristics
      • Individuals
      • Species (plants and animals)
      • Advantages
      • Surviving
      • Finding mates
      • Reproducing
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Patterns of variation of a given characteristic among individuals in a species (e.g., longer or shorter thorns on individual plants, dark or light coloration of animals).
      • Potential benefits of a given variation of the characteristic (e.g. the light coloration of some moths makes them difficult to see on the bark of a tree).
      • Certain variations in characteristics makes it harder or easier for an animal to survive, find mates, and reproduce (e.g., longer thorns prevent predators more effectively and increase the likelihood of survival; light coloration of some moths provides camouflage in certain environments, making it more likely that they will live long enough to be able to mate and reproduce).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Collaboratively investigate the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species.
      • Describe evidence needed to explain the cause-and-effect relationship between a specific variation in a characteristic and its effect on the individual to survive, find mates, and reproduce.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to support the explanation
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships exist between a specific variation in a characteristic (e.g., longer thorns, coloration of moths) and its effect on the ability of the individual organism to survive and reproduce (e.g., plants with longer thorns are less likely to be eaten, darker moths are less likely to be seen and eaten on dark trees).
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 15
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 13
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Construct an argument from evidence to explain the likelihood of an organism's ability to survive when compared to the resources in a certain habitat (e.g., freshwater organisms survive well, less well, or not at all in saltwater; desert organisms survive well, less well, or not at all in woodlands).

      a. Construct explanations that forming groups helps some organisms survive.

      b. Create models that illustrate how organisms and their habitats make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.

      c. Categorize resources in various habitats as basic materials (e.g., sunlight, air, freshwater, soil), produced materials (e.g., food, fuel, shelter), or as nonmaterial (e.g., safety, instinct, nature-learned behaviors).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence; Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Developing and Using Models; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Make a claim to be supported with evidence that in a particular habitat, some organisms can survive well, some can survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
      • Describe the given evidence necessary to support the claim that in a particular habitat, some organisms can survive well, some can survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
      • Evaluate the evidence to determine whether it is relevant to and supports the claim that in a particular habitat, some organisms can survive well, some can survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
      • Use reasoning to construct an argument, connecting the relevant and appropriate evidence to the claim, including describing that any particular environment meets different organisms' needs to different degrees due to the characteristics of that environment and the needs of the organisms (including the cause-and-effect relationship).
      • Describe the evidence necessary to support the explanation that forming groups helps some organisms survive.
      • Create models to describe and illustrate how organisms and their habitats make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.
      • Categorize resources in various habitats based on evidence from constructed arguments, explanations, and models.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Construct
      • Argument
      • Evidence
      • Likelihood
      • Organism
      • Survive
      • Resources
      • Habitat
      • Explanations
      • Groups
      • Populations
      • Communities
      • Niche
      • Illustrate
      • Models
      • System
      • Depend (on each other)
      • Categorize
      • Basic needs (examples: sunlight, air, fresh water, & soil)
      • Produced materials (examples: food, fuel, shelter)
      • Nonmaterial (examples: safety, instinct, nature-learned behaviors)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all in a certain habitat.
      • If an environment fully meets the needs of an organism, that organism can survive well within that environment.
      • If an environment partially meets the needs of an organism, that organism can survive less well (lower survival rate, increased sickliness, shorter lifespan) than organisms whose needs are met within that environment.
      • If an environment does not meet the needs of that organism, that organism cannot survive within that environment.
      • Characteristics of a given environment (Examples: soft earth, trees, and shrubs, seasonal flowering plants).
      • Characteristics of a given organism (plants with long, sharp, leaves; rabbit coloration) .
      • Needs of a given organism (shelter from predators, food, water).
      • Characteristics of organisms that might affect survival.
      • How and what features of the habitat meet or do not meet the needs of each of the organisms.
      • Being a part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes.
      • Members of groups may serve different functions and different groups may vary dramatically in size.
      • Habitats and organisms make up a system in which the parts depend upon each other.
      • Resources and can categorize them as basic materials, produced materials or nonmaterials as resources in various habitats.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make a claim supported by evidence about an organism's likelihood of survival in a given habitat.
      • Use reasoning to construct an argument.
      • Evaluate and connect relevant and appropriate evidence to support a claim.
      • Construct explanations that forming groups helps some organisms survive.
      • Articulate a statement describing evidence necessary to support the explanation that forming groups helps some organisms survive.
      • Create a model that illustrates how organisms and habitats make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.
      • Describe relationships between components of the model.
      • Categorize resources in various habitats as basic materials, produced material, or nonmaterial.
      • Organize data from the categorization to reveal patterns that suggest relationships.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified and used to explain change.
      • Evidence suggests a causal relationship within the system between the characteristics of a habitat and the survival of organisms within it.
      • The cause and effect relationship between being part of a group and being more successful in obtaining food, defending themselves, and coping with change.
      • That the relationship between organisms and their habitats is a system of related parts that make up a whole in which the individual parts depend on each other.
      • Resources in various habitats have different structures that are related to their function.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Evaluate engineered solutions to a problem created by environmental changes and any resulting impacts on the types and density of plant and animal populations living in the environment (e.g., replanting of sea oats in coastal areas due to destruction by hurricanes, creating property development restrictions in vacation areas to reduce displacement and loss of native animal populations).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Make a claim about the merit of an engineered solution to a problem caused when the environment changes, which results in changes in the types of plants and animals that live there.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Problems/solutions
      • Effects
      • Claim
      • Merit
      • Engineered solutions
      • Environmental changes
      • Density of plant and animal populations
      • Environmental impacts
      • Habitats
      • Organisms
      • Transform
      • Create
      • Ask
      • Imagine
      • Improve
      • Plan
      • Engineering design process
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Engineers design solutions to solve problems created by environmental changes.
      • Changes in the environment may affect the physical characteristic, temperature, or availability of resources in a place.
      • Changes in the environment affect some organisms' ability to survive and reproduce, cause others to move to new locations, yet others to move into the transformed environment, and cause some to die.
      • Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affect the plants and animals living there.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify problem created by environmental changes.
      • Make a claim about an engineered solution to a problem created by environmental changes.
      • Identify the effects of solutions to a problem created by environmental changes that impact the plants and animals living in the environment.
      • Communicate evidence to support the claim about an engineered solution to a problem created by environmental changes.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • That plants and animals within an environment make up a system, and changes to one part of the system impacts other parts.
      • Engineers design solutions to problems created by environmental changes that sometimes impact the plant and animal populations found there.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Heredity and Diversity
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Display data graphically and in tables to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season (e.g., average temperature, precipitation, wind direction).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use graphical displays to organize data that describes the typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Data
      • Types of graphs
      • Table
      • Seasons
      • Typical weather conditions for a season
      • Temperature
      • Precipitation
      • Wind direction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Weather conditions, like average temperature, precipitation, wind direction, from a given area across multiple seasons.
      • Patterns of weather conditions across different seasons and in different areas.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify typical weather conditions for a season.
      • Represent data in tables and various graphical formats.
      • Describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Scientists record patterns of the weather across different times and areas so that they can make predictions about what kind of weather might happen next.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Weather and Climate
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 10
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 7
      Unit Plans: 1
      14 ) Collect information from a variety of sources to describe climates in different regions of the world.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use books and other reliable media to gather information about climates in different regions of the world.
      • Evaluate the information in the resources to describe the climates in different regions.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evaluate
      • Climates
      • Regions
      • Reliable media
      • Sources
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those condition change over the years.
      • Books and other reliable media provide information that can be used to describe climates in different regions of the world.
      • Variations in climates within different regions of the world.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify reliable resources for gathering information.
      • Identify the different regions of the world and their climates.
      • Evaluate information in the resources.
      • Use information to describe the climates in different regions and their patterns.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Patterns in climate can be used to make predictions about typical weather conditions in a region.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Weather and Climate
      Earth and Human Activity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 8
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 2
      15 ) Evaluate a design solution (e.g., flood barriers, wind resistant roofs, lightning rods) that reduces the impact of a weather-related hazard.*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Merit
      • Claim
      • Problem/solution
      • Design solution
      • Impact
      • Reduce
      • Weather-related hazard
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Engineers design solutions to reduce the impact of weather related hazards.
      • Problems caused by weather related problems.
      • Humans can not eliminate natural hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts.
      • Some design solutions are more effective than others.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify impacts of a weather related hazard.
      • Identify the effects of solutions to a problem that reduces the impact of a weather related hazard.
      • Make a claim about a designed solution that reduces the impact of a weather related hazard.
      • Communicate evidence to support the claim about a designed solution that reduces the impact of a weather related hazard.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are cause and effect relationships between weather-related hazards and design solutions created to reduce their impact.
      • There are benefits and risks to given solutions created when responding to the societal demand to reduce the impact of a hazard.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Weather and Climate
      Energy
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Use evidence to explain the relationship of the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use evidence, e.g. measurements, observations, and patterns, to explain the relationship between energy and speed.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Construct
      • Evidence
      • Energy
      • Explanation
      • Relative speed
      • Phenomenon
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Motion can indicate the energy of an object.
      • The observable impact of a moving object interacting with its surroundings reflects how much energy can be transferred between objects and therefore relates to the energy of the moving object.
      • The faster a given object is moving the more observable the impact it can have on another object.
      • The speed of an object is related to the energy of the object.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate from evidence to explain the observable impact of the speed of an object and the energy of an object.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Energy and Waves
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

      a. Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., rubbing hands together, burning leaves) and can move from one object to another by conduction.

      b. Demonstrate that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.

      c. Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop through which an electric current can pass.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound.
      • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by light.
      • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by heat.
      • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by electric currents.
      • Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways.
      • Provide evidence that heat can move from one object to another by conduction.
      • Demonstrate that different objects can absorb energy.
      • Demonstrate that different objects can reflect energy.
      • Demonstrate that different objects can conduct energy.
      • Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop for the electric current to pass through.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Construct
      • Transfer
      • Energy
      • Potential energy
      • Kinetic energy
      • Friction
      • Conduction
      • Absorb
      • Reflect
      • Circuit
      • Open circuit
      • Close circuit
      • Heat
      • Radiation
      • Convection
      • Collision
      • Motion
      • Electrical energy
      • Stored energy
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat.
      • The transfer of energy, including the following:
        • Collisions between objects.
        • Light traveling from one place to another.
        • Electric currents producing motion, sound, heat, or light.
        • Sound traveling from one place to another.
        • Heat passing from one object to another.
        • Motion, sound, heat, and light causing a different type of energy to be observed after an interaction.
      • Heat is produced in many ways.
      • Heat can move via conduction.
      • The properties of different objects cause them to be able to absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.
      • Electric currents pass through a circuit.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Collaboratively plan and carry out an investigation that converts energy one form to another.
        • Identify the phenomenon.
        • Identify the evidence to address the purpose of the investigation.
        • Collect the data.
      • Construct an explanation using evidence about heat production.
      • Develop a model demonstrating that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.
      • Develop a model demonstrating electric circuits.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
      • Heat energy can be produced in many ways.
      • The properties of objects, e.g. ability to absorb, reflect, or conduct energy, relate to their function.
      • Electric energy can be transferred through circuits.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Energy and Waves
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Investigate to determine changes in energy resulting from increases or decreases in speed that occur when objects collide.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use evidence from investigations to describe changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • collide
      • relative motion
      • relative speed
      • relative brightness
      • phenomenon
      • inertia
      • momentum
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Qualitative measure of energy (e.g. relative motion, relative speed, relative brightness) before the collision.
      • Mechanism of energy transfer.
      • Energy can transfer between colliding objects.
      • Energy can transfer to the surrounding air when objects collide resulting in sound and heat.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan and carry out an investigation to determine changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
        • Identify the evidence to address the purpose of the investigation.
        • Collect the data.
      • Use data to provide evidence that energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat and that it can be transferred from place to place.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Energy and Waves
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 7
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Design, construct, and test a device that changes energy from one form to another (e.g., electric circuits converting electrical energy into motion, light, or sound energy; a passive solar heater converting light energy into heat energy).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Given a problem to solve, students collaboratively design a device that converts energy from one form to another. In the design, students:
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • criteria
      • constraint
      • energy
      • device
      • convert
      • design
      • construct
      • kinetic
      • potential
      • transform
      • evidence
      • engineering design process
      • ask
      • imagine
      • plan
      • create
      • improve
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Energy can be transferred from place to place by electric currents.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use scientific knowledge to generate design solutions that convert energy from one form to another.
      • Describe the given criteria and constraints of the design, which include the following:
        • The initial and final forms of energy.
        • Describe how the solution functions to transfer energy from one form to another.
      • Evaluate potential solutions in terms of the desired features.
      • Modify the design solutions to make them more effective.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
      • Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones but are limited by available resources.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Compile information to describe how the use of energy derived from natural renewable and nonrenewable resources affects the environment (e.g., constructing dams to harness energy from water, a renewable resource, while causing a loss of animal habitats; burning of fossil fuels, a nonrenewable resource, while causing an increase in air pollution; installing solar panels to harness energy from the sun, a renewable resource, while requiring specialized materials that necessitate mining).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Combine information across complex texts and other reliable media to describe how the use of energy derived from natural renewable and nonrenewable resources affects the environments.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • natural resources
      • natural renewable resources
      • nonrenewable resources
      • fossil fuels
      • air pollution
      • pollution
      • solar energy
      • environment
      • effects
      • affects
      • habitat
      • solar panel
      • impact
      • solution
      • derived
      • harness
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • How energy is derived from natural resources.
      • How energy resources derived from natural resources address human energy needs.
      • Positive and negative environmental effects of using each energy resource.
      • The role of technology in improving or mediating the environmental effects of using a given resource.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Waves, which are the regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface.
      • When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach.
      • Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in numerous ways.
      • Resources are renewable over time, while others are not.
      Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and including that waves can cause objects to move.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model of waves to describe patterns of amplitude.
      • Develop a model of waves to describe patterns of wavelength.
      • Develop a model of waves that describes patterns that cause objects to move.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Patterns
      • Propagated
      • Waves
      • Wave amplitude
      • Wavelength
      • Net motion
      • Model
      • Relevant components
      • Peaks
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Waves can be described in terms of patterns of repeating amplitude and wavelength (e.g., in a water wave there is a repeating pattern of water being higher and then lower than the baseline level of the water).
      • Waves can cause an object to move.
      • The motion of objects varies with the amplitude and wavelength of the wave carrying it.
      • The patterns in the relationships between a wave passing, the net motion of the wave, and the motion of an object caused by the wave as it passes.
      • How waves may be initiated (e.g., by disturbing surface water or shaking a rope or spring).
      • The repeating pattern produced as a wave is propagated.
      • Waves, which are the regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach.
      • Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model to make sense of wave patterns that includes relevant components (i.e., waves, wave amplitude, wavelength, and motion of objects).
      • Describe patterns of wavelengths and amplitudes.
      • Describe how waves can cause objects to move.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are similarities and differences in patterns underlying waves and use these patterns to describe simple relationships involving wave amplitude, wavelength, and the motion of an object.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Develop and use models to show multiple solutions in which patterns are used to transfer information (e.g., using a grid of 1s and 0s representing black and white to send information about a picture, using drums to send coded information through sound waves, using Morse code to send a message).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model to show multiple solutions in which patterns are used to transfer information.
      • Use a model to show multiple solutions in which patterns are used to transfer information.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • transmit
      • transfer
      • decoded
      • accuracy
      • digitized
      • convert
      • coded
      • signals
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • About digitized information transfer. (e.g., information can be converted from a sound wave into digital signals such as patterns of 1s and 0s and vice versa; visual or verbal messages can be encoded in patterns of flashes of light to be decoded by someone else across the room).
      • Ways that high-tech devices convert and transmit information. (e.g., cell phones convert sound waves into digital signals, so they can be transmitted long distances, and then converted back into sound waves; a picture or message can be encoded using light signals to transmit the information over a long distance).
      • Information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information - convert form to voice - and vice versa.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Generate multiple design solutions that use patterns to transmit a given piece of information.
      • Apply the engineering design process to develop a model to show multiple solutions to transfer information.
      • Describe the given criteria for the design solutions.
      • Describe the given constraints of the design solutions, including the distance over which information is transmitted, safety considerations, and materials available.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Similarities and differences in the types of patterns used in the solutions to determine whether some ways of transmitting information are more effective than others and addressing the problem.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Energy and Waves
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Construct a model to explain that an object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct a model and use it to explain that in order to see objects that do not produce their own light, light must reflect off the object and into the eye.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • reflection
      • opaque
      • translucent
      • transparent
      • refraction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Light enters the eye, allowing objects to be seen.
      • Light reflects off of objects, and then can travel and enter the eye.
      • Objects can be seen only if light follows a path between a light source, the object, and the eye.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct a model to make sense of a phenomenon.
      • Identify relevant components of the model including: light (including the light source), objects, the path that light follows, and the eye.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Energy and Waves
      From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 16
      Learning Activities: 7
      Lesson Plans: 9
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Examine evidence to support an argument that the internal and external structures of plants (e.g., thorns, leaves, stems, roots, colored petals, xylem, phloem) and animals (e.g., heart, stomach, lung, brain, skin) function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engage in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Argue from evidence to support that the internal and external structures of plants function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
      • Argue from evidence to support that the internal and external structures of animals function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • argue
      • articulate
      • evidence
      • internal
      • external
      • structure
      • survival
      • function
      • behavior
      • reproduction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Internal and External structures serve specific functions within plants and animals.
      • The functions of internal and external structures can support survival, growth, behavior and/or reproduction in plants and animals.
      • Different structures work together as part of a system to support survival, growth, behavior, and/or reproduction.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate an explanation from evidence explaining how the internal and external structures of plants and animals function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
      • Determine the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence collected, including whether or not it supports a claim about the role of internal and external structures of plants and animals in supporting survival, growth, behavior, and/or reproduction.
      • Use reasoning to connect the relevant and appropriate evidence to support an argument about the function of the internal and external structures of plants and animals.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Animal Studies
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 14
      Learning Activities: 8
      Lesson Plans: 6
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Obtain and communicate information explaining that humans have systems that interact with one another for digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, control, coordination, and protection from disease.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information explaining that humans have systems that interact with one another for digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, control, coordination, and protection from disease.
      • Communicate information explaining that humans have systems that interact with one another for digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, control, coordination, and protection from disease.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • communicate
      • articulate
      • obtain
      • structure
      • function
      • interactions
      • digestion
      • respiration
      • circulation
      • excretion
      • movement
      • control
      • coordination
      • protection
      • disease
      • body systems
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Humans have systems that interact with one another.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the digestive system.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the respiratory system.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the circulatory system.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the excretory system.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the systems that contribute to movement, control, and coordination.
      • The purpose, functions, and interactions of the systems that protect the body from disease.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information by reading and comprehending grade-appropriate complex texts about the interacting systems in the human body.
      • Evaluate information about interactions and functions of human body systems by comparing and/or combining across complex texts and/or other reliable media.
      • Communicate information orally and/or in written formats about interactions and functions of human body systems.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The body is a system of interacting parts that makes up a whole and carries out functions its individual parts can not.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Animal Studies
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Investigate different ways animals receive information through the senses, process that information, and respond to it in different ways (e.g., skunks lifting tails and spraying an odor when threatened, dogs moving ears when reacting to sound, snakes coiling or striking when sensing vibrations).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Investigate different ways animals receive information through the senses.
      • Investigate different ways animals process the information they receive and how they respond to it.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • investigate
      • evidence
      • transmit
      • perception
      • receptors
      • senses
      • sensory information
      • process
      • memories
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Different types of sense receptors detect specific types of information within the environment.
      • Sense receptors send information about the surroundings to the brain.
      • Information that is transmitted to the brain by sense receptors can be processed immediately as perceptions of the environment and/or stored as memories.
      • Immediate perceptions or memories processed by the brain influences an animal's actions or responses to features in the environment.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify different ways animals receive, process, and respond to information.
      • Identify evidence of different ways animals receive, process, and respond to information to be investigated.
      • Plan ways to Investigate different ways animals receive, process, and respond to information.
      • Collect and communicate data of different ways animals receive, process, and respond to information.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Sensory input, the brain, and behavioral output are all parts of a system that allows animals to engage in appropriate behaviors.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Animal Studies
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Construct explanations by citing evidence found in patterns of rock formations and fossils in rock layers that Earth changes over time through both slow and rapid processes (e.g., rock layers containing shell fossils appearing above rock layers containing plant fossils and no shells indicating a change from land to water over time, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom indicating that over time a river cut through the rock).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct explanations by citing evidence found in patterns of rock formations that Earth changes over time through both slow and rapid processes.
      • Construct explanations by citing evidence of fossils in rock layers that Earth changes over time through both slow and rapid processes.
      • Cite evidence from patterns in fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evidence
      • Patterns
      • Rock Formations
      • Fossils
      • Rock Layers
      • Landscape
      • Marine fossils
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Different rock layers found in areas can show either marine fossils or land fossils.
      • Ordering of rock layers (e.g. layer with marine fossils found below layer with land fossils).
      • Presence of particular fossils (e.g., shells, land plants) in specific rock layers as evidence of Earth's changes over time.
      • The occurrence of events (e.g., earthquakes) due to Earth forces.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Observe evidence from rock patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
      • Identify evidence from rock patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
      • Articulate and describe from evidence patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to support the explanation including the identification of a specific pattern of rock layers and fossils.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces, such as earthquakes. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Plan and carry out investigations to examine properties of soils and soil types (e.g., color, texture, capacity to retain water, ability to support growth of plants).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify the properties of soil.
      • Plan and carry out an investigation that examines the various types of soil and soil properties.
      • Describe the data collected that will serve as the basis for the evidence.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • color
      • absorbency
      • texture
      • capacity
      • properties of soil
      • types of soil ( sand, silt, clay, humus)
      • infiltration
      • particle size
      • structure
      • consistency
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Soil properties (particle size, color, texture).
      • Soil types ( sand, silt, clay, and humus).
      • Relationship between soil types and water.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan and conduct simple tests using various soil types.
      • Collect, describe and evaluate data.
      • Articulate and explain from evidence the properties of soil and soil types.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort and classify soil types by property.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 6
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Explore information to support the claim that landforms are the result of a combination of constructive forces, including crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and sediment deposition as well as a result of destructive forces, including erosion and weathering.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Support the claim that landforms can be the result of a combination of constructive forces, including crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and sediment deposition.
      • Support the claim that landforms can be the result of destructive forces, including weathering and erosion.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • landform
      • crustal deformation
      • sediment
      • deposition
      • erosion
      • weathering
      • topography
      • volcanoes
      • earthquakes
      • continental boundaries
      • trenches
      • ocean floor structures
      • constructive forces
      • destructive forces
      • eruption
      • geological processes
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Continents and other landforms are continually being shaped and reshaped by competing constructive and destructive geological processes.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Compare and/or combine information across complex texts and/or other reliable sources to support the claim that landforms are the result of both constructive and destructive forces.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Changes in Earth's surface are caused by both constructive and destructive forces.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., angle of slope in downhill movement of water, volume of water flow, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling of water, speed of wind, relative rate of soil deposition, amount of vegetation) to determine effects of weathering and rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, and vegetation using one single form of weathering or erosion at a time.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze and interpret data to determine effects of weathering by water, ice, wind, and vegetation.
      • Analyze and interpret data to determine rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, and vegetation.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • sediment
      • weathering
      • erosion
      • vegetation
      • angle of slope
      • transported
      • variables
      • relative steepness
      • analyze
      • interpret
      • data
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Effects of weathering.
      • The rate of erosion of Earth's materials.
      • The kind of weathering or erosion to which the Earth material is exposed.
      • The change in shape of Earth materials as the result of weathering or the rate of erosion by motion of water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Represent data about weathering and erosion in tables and/or other graphical displays to reveal patterns.
      • Analyze and interpret data to make sense of weathering and erosion.
      • Compare and contrast data collected by different groups.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Events like weathering and erosion have causes that generate observable patterns and can be used to explain changes in Earth's landforms.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Describe patterns of Earth's features on land and in the ocean using data from maps (e.g., topographic maps of Earth's land and ocean floor; maps of locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Describe patterns of Earth's features on land using data from maps.
      • Describe patterns of Earth's features in the ocean using data from maps.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • patterns
      • data
      • structures
      • features
      • topographical
      • continental boundaries
      • deep ocean trench
      • ocean floor
      • volcanoes
      • mountains
      • earthquakes
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Locations of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns.
      • Volcanoes and earthquakes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans.
      • Major mountain chains form inside continents or near their edges.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize data using graphical displays from maps of Earth's features.
      • Articulate patterns that can be used as evidence to describe Earth's features on land and in the ocean using maps.
      • Use logical reasoning based on the organized data to make sense of and describe the patterns in Earth's features.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Earth's features occur in patterns.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      17 ) Formulate and evaluate solutions to limit the effects of natural Earth processes on humans (e.g., designing earthquake, tornado, or hurricane-resistant buildings; improving monitoring of volcanic activity).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Formulate solutions to limit the effects of natural Earth processes on humans.
      • Evaluate solutions to limit the effects of natural Earth processes on humans.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Natural Earth Process
        • tornado
        • hurricane
        • tsunamis
        • volcanic eruption
        • earthquakes
      • Criteria
      • Constraint
      • Modify
      • Formulate
      • Evaluate
      • Effects
      • Hazards
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Negative effects of a natural Earth process.
      • Solutions that can reduce the effect of natural Earth processes on humans.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use scientific knowledge to formulate design solutions to reduce the effects of Earth process.
      • Investigate and test how well design solutions perform under a range of likely conditions.
      • Evaluate and modify multiple solutions to reduce the effects of the Earth processes.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A variety of hazards result from natural processes.
      • Humans cannot eliminate the hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts.
      • Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits or decrease risks, and to meet societal demands.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Water and Landforms
      Matter and Its Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Plan and carry out investigations (e.g., adding air to expand a basketball, compressing air in a syringe, dissolving sugar in water, evaporating salt water) to provide evidence that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Provide evidence based on investigation results that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigation
      • Variable
      • Data
      • Hypothesis
      • Conclusion
      • Matter
      • Describe
      • Observe
      • Evidence
      • Immensely
      • Bulk matter
      • Particle
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Matter is made of particles too small to be seen Matter too small to be seen still exists and may be detected by other means.
      • Gasses are made of matter particles that are too small to see, and are moving freely around in space (this can explain many observations, including the inflation and the shape of the balloon, and the effects of air on larger particles or objects).
      • The behavior of a collection of many tiny particles of matter and observable phenomena involving bulk matter (e.g., an expanding balloon, evaporating liquids, substances that dissolve in a solvent, effects of wind).
      • There is a relationship between bulk matter and tiny particles that cannot be seen.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomenon under investigation.
      • Identify evidence that addresses the purpose of the investigation.
      • Collaboratively plan the investigation.
      • Collect and analyze the data.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Natural objects exist from the very small to the immensely large.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Investigate matter to provide mathematical evidence, including graphs, to show that regardless of the type of reaction (e.g., new substance forming due to dissolving or mixing) or change (e.g., phase change) that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of the matter is conserved.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Quantitative measurements (mass, weight, standard unit)
      • Physical quantities (weight, time, temperature, volume)
      • Property changes
      • Matter
      • Reaction
      • Heating
      • Cooling
      • Mixing
      • Physical properties
      • Conservation of matter
      • Graphing
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish.
      • No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.)
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Measure and graph the given quantities using standard units, including: the weight of substances before they are heated, cooled, or mixed and the weight of substances, including any new substances produced by a reaction, after they are heated, cooled, or mixed.
      • Measure and/or calculate the difference between the total weight of the substances (using standard units) before and after they are heated, cooled, and/or mixed.
      • Describe the changes in properties they observe during and/or after heating, cooling, or mixing substances.
      • Use their measurements and calculations to describe that the total weights of the substances did not change, regardless of the reaction or changes in properties that were observed.
      • Use measurements and descriptions of weight, as well as the assumption of consistent patterns in natural systems, to describe evidence to address scientific questions about the conservation of the amount of matter, including the idea that the total weight of matter is conserved after heating, cooling, or mixing substances.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Standard units are used to measure and describe physical quantities such as weight and can be used to demonstrate the conservation of the total weight of matter.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Examine matter through observations and measurements to identify materials (e.g., powders, metals, minerals, liquids) based on their properties (e.g., color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, solubility, density).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • color
      • hardness
      • reflectivity
      • electrical conductivity
      • thermal conductivity
      • response to magnetic forces
      • solubility
      • density
      • measurement (quantitative and qualitative)
      • data
      • observable properties
      • standard units
      • conductors
      • nonconductors
      • magnetic
      • nonmagnetic
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Materials have different properties-color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity thermal conductivity, solubility, and density.
      • Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials.
      • Measurements should be made in standard units (e.g., grams & liters).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomenon through observations about materials, including color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, and solubility.
      • Identify the evidence and collect data about the observed objects in standard units (e.g., grams, liters).
      • Collaboratively plan the investigation.
      • Identify materials based on their properties.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Standard units are used to measure and describe physical quantities of materials such as weight, time, temperature, and volume. These measurements will assist in the identification of the materials ( e.g. powders, metals, minerals, and liquids).
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Investigate whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances (e.g., mixing of baking soda and vinegar resulting in the formation of a new substance, gas; mixing of sand and water resulting in no new substance being formed).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • variables
      • states of matter
      • properties of matter
      • chemical change
      • physical change
      • evidence
      • temperature
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • From a given investigation plan, describe the phenomenon under investigation, including the mixing of two or more substances.
      • Identify the purpose of the investigation.
      • Describe the evidence from data that will be collected, including quantitative and qualitative properties of the substances to be mixed and the resulting substances.
      • Collaboratively plan an investigation and describe the data to be collected, including: how quantitative and qualitative properties of the two or more substances to be mixed will be determined and measured, number of trials for the investigation, how variables will be controlled to ensure a fair test.
      • Collect necessary data.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships are identified and used to explain changes like those that occur when two or more substances are mixed together.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Construct explanations from observations to determine how the density of an object affects whether the object sinks or floats when placed in a liquid.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use data from observations to explain how the density of an object affects whether an object sinks or floats when placed in a liquid, like water.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • density
      • volume
      • buoyancy
      • data
      • observe
      • explain
      • sink
      • float
      • mass
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Objects are made of many tiny particles to small to be seen.
      • Some objects have many tiny particles compacted close together that causes the object to sink while other objects the same size may float because their tiny particles are less compact.
      • Some objects of the same size sink when others float.
      • Buoyancy is the ability of an object to float.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Predict the results of different types of objects being placed in water. Test the objects and communicate the results.
      • Use appropriate tools (Scale, balance, ruler, or graduated cylinder) to measure the weight, mass, and/volume of an object.
      • Construct an explanation to describe the observed relationship between density and the ability of an object to sink or float.
      • Identify the evidence that supports the explanation that density affects the ability of an object to sink or float.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified and used to explain phenomenon like sinking and floating.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Matter and Interactions
      Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to illustrate that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed downward towards the center of Earth.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Support an explanation with evidence that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • construct
      • explanation
      • gravitational force
      • evidence
      • illustrate
      • spherical
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The Earth's shape is spherical.
      • That objects dropped appear to fall straight down.
      • That people live all around the spherical Earth, and they all observe that objects appear to fall straight down.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct an explanation of observed relationships.
      • Use evidence to illustrate the relationship between gravity and objects on Earth.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • If Earth is spherical, and all observers see objects near them falling directly "down" to the Earth's surface, then all observers would agree that objects fall toward the Earth's center.
      • Since an object that is initially stationary when held moves downward when it is released, there must be a force (gravity) acting on the object that pulls the object toward the center of the Earth.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Earth: Gravity and Space
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Design and conduct a test to modify the speed of a falling object due to gravity (e.g., constructing a parachute to keep an attached object from breaking).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design a test to modify the speed of a falling object.
      • Conduct a test to modify the speed of a falling object.
      • Collect and record data including data before and after the modification is added.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • gravity
      • design
      • conduct
      • gravitational force
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed downward towards the center of Earth.
      • How an engineering design process is used to design and conduct a test.
      • The properties (surface area, substance, weight) of different materials used to modify the speed of a falling object will affect the fall.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.
      • Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A device added to a falling object can cause the speed to be modified.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Earth: Gravity and Space
      Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Defend the position that plants obtain materials needed for growth primarily from air and water.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • claim
      • evidence
      • hydroponic
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • How plants obtain nutrients.
      • How to measure growth of a plant.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Collect and analyze evidence about plant growth.
      • Determine whether evidence supports the claim that plants do not acquire most of the material for growth from soil.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to support the claim. A chain of reasoning should include the following:
        • During plant growth in soil, the weight of the soil changes very little over time, but the weight of the plant changes a lot. Additionally, some plants grow without soil at all.
        • Because some plants don't need soil to grow, and others show increases in plant matter but not accompanying decreases in soil matter, the material from the soil must not enter the plant in sufficient quantities to be the chief contributor to plant growth.
        • Therefore, plants do not acquire most of the material fro growth from soil.
        • A plant cannot grow without water or air. Because both air and water are matter and are transported into the plant system, they can provide the materials plants need for growth.
        • Since soil cannot account for the change in weight as a plant grows and since plants take in water and air, both of which could contribute to the increase in weight during plant growth, plant growth must come chiefly from water and air.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Matter, including air and water, is transported into, out of, and within plant systems.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Construct an illustration to explain how plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into a storable fuel, carbohydrates, and a waste product, oxygen, during the process of photosynthesis.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct and label an illustration that demonstrates the process of photosynthesis and the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into storable fuel, carbohydrates and oxygen.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • convert
      • carbohydrates
      • waste product
      • photosynthesis
      • carbon dioxide
      • produces
      • oxygen
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • What plants need to survive.
      • Parts of plants and their functions in the process of photosynthesis.
      • The sun is the source of energy.
      • Plants are producers.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct an illustration to explain the scientific phenomenon of photosynthesis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Plants are producers of energy through the process of photosynthesis.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Construct and interpret models (e.g., diagrams, flow charts) to explain that energy in animals' food is used for body repair, growth, motion, and maintenance of body warmth and was once energy from the sun.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Through constructing and using models, explain that energy in animals' food used for body repair, growth, motion, and maintenance of body warmth was once energy from the sun.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Energy
      • Repair
      • Growth
      • Motion
      • Maintenance
      • Animal
      • Plant
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water).
      • Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use models to describe a phenomenon that includes the idea that energy in animals' food was once energy from the sun. Students identify and describe the components of the model that are relevant for describing the phenomenon, including the following:
        • Energy.
        • The sun.
        • Animals, including their bodily functions (e.g., body repair, growth, motion, body warmth maintenance).
        • Plants.
      • Identify and describe the relevant relationships between components, including the following:
        • The relationship between plants and the energy they get from sunlight to produce food.
        • The relationship between food and the energy and materials that animals require for bodily functions (e.g., body repair, growth, motion, body warmth maintenance).
        • The relationship between animals and the food they eat, which is either other animals or plants (or both), to obtain energy for bodily functions and materials for growth and repair.
      • Use the models to describe causal accounts of the relationships between energy from the sun and animals' needs for energy, including that:
        • Since all food can eventually be traced back to plants, all of the energy that animals use for body repair, growth, motion, and body warmth maintenance is energy that once came from the sun.
        • Energy from the sun is transferred to animals through a chain of events that begins with plants producing food then being eaten by animals.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 9
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 6
      Unit Plans: 1
      11 ) Create a model to illustrate the transfer of matter among producers; consumers, including scavengers and decomposers; and the environment.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct and use models to illustrate the transfer of matter among producers; consumers, including scavengers and decomposers; and the environment.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Transfer
      • Matter
      • Producer
      • Consumer
      • Decomposer
      • Environment
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants.
      • Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants.
      • Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as "decomposers."
      • Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil.
      • Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met.
      • A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life.
      • Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.
      • Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model to describe a phenomenon that includes the movement of matter within an ecosystem, identifying the relevant components such as matter, plants, animals, decomposers, and environment.
      • Describe the relationships among components that are relevant for describing the phenomenon, including the relationships in the system between organisms that consume other organisms, including the following:
        • Animals that consume other animals.
        • Animals that consume plants.
        • Organisms that consume dead plants and animals.
        • The movement of matter between organisms during consumption.
      • Use the model to describe the following:
        • The cycling of matter in the system between plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
        • How interactions in the system of plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment allow multiple species to meet their needs.
        • That newly introduced species can affect the balance of interactions in a system (e.g., a new animal that has no predators consumes much of another organism's food within the ecosystem).
        • That changing an aspect (e.g., organisms or environment) of the ecosystem will affect other aspects of the ecosystem.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A system can be described in terms of its components, like producers, consumers, and the environment, and their interactions, like the cycling of matter.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Earth's Place in the Universe
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Defend the claim that one factor determining the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is the relative distance from Earth.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Support a claim that the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to the relative distance from the Earth.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Defend
      • Claim
      • Factor
      • Evidence
      • Apparent Brightness
      • Relative Distance
      • Sun
      • Stars
      • Earth
      • Reasoning
      • Argumentation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The sun and other stars are natural bodies in the sky that give off their own light.
      • The sun is a star that appears larger and brighter than other stars because it is closer.
      • Stars range greatly in their distance from Earth.
      • A luminous object close to a person appears much brighter and larger than a similar object that is very far away from a person (e.g., nearby streetlights appear bigger and brighter than distant streetlights).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify a given claim to be supported about a given phenomenon. The claim includes the idea that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from Earth.
      • Describe the evidence, data, and/or models that support the claim, including the following:
        • The sun and other stars are natural bodies in the sky that give off their own light.
        • The apparent brightness of a variety of stars, including the sun.
        • A luminous object close to a person appears much brighter and larger than a similar object that is very far away from a person (e.g., nearby streetlights appear bigger and brighter than distant streetlights).
        • The relative distance of the sun and stars from Earth (e.g., although the sun and other stars are all far from the Earth, the stars are very much farther away; the sun is much closer to Earth than other stars).
      • Evaluate the evidence to determine whether it is relevant to supporting the claim, and sufficient to describe the relationship between apparent size and apparent brightness of the sun and other stars and their relative distances from Earth.
      • Use reasoning to connect the relevant and appropriate evidence to the claim with argumentation. Describe a chain of reasoning that includes the following:
        • Because stars are defined as natural bodies that give off their own light, the sun is a star.
        • The sun is many times larger than Earth but appears small because it is very far away.
        • Even though the sun is very far from Earth, it is much closer than other stars.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Natural objects, like the sun and stars, exist from the very small to the immensely large.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Earth: Gravity and Space
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Analyze data and represent with graphs to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky (e.g., shadows and the position and motion of Earth with respect to the sun, visibility of select stars only in particular months).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data and represent with graphs to reveal the following patterns:
      • daily changes in length and direction of shadows
      • day and night
      • the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Data
      • Graph
      • Bar Graph
      • Pictograph
      • Pie Chart
      • Line Graph
      • Analyze
      • Shadow
      • Seasonal
      • Sun
      • Star
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The orbits of Earth around the sun and of the moon around Earth, together with the rotation of Earth about an axis between its North and South poles, cause observable patterns.
      • These include day and night; daily changes in the length and direction of shadows; and different positions of the sun, moon, and stars at different times of the day, month, and year.
      • The apparent motion of the sun from east to west results in patterns of change in length and direction of shadows throughout a day as Earth rotates on its axis.
      • The length of the day gradually changes throughout the year as Earth orbits the sun, with longer days in the summer and shorter days in the winter.
      • Some stars and/or groups of stars (constellations) can be seen in the sky all year, while others appear only at certain times of the year.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Using graphical displays (e.g., bar graphs, pictographs), organize data pertaining to daily and seasonal changes caused by the Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun. Organize data that include the following:
        • The length and direction of shadows observed several times during one day.
        • The duration of daylight throughout the year, as determined by sunrise and sunset times.
        • Presence or absence of selected stars and/or groups of stars that are visible in the night sky at different times of the year.
      • Use the organized data to find and describe relationships within the datasets.
      • Use the organized data to find and describe relationships among the datasets, including the following:
        • Similarities and differences in the timing of observable changes in shadows, daylight, and the appearance of stars show that events occur at different rates (e.g., Earth rotates on its axis once a day, while its orbit around the sun takes a full year).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, communicate and analyze daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Earth: Gravity and Space
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Use a model to represent how any two systems, specifically the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and/or hydrosphere, interact and support life (e.g., influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Atmosphere
      • Hydrosphere
      • Geosphere
      • Biosphere
      • Model
      • Phenomenon
      • System
      • Earth
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Earth's major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere, and the biosphere (living things, including humans).
      • These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth's surface materials and processes.
      • The ocean supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes landforms, and influences climate.
      • Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the landforms to determine patterns of weather.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model, using a specific given example of a phenomenon, to describe ways that the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. In the model, identify the relevant components of their example, including features of two of the following systems that are relevant for the given example:
        • Geosphere (i.e., solid and molten rock, soil, sediment, continents, mountains).
        • Hydrosphere (i.e., water and ice in the form of rivers, lakes, glaciers).
        • Atmosphere (i.e., wind, oxygen).
        • Biosphere [i.e., plants, animals (including humans)].
      • Identify and describe relationships (interactions) within and between the parts of the Earth systems identified in the model that are relevant to the example (e.g., the atmosphere and the hydrosphere interact by exchanging water through evaporation and precipitation; the hydrosphere and atmosphere interact through air temperature changes, which lead to the formation or melting of ice).
      • Use the model to describe a variety of ways in which the parts of two major Earth systems in the specific given example interact to affect the Earth's surface materials and processes in that context. Use the model to describe how parts of an individual Earth system:
        • Work together to affect the functioning of that Earth system.
        • Contribute to the functioning of the other relevant Earth system.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Systems, like the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere, can be described in terms of their components and their interactions.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Identify the distribution of freshwater and salt water on Earth (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, ground water, polar ice caps) and construct a graphical representation depicting the amounts and percentages found in different reservoirs.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Describe and graph the amounts of salt water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Fresh water
      • Salt water
      • Oceans
      • Lakes
      • Rivers
      • Glaciers
      • Ground water
      • Polar ice caps
      • Reservoir
      • Graph
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Nearly all of Earth's available water is in the ocean.
      • Most fresh water is in glaciers or underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands, and the atmosphere.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Graph the given data (using standard units) about the amount of salt water and the amount of fresh water in each of the following reservoirs, as well as in all the reservoirs combined, to address a scientific question:
        • Oceans.
        • Lakes.
        • Rivers.
        • Glaciers.
        • Ground water.
        • Polar ice caps.
      • Use the graphs of the relative amounts of total salt water and total fresh water in each of the reservoirs to describe that:
        • The majority of water on Earth is found in the oceans.
        • Most of the Earth's fresh water is stored in glaciers or underground.
        • A small fraction of fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, wetlands, and the atmosphere.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Standard units are used to measure and describe physical quantities such as the amounts of salt water and fresh water in various reservoirs.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Earth and Human Activity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Collect and organize scientific ideas that individuals and communities can use to protect Earth's natural resources and its environment (e.g., terracing land to prevent soil erosion, utilizing no-till farming to improve soil fertility, regulating emissions from factories and automobiles to reduce air pollution, recycling to reduce overuse of landfill areas).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Combine information from two or more sources to provide and describe evidence about: the positive and negative effects on the environment as a result of human activities as well as how individual communities can use scientific ideas and a scientific understanding of interactions between components of environmental systems to protect a natural resource and the environment in which the resource is found.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Natural Resource
      • Scientific idea
      • Individual
      • Community
      • Terracing
      • Erosion
      • Soil
      • No-till farming
      • Fertility
      • Emissions
      • Pollution
      • Recycling
      • Landfill
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life can have major effects, both positive and negative, on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space.
      • Individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth's resources and environments.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain and combine information from books and/or other reliable media to explain how individuals and communities can protect Earth's natural resources and its environment.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Individual communities interact with components of environmental systems and can have both positive and negative effects.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 5
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      17 ) Design solutions, test, and revise a process for cleaning a polluted environment (e.g., simulating an oil spill in the ocean or a flood in a city and creating a solution for containment and/or cleanup).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Collaboratively design solutions, test, and revise a process for cleaning a polluted environment.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
        Design
      • Solution
      • Test
      • Revise
      • Polluted
      • Environment
      • Engineer
      • Technology
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life can have major effects, both positive and negative, on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space.
      • Individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth's resources and environments.
      • Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution.
      • Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.
      • At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use grade-appropriate information from research about a given problem, including the causes and effects of the problem and relevant scientific information.
      • Generate at least two possible solutions to the problem based on scientific information and understanding of the problem.
      • Specify how each design solution solves the problem.
      • Share ideas and findings with others about design solutions to generate a variety of possible solutions.
      • Describe the necessary steps for designing a solution to a problem, including conducting research and communicating with others throughout the design process to improve the design [note: emphasis is on what is necessary for designing solutions, not on a step-wise process].
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to: increase benefits, decrease known risks, and/or meet societal demands.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Dynamics of Ecosystems
      Earth's Place in the Universe
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 6
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Create and manipulate models (e.g., physical, graphical, conceptual) to explain the occurrences of day/night cycles, length of year, seasons, tides, eclipses, and lunar phases based on patterns of the observed motions of celestial bodies.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows how the positions of the Earth and sun result in day and night at locations on Earth.
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows the movement of Earth around the sun during a year with the correct tilt of Earth throughout the modeling.
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows the tilt of the Earth in relationship to the sun which indicates seasons for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the Earth and moon during high and low tides at different locations on Earth.
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the sun, Earth, and moon during solar and lunar eclipses.
      • Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the sun, Earth, and moon during lunar phases.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Earth
      • Moon
      • Sun
      • Orbit
      • Rotation
      • Axis
      • Tilted
      • Day
      • Night
      • Hour
      • Revolution
      • Constant
      • Orbital plane
      • Orientation
      • Solar Energy
      • Equator
      • Poles
      • Northern Hemisphere
      • Southern Hemisphere
      • Winter
      • Summer
      • Tides
      • Gravitational pull
      • Low tide
      • High tide
      • Eclipse
      • Solar eclipse
      • Lunar Eclipse
      • Lunar phases (new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent)
      • Illumination
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Earth rotates on its tilted axis once in approximately 24 hours; this rotation is considered an Earth day. Due to the rotation of the Earth, the side of the Earth facing the sun experiences light (day); the side of the Earth facing away from the sun experiences dark (night).
      • The Earth-moon system revolves around the sun once in approximately 365 days; this revolution is considered an Earth year.
      • The distance between Earth and the sun stays relatively constant throughout the Earth's orbit.
      • The Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane around the sun. Earth maintains the same relative orientation in space, with its North Pole pointed toward the North Star throughout its orbit.
      • Solar energy travels in a straight line from the sun and hits different parts of the curved Earth at different angles — more directly at the equator and less directly at the poles.
      • Because the Earth's axis is tilted, the most direct and intense solar energy occurs over the summer months, and the least direct and intense solar energy occurs over the winter months.
      • The change in season at a given place on Earth is directly related to the orientation of the tilted Earth and the position of Earth in its orbit around the sun because of the change in the directness and intensity of the solar energy at that place over the course of the year.
      • Summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted toward the sun.
      • Summer occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the southern axis of Earth is tilted toward the sun.
      • Winter occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted away from the sun.
      • Winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the southern axis of Earth is tilted away from the sun.
      • A tide is the daily rise and fall of sea level.
      • Low tide is the lowest sea level at a particular time and place on Earth.
      • High tide is the highest sea level at a particular time and place on Earth.
      • Tides occur as a result of the moon's gravitational pull on the Earth.
      • Solar energy is prevented from reaching the Earth during a solar eclipse because the moon is located between the sun and Earth.
      • Solar energy is prevented from reaching the moon (and thus reflecting off of the moon to Earth) during a lunar eclipse because Earth is located between the sun and moon.
      • Because the moon's orbital plane is tilted with respect to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun, for a majority of time during an Earth month, the moon is not in a position to block solar energy from reaching Earth, and Earth is not in a position to block solar energy from reaching the moon.
      • A lunar eclipse can only occur during a full moon.
      • The moon rotates on its axis approximately once a month.
      • The moon orbits Earth approximately once a month.
      • The moon rotates on its axis at the same rate at which it orbits Earth so that the side of the moon that faces Earth remains the same as it orbits.
      • The moon's orbital plane is tilted with respect to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun.
      • Solar energy coming from the sun bounces off of the moon and is viewed on Earth as the bright part of the moon.
      • The visible proportion of the illuminated part of the moon (as viewed from Earth) changes over the course of a month as the location of the moon relative to Earth and the sun changes. This change in illumination is known as the lunar phase.
      • The moon appears to become more fully illuminated until "full" and then less fully illuminated until dark, or "new," in a pattern of change that corresponds to what proportion of the illuminated part of the moon is visible from Earth.
      • The lunar phase of the moon is a result of the relative positions of the Earth, sun, and moon.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model of the Sun-Earth-Moon systems and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Patterns in the occurrences of day/night cycles, length of year, seasons, tides, eclipses, and lunar phases can be observed and explained using models based on observed motion of celestial bodies.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Construct models and use simulations (e.g., diagrams of the relationship between Earth and man-made satellites, rocket launch, International Space Station, elliptical orbits, black holes, life cycles of stars, orbital periods of objects within the solar system, astronomical units and light years) to explain the role of gravity in affecting the motions of celestial bodies bodies (e.g., planets, moons, comets, asteroids, meteors) within galaxies and the solar system.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct models to explain the role of gravity in affecting the motions of celestial bodies within galaxies and the solar system.
      • Use simulations to explain the role of gravity in affecting the motions of celestial bodies within galaxies and the solar system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Simulation
      • Gravity
      • Gravitational force
      • Solar system
      • Galaxy
      • Milky Way galaxy
      • Sun
      • Planets
      • Moons
      • Asteroids
      • Asteroid belt
      • Stars
      • Celestial bodies
      • Elliptical orbit
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The solar system is a collection of bodies, including the sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and meteors.
      • A galaxy is any of the very large groups of stars and associated matter that are found throughout the universe.
      • The Earth's solar system is one of many systems orbiting the center of the larger system of the Milky Way galaxy.
      • Gravity is an attractive force between solar system and galaxy objects.
      • Gravity increases as the mass of the interacting objects increases.
      • Gravity decreases as the distances between objects increases.
      • Gravity affects the orbital motion of objects in our solar system (e.g., moons orbit around planets, all objects within the solar system orbit the sun).
      • Gravity is a predominantly inward-pulling force that can keep smaller/less massive objects in orbit around larger/more massive objects.
      • Gravity causes a pattern of smaller/less massive objects orbiting around larger/more massive objects at all system scales in the universe.
      • Gravitational forces from planets cause smaller objects (e.g., moons) to orbit around planets.
      • The gravitational force of the sun causes the planets and other bodies to orbit around it, holding the solar system together.
      • The gravitational forces from the center of the Milky Way cause stars and stellar systems to orbit around the center of the galaxy.
      • The hierarchy pattern of orbiting systems in the solar system was established early in its history as the disk of dust and gas was driven by gravitational forces to form moon-planet and planet-sun orbiting systems.
      • Objects too far away from the sun do not orbit it because the sun's gravitational force on those objects is too weak to pull them into orbit.
      • Without gravity smaller planets would move in straight paths through space, rather than orbiting a more massive body.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model and identify the relevant components including gravity and celestial bodies.
      • Describe the relationships and interactions between the components of the solar and galaxy systems.
      • Use the model to describe gravity and its effects.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Gravity is an attractive force between solar system and galaxy objects.
      • Gravity causes a pattern of smaller/less massive objects orbiting around larger/more massive objects at all systems scales in the universe.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Develop and use models to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system (e.g., scale model representing sizes and distances of the sun, Earth, moon system based on a one-meter diameter sun).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop models to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
      • Use models to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Scale
      • Scale model
      • Properties
      • Size
      • Distance
      • Diameter
      • Solar system
      • Planet
      • Moon
      • Sun
      • Asteroid
      • Asteroid belt
      • Celestial body
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A (scale) model is a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object being represented.
      • Measurements may be multiplied or divided to correctly scale objects in a model.
      • Charts and data tables may be analyzed to find patterns in data.
      • Patterns can be used to describe similarities and differences in objects in the solar system.
      • Systems and their properties may be described using more than one scale.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model of objects in the solar system and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe that different representations illustrate different characteristics of objects in the solar system, including differences in scale.
      • Use mathematics and computational thinking to determine scale properties.
      • Describe that two objects may be similar when viewed at one scale but may appear to be quite different when viewed at a different scale.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them.
      • Space phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Construct explanations from geologic evidence (e.g., change or extinction of particular living organisms; field evidence or representations, including models of geologic cross-sections; sedimentary layering) to identify patterns of Earth's major historical events (e.g., formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, significant volcanic eruptions, fossilization, folding, faulting, igneous intrusion, erosion).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify patterns of Earth's major historical events in geologic evidence.
      • Construct explanations from identified patterns regarding Earth's major historical events.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Natural event
      • Catastrophic event
      • Mountain chain
      • Ocean basin
      • Fossilization
      • Folding
      • Faulting
      • Igneous intrusion
      • Erosion
      • Volcano
      • Volcanic eruption
      • Asteroid impact
      • Geologic time scale
      • Rock
      • Rock strata
      • Fossil record
      • Relative age
      • Mineral
      • Fossil
      • Sedimentary rock
      • Lava flow
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Major events in Earth's history include natural and catastrophic events.
      • Natural events may include formations of mountain chains, formations of ocean basins, fossilization, folding, faulting, igneous intrusion, and erosion.
      • Catastrophic events may include significant volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts,
      • The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history.
      • Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale.
      • Rock strata are layers of rock visually distinguishable from other layers of rock.
      • Rocks are the solid mineral materials forming part of the surface of the Earth and other similar planets.
      • Fossils are a trace or print of the remains of a plant or animal of a past age preserved in plant or rock.
      • Unless they have been disturbed by subsequent activity, newer rock layers sit on top of older rock layers, allowing for a relative ordering in time of the formation of the layers (i.e., older sedimentary rocks lie beneath younger sedimentary rocks).
      • Any rocks or features that cut existing rock strata are younger than the rock strata that they cut (e.g., a younger fault cutting across older, existing rock strata).
      • The fossil record can provide relative ages based on the appearance or disappearance of organisms (e.g., fossil layers that contain only extinct animal groups are usually older than fossil layers that contain animal groups that are still alive today, and layers with only microbial fossils are typical of the earliest evidence of life).
      • Specific major events (e.g., extensive lava flows, volcanic eruptions, asteroid impacts) can be used to indicate periods of time that occurred before a given event from periods that occurred after it.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including that geologic evidence can be used to identify patterns of Earth's major historical events.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation identifying patterns of Earth's major historical events.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation of patterns in Earth's major historical events.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history. Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale.
      • Using a combination of the order of rock layers, the fossil record, and evidence of major geologic events, the relative time ordering of events can be constructed as a model for Earth's history, even though the timescales involved are immensely vaster than the lifetimes of humans or the entire history of humanity.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Use evidence to explain how different geologic processes shape Earth's history over widely varying scales of space and time (e.g., chemical and physical erosion; tectonic plate processes; volcanic eruptions; meteor impacts; regional geographical features, including Alabama fault lines, Rickwood Caverns, and Wetumpka Impact Crater).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use evidence to explain how different geologic processes shape Earth's history over widely varying scales of space and time.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evidence
      • Geology
      • Geologic process
      • Scale
      • System
      • Microscopic
      • Global
      • Time scale
      • Spatial scale
      • Uplift
      • Landslide
      • Geochemical reaction
      • Earthquake
      • Catastrophic event
      • Composition
      • Property
      • Deposition
      • Sediment
      • Surface features
      • Underground formations
      • Erosion
      • Chemical erosion
      • Physical erosion
      • Tectonic plates
      • Tectonic plate processes
      • Continent
      • Continental drift theory
      • Volcano
      • Volcanic eruption
      • Meteor
      • Meteor impact
      • Impact crater
      • Weathering
      • Fault line
      • Cavern
      Knowledge:
      Students:
      • The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth's history and will determine its future.
      • Processes change Earth's surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions).
      • Many geologic processes that change Earth's features (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events.
      • The composition of Earth's layers and their properties affect the surface of Earth.
      • Geologic processes that have changed Earth's features include events like surface weathering, erosion, and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind.
      • Surface weathering, erosion, movement, and the deposition of sediment range from large to microscopic scales (e.g., sediment consisting of boulders and microscopic grains of sand, raindrops dissolving microscopic amounts of minerals).
      • Water's movements—both on the land and underground—cause weathering and erosion, which change the land's surface features and create underground formations.
      • The motion of the Earth's plates produces changes on a planetary scale over a range of time periods from millions to billions of years. Evidence for the motion of plates can explain large-scale features of the Earth's surface (e.g., mountains, distribution of continents) and how they change.
      • Catastrophic changes can modify or create surface features over a very short period of time compared to other geologic processes, and the results of those catastrophic changes are subject to further changes over time by processes that act on longer time scales (e.g., erosion of a meteor crater).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including that geologic processes have shaped the Earth's history over widely varying scales of space and time.
      • Identify the corresponding timescales for each identified geoscience process.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation that changes occur on very large or small spatial and/or temporal scales.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation for how geologic processes have changed the Earth's surface at a variety of temporal and spatial scales.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth's history and will determine its future.
      • A given surface feature is the result of a broad range of geoscience processes occurring at different temporal and spatial scales.
      • Surface features will continue to change in the future as geoscience processes continue to occur.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      Exploring Plate Tectonics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Provide evidence from data of the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to explain past plate motions.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Explain past plate motions with supporting evidence from data of the distribution of fossils, rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evidence
      • Data
      • Fossils
      • Rock
      • Continent
      • Continental shelf
      • Geologic past
      • Pangea
      • Ridges
      • Volcanic ridges
      • Trenches
      • Theory of Continental Drift
      • Theory of Plate Tectonics
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Core
      • Lithosphere
      • Asthenosphere
      • Convection
      • Divergent boundary
      • Convergent boundary
      • Transform plate boundary
      • Seafloor
      • Seafloor structures
      • Alfred Wegener
      • Plastic flow
      Knowledge:
      Students:
      • Fossils are a trace or print of the remains of a plant or animal of a past age preserved in plant or rock.
      • Rocks are the solid mineral materials forming part of the surface of the Earth and other similar planets.
      • A continent is any of the world's main continuous expanses of land (i.e.,, Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America).
      • The continental shelf is the part of a continent that lies under the ocean and slopes down to the ocean floor.
      • Regions of different continents that share similar fossils and similar rocks suggest that, in the geologic past, those sections of continent were once attached and have since been separated.
      • The shapes of the continents roughly fit together like pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, suggesting that those land masses were once joined and have since separated.
      • The hypothetical land mass that existed when all the continents were joined is called Pangea.
      • The separation of continents by the sequential formation of new seafloor at the center of the ocean is inferred by age patterns in the oceanic crust that increase in age from the center of the ocean to the edges of the ocean.
      • The distribution of seafloor structures (e.g., volcanic ridges at the centers of oceans, trenches at the edges of continents) combined with the patterns of ages of the seafloor (youngest ages at the ridge, oldest ages at the trenches) supports the interpretation that new crust forms at the ridges and then moves away from the ridges as new crust continues to form and that the oldest crust is being destroyed at seafloor trenches.
      • Ridges are underwater mountain systems formed by plate tectonics.
      • Trenches are long, narrow, steep-sided depressions in the ocean floor.
      • The Theory of Continental Drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener and proposes that part of the Earth's crust slowly drifts atop a liquid core.
      • The Theory of Plate Tectonics states that the outer rigid layer of the Earth is divided into a couple of dozen "plates" that move around across the Earth's surface relative to each other.
      • The layers of the Earth include, from outmost to innermost, the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. The crust and upper mantle are broken into moving plates called the lithosphere. The asthenosphere is located below the lithosphere. In the asthenosphere, there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection occurs, causing plates to move.
      • The three types of plate tectonic boundaries include divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries.
      • Divergent boundaries occur when two tectonic plates move away from each other.
      • Convergent boundaries occur when two tectonic plates come together.
      • Transform plate boundaries occur when two plates slide past one another.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including that past plate motions can be described with data from the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures.
      • Organize given data in a way that facilitates analysis and interpretation.
      • Analyze the data to identify relationships between the data and Earth's past plate motions.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of data.
      • Use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation for the given phenomenon, which involves past plate motions.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth's plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Plate Tectonics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Use models to construct explanations of the various biogeochemical cycles of Earth (e.g., water, carbon, nitrogen) and the flow of energy that drives these processes.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use models to explain the various biogeochemical cycles of Earth and the flow of energy that drives these processes.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Biogeochemical
      • Biotic
      • Abiotic
      • Atom
      • Water cycle
      • Carbon cycle
      • Nitrogen cycle
      • Chemical compound
      • Hydrogen
      • Oxygen
      • Gravity
      • Atmosphere
      • Water vapor
      • Crystallize
      • Transpiration
      • Evaporation
      • Condensation
      • Precipitation
      • Glacier
      • Aquifer
      • Ice sheet
      • Organism
      • Decompose
      • Respiration
      • Element
      • Chemical process
      • Ecosystem
      • Geosphere
      • Carbon dioxide
      • Methane
      • Photosynthesis
      • Fossil fuel
      • Nitrogen
      • Carbon
      • Amino acid
      • Protein
      • DNA
      • Molecule
      • Bacteria
      • Fertilizer
      • Livestock
      • Nitrate
      Knowledge:
      Students:
      • The cycle of atoms between living and non-living things is known as a biogeochemical cycle.
      • Biogeochemical cycles interact through biotic and abiotic processes.
      • Biotic involves living or once living things such as plants, animals, and bacteria.
      • Abiotic involves nonliving things like air, rocks, and water.
      • Biogeochemical cycles may include, but are not limited to, the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles.
      • The water cycle is the continuous process by which water is circulated throughout the earth and the atmosphere.
      • Water is a chemical compound made up of the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
      • Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity.
      • Energy from the sun drives the movement of water from the Earth (e.g., oceans, landforms, plants) into the atmosphere through transpiration and evaporation.
      • Water vapor in the atmosphere can cool and condense to form rain or crystallize to form snow or ice, which returns to Earth when pulled down by gravity.
      • Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land.
      • Gravity causes water on land to move downhill (e.g., rivers and glaciers) and much of it eventually flows into oceans.
      • Some liquid and solid water remains on land in the form of bodies of water, glaciers and ice sheets or can be stored below ground in aquifers.
      • Some water remains in the tissues of plants and other living organisms, and this water is released when the tissues decompose. Water is also released by plants through transpiration and by other living organisms through respiration.
      • Carbon is an element found in the oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living organisms.
      • Carbon is the fundamental building block of life and an important component of many chemical processes.
      • In a process called the carbon cycle, carbon is exchanged among Earth's oceans, atmosphere, ecosystem, and geosphere.
      • Carbon is present in the atmosphere primarily attached to oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2), but is also found in other less abundant but climatically significant gases, such as methane (CH4).
      • With the help of the Sun, through the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is pulled from the air to make plant food.
      • Through food chains, the carbon that is in plants moves to the animals that eat them. When an animal eats another animal, the carbon is transferred.
      • When plants and animals die, their bodies, wood, and leaves decay bringing the carbon into the ground. Some become buried miles underground and will become fossil fuels in millions and millions of years.
      • Organisms release carbon dioxide gas through a process called respiration.
      • When humans burn fossil fuels to power factories, power plants, cars and trucks, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas.
      • The oceans, and other bodies of water, soak up some carbon from the atmosphere.
      • Nitrogen is an element found in living things like plants and animals.
      • Nitrogen is also an important part of non-living things like the air and the soil.
      • Nitrogen atoms move slowly between living things, dead things, the air, soil and water.
      • The continuous process by which nitrogen is exchanged between organisms and the environment is called the nitrogen cycle.
      • Most of the nitrogen on Earth is in the atmosphere as molecules of nitrogen gas (N2).
      • All plants and animals need nitrogen to make amino acids, proteins, and DNA, but the nitrogen in the atmosphere is not in a form that they can use.
      • The molecules of nitrogen in the atmosphere can become usable for living things when they are broken apart during lightning strikes or fires, by certain types of bacteria, or by bacteria associated with bean plants.
      • Most plants get the nitrogen they need to grow from the soils or water in which they live. Animals get the nitrogen they need by eating plants or other animals that contain nitrogen.
      • When organisms die, their bodies decompose bringing the nitrogen into soil on land or into ocean water. Bacteria alter the nitrogen into a form that plants are able to use. Other types of bacteria are able to change nitrogen dissolved in waterways into a form that allows it to return to the atmosphere.
      • Certain actions of humans can cause changes to the nitrogen cycle and the amount of nitrogen that is stored in the land, water, air, and organisms.
      • The use of nitrogen-rich fertilizers can add too much nitrogen in nearby waterways as the fertilizer washes into streams and ponds. The waste associated with livestock farming also adds large amounts of nitrogen into soil and water. The increased nitrate levels cause plants to grow rapidly until they use up the supply and die. The number of plant-eating animals will increase when the plant supply increases and then the animals are left without any food when the plants die.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a model of the various biogeochemical cycles and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model including the flow of energy.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the various biogeochemical cycles of Earth and the flow of energy that drives these processes.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter of the various biogeochemical cycles.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Understanding Weather and Climate
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Plan and carry out investigations that demonstrate the chemical and physical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth's materials (e.g., processes of crystallization, heating and cooling, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan an investigation that demonstrates the chemical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth material.
      • Plan an investigation that demonstrates the physical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth material.
      • Carry out an investigation that demonstrates the chemical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth material.
      • Carry out an investigation that demonstrates the physical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth material.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Rock
      • Melting
      • Sedimentation
      • Crystallization
      • Chemical change
      • Physical change
      • Deformation
      • Interior energy
      • Cycling
      • Weathering
      • Erosion
      • Solar energy
      • Sedimentary rock
      • Igneous rock
      • Metamorphic rock
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Rocks are the solid mineral materials forming part of the surface of the Earth and other similar planets.
      • Different Earth processes (melting, sedimentation, crystallization) drive matter cycling (from one type of Earth material to another) through observable chemical and physical changes.
      • Chemical changes are changes that result in the formation of new chemical substances.
      • Physical changes involve changes into new forms or shapes in which the chemical identity of the substance is not changed.
      • Melting is a physical change in which a solid changes to a liquid as a result of exposure to heat.
      • Sedimentation is a process in which material (like rock or sand) is carried to the bottom of a body of water and forms a solid layer. Sedimentary rock consists of cemented sediment.
      • Crystallization is the process of the formation of crystals from a liquid. Igneous rocks are the result of crystallizing magma.
      • Deformation is a physical change in a rock's shape or size. Rocks become deformed when the Earth's crust is stretched, compressed, or heated.
      • Metamorphic rock was once one form of rock but changed to another under the influence of heat or pressure.
      • Energy from Earth's interior and the sun drive Earth processes that together cause matter cycling through different forms of Earth materials.
      • The movement of energy that originates from the Earth's hot interior causes the cycling of matter through the Earth processes of melting, crystallization, and deformation.
      • Energy from the sun causes matter to cycle via processes that produce weathering, erosion, and sedimentation (e.g., wind, rain).
      • Weathering is the chemical or physical breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earth's surface.
      • Erosion is the act in which Earth is worn away, often by wind, water, or ice.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes the chemical and physical processes of Earth.
      • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes demonstrating the chemical and physical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth materials.
      • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
      • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
      • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
      • Use data from the investigation to provide an causal account of the relationship between chemical and physical processes and the formation of rocks and the cycling of Earth materials.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth's materials.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Plate Tectonics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Use models to explain how the flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior causing plate movements (e.g., mid-ocean ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes, earthquakes, mountains, rift valleys, volcanic islands).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use models to explain how the flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior causing plate movements.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Outer core
      • Inner core
      • Lithosphere
      • Plates
      • Tectonic plates
      • Ocean plate
      • Continental plate
      • Asthenosphere
      • Convection
      • Convection current
      • Magma
      • Divergent plate boundary
      • Theory of Plate Tectonics
      • Convergent plate boundary
      • Transform plate boundary
      • Fault
      • Lava
      • Fissure
      • Geyser
      • Rift
      • Basalt
      • Granite
      • Density
      • Ocean trench
      • Subduction
      • Subduction zone
      • Earthquake
      • Mid-ocean ridge
      • Mountain
      • Rift valley
      • Volcano
      • Volcanic island
      • Undersea canyon
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The layers of the Earth include, from outmost to innermost, the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.
      • The crust and upper mantle are broken into moving plates called the lithosphere. These plates are known as tectonic plates and fit around the globe like puzzle pieces.
      • The asthenosphere is located below the lithosphere. The asthenosphere is hotter and more fluid than the lithosphere. Convection occurs in the asthenosphere.
      • Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the heated material.
      • Through convection, movements deep within the Earth, which carry heat from the hot interior to the cooler surface, cause the plates to move very slowly on the surface.
      • The Theory of Plate Tectonics states that the outer rigid layer of the Earth is divided into a couple of dozen "plates" that move around across the Earth's surface relative to each other.
      • The areas where plates interact are called plate boundaries.
      • The three types of plate tectonic boundaries include divergent (dividing), convergent (colliding), and transform (grinding past each other).
      • Because ocean plates are denser than continental plates, when these two types of plates converge, the ocean plates are subducted beneath the continental plates. Subduction zones and trenches are convergent margins.
      • Subduction zones form when plates crash into each other, spreading ridges form when plates pull away from each other, and large faults form when plates slide past each other.
      • A divergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other. Along these boundaries, lava spews from long fissures and geysers spurt superheated water. Frequent earthquakes strike along the rift. Beneath the rift, magma—molten rock—rises from the mantle. It oozes up into the gap and hardens into solid rock, forming new crust on the torn edges of the plates. Magma from the mantle solidifies into basalt, a dark, dense rock that underlies the ocean floor. Thus at divergent boundaries, oceanic crust, made of basalt, is created.
      • When two plates come together, it is known as a convergent boundary. The impact of the two colliding plates buckles the edge of one or both plates up into a rugged mountain range called a mid-ocean ridge, and sometimes bends the other down into an ocean trench. Trenches are long, narrow, steep-sided depressions in the ocean floor. A chain of volcanoes often forms parallel to the boundary, to the mountain range, and to the trench. Powerful earthquakes shake a wide area on both sides of the boundary. If one of the colliding plates is topped with oceanic crust, it is forced down into the mantle where it begins to melt. Magma rises into and through the other plate, solidifying into new crust. Magma formed from melting plates solidifies into granite, a light colored, low-density rock that makes up the continents. Thus at convergent boundaries, continental crust, made of granite, is created, and oceanic crust is destroyed.
      • Two plates sliding past each other forms a transform plate boundary. Rocks that line the boundary are pulverized as the plates grind along, creating a rift valley or undersea canyon. As the plates alternately jam and jump against each other, earthquakes rattle through a wide boundary zone. In contrast to convergent and divergent boundaries, no magma is formed. Thus, crust is cracked and broken at transform margins, but is not created or destroyed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a model of the flow of Earth's internal energy and the resulting plate movements and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model including how the flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior causing plate movements.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how the flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior causing plate movements.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior. This cycling of matter causes plate movements.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Plate Tectonics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Use research-based evidence to propose a scientific explanation regarding how the distribution of Earth's resources such as minerals, fossil fuels, and groundwater are the result of ongoing geoscience processes (e.g., past volcanic and hydrothermal activity, burial of organic sediments, active weathering of rock).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence regarding how the distribution of Earth's resources such as minerals, fossil fuels, and groundwater are the result of ongoing geoscience processes.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Natural resources
      • Minerals
      • Fossil Fuels
      • Groundwater
      • Geoscience processes
      • Distribution
      • Extraction
      • Depletion
      • Water cycle
      • Rock cycle
      • Plate tectonics
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Humans depend on Earth's land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources.
      • These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geoscience processes.
      • The water cycle, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics are examples of geoscience processes that distribute Earth's resources.
      • The environment or conditions that formed the resources are specific to certain areas and/or times on Earth, thus identifying why those resources are found only in those specific places/periods.
      • The extraction and use of resources by humans decreases the amounts of these resources available in some locations and changes the overall distribution of these resources on Earth
      • As resources as used, they are depleted from the sources until they can be replenished, mainly through geoscience processes.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including that ongoing geoscience processes have caused the distribution of the Earth's resources.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct a scientific explanation of the phenomenon.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation of the distribution of Earth's resources.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The Earth's resources are formed as a result of past and ongoing geoscience processes.
      • These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past and ongoing geoscience processes.
      • The extraction and use of resources by humans decreases the amounts of these resources available in some locations and changes the overall distribution of these resources on Earth.
      • Because many resources continue to be formed in the same ways that they were in the past, and because the amount of time required to form most of these resources (e.g., minerals, fossil fuels) is much longer than timescales of human lifetimes, these resources are limited to current and near-future generations. Some resources (e.g., groundwater) can be replenished on human timescales and are limited based on distribution.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Plate Tectonics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Develop and use models of Earth's interior composition to illustrate the resulting magnetic field (e.g., magnetic poles) and to explain its measureable effects (e.g., protection from cosmic radiation).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop models of Earth's interior composition to illustrate the resulting magnetic field.
      • Use models of Earth's interior composition to illustrate the resulting magnetic field.
      • Explain the measurable effects of Earth's magnetic field.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Interior
      • Inner Core
      • Outer Core
      • Mantle
      • Crust
      • Molten
      • Magnetic field
      • Magnetosphere
      • Magnetic poles
      • Particles
      • Solar wind
      • Cosmic radiation
      • Solar radiation
      • Waves
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The Earth's interior consists of rock and metal. It is made up of four main layers:
        1. the inner core: a solid metal core,
        2. the outer core: a liquid molten core,
        3. the mantle: dense and mostly solid rock, and
        4. the crust: thin rock material.
      • The temperature in the core is hotter than the Sun's surface. This intense heat from the inner core causes material in the outer core and mantle to move around.
      • It is possible that the movements of material deep within the Earth generate the Earth's magnetic field, called the magnetosphere.
      • The Earth has a magnetic field with north and south poles. The Earth's magnetic field reaches 36,000 miles into space.
      • The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth.
      • Cosmic radiation, which includes solar radiation, is energy from space transmitted in the form of waves or particles.
      • The Sun and other planets have magnetospheres, but the Earth has the strongest one of all the rocky planets.
      • The Earth's north and south magnetic poles reverse at irregular intervals of hundreds of thousands of years.
      • Conditions inside the magnetosphere can create "space weather" that can affect technological systems and human activities. Technological systems that can be impacted may include the operations of satellites, the orbits of low-altitude Earth orbiting satellites, communication and navigations systems.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model of Earth's internal composition and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The composition of Earth's interior may produce a magnetic field with effects that can be measured.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information (e.g., weather maps; diagrams; other visualizations, including radar and computer simulations) to support the claim that motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.

      a. Use various instruments (e.g., thermometers, barometers, anemometers, wet bulbs) to monitor local weather and examine weather patterns to predict various weather events, especially the impact of severe weather (e.g., fronts, hurricanes, tornados, blizzards, ice storms, droughts).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Support the claim that motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions using qualitative scientific and technical information.
      • Monitor local weather using a variety of instruments.
      • Examine weather patterns to predict various weather events, especially the impact of severe weather.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Integrate
      • Qualitative scientific information
      • Technical information
      • Weather map
      • Radar
      • Visualization
      • Weather
      • Air mass
      • Temperature
      • Pressure
      • Humidity
      • Precipitation
      • Wind
      • Uniform
      • Temperature
      • Moisture
      • Landform
      • Current
      • Probability
      • Atmosphere
      • Monitor
      • Instruments
      • Predict
      • Weather patterns
      • Severe weather
      • Temperature
      • Moisture
      • Pressure
      • Humidity
      • Precipitation
      • Wind
      • Atmosphere
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Qualitative scientific and technical information may include weather maps, diagrams, and visualizations, including radar and computer simulations.
      • Qualitative scientific information may be obtained through laboratory experiments.
      • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere as defined by temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, and wind.
      • An air mass is a large body of air with uniform temperature, moisture, and pressure.
      • Air masses flow from regions of high pressure to low pressure, causing weather at a fixed location to change over time.
      • Sudden changes in weather can result when different air masses collide.
      • The distribution and movement of air masses can be affected by landforms, ocean temperatures, and currents.
      • Relationships exist between observed, large-scale weather patterns and the location or movement of air masses, including patterns that develop between air masses (e.g., cold fronts may be characterized by thunderstorms).
      • Due to the complexity and multiple causes of weather patterns, probability must be used to predict the weather.*Local atmospheric conditions (weather) may be monitored by collecting data on temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, and wind.
      • Instruments may be used to measure local weather conditions. These instruments may include, but are not limited to, thermometers, barometers, and anemometers.
      • Weather events, specifically severe weather, can be predicted based on weather patterns.
      • Severe weather may include, but is not limited to, fronts, thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, ice storms, and droughts.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make a claim, to be supported by evidence, to support or refute an explanation or model for a given phenomenon, including the idea that motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.
      • Identify evidence to support the claim from the given materials including qualitative scientific and technical information.
      • Evaluate the evidence for its necessity and sufficiency for supporting the claim.
      • Determine whether the evidence is sufficient to determine causal relationships between the motions and complex interactions of air masses and changes in weather conditions.
      • Consider alternative interpretations of the evidence and describe why the evidence supports the claim they are making, as opposed to any alternative claims.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and evaluation to the claim that motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.
      • Use instruments to collect local weather data.
      • Monitor local weather data.
      • Use patterns observed from collected data to provide causal accounts for weather events and make predictions.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns. Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted based on probability.
      • Instruments may be used to monitor local weather.
      • Weather patterns can be used to predict weather events.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Understanding Weather and Climate (for both 12 and 12a)
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Use models (e.g., diagrams, maps, globes, digital representations) to explain how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

      a. Use experiments to investigate how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection and radiation (e.g., warmer water in a pan rising as cooler water sinks, warming one's hands by a campfire).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Explain by using models, how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric circulation that determine regional climates.
      • Explain by using models, how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
      • Use experiments to investigate how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection.
      • Use experiments to investigate how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by radiation.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • Diagram
      • Map
      • Globe
      • Digital representation
      • Rotation
      • Heat
      • Pattern
      • Atmosphere
      • Atmospheric circulation
      • Ocean
      • Oceanic circulation
      • Climate
      • Regional climate
      • Radiation
      • Sun
      • Solar energy
      • Thermal energy
      • Water
      • Land
      • Ice
      • Temperature
      • Matter
      • Conduction
      • Latitude
      • Altitude
      • Geography
      • Geographic land distribution
      • Precipitation
      • Absorption
      • Landform
      • Atmospheric flow
      • Mountain
      • Rain shadow effect
      • Coriolis force
      • Fluid
      • Density
      • Salinity
      • Global ocean convection cycle
      • Landmass
      • Marine
      • Coast
      • Variation
      • Radiation
      • Electromagnetic wave
      • Space
      • Convection
      • Current
      • Liquid
      • Gas
      • Equator
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Radiation from the sun (solar energy) introduces heat (thermal energy) into Earth's atmosphere, water, land, and ice.
      • Thermal energy exists in the atmosphere, water, land, and ice as represented by temperature.
      • Thermal energy moves from areas of high temperature to areas of lower temperature either through the movement of matter, via radiation, or via conduction of heat from warmer objects to cooler objects.
      • Absorbing or releasing thermal energy produces a more rapid change in temperature on land compared to in water.
      • Absorbing or releasing thermal energy produces a more rapid change in temperature in the atmosphere compared to either on land or in water so the atmosphere is warmed or cooled by being in contact with land or the ocean.
      • The rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation.
      • Patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation vary by latitude, altitude, and geographic land distribution.
      • Higher latitudes receive less solar energy per unit of area than do lower latitudes, resulting in temperature differences based on latitude.
      • A general latitudinal pattern in climate exists where higher average annual temperatures are found near the equator and lower average annual temperatures are at higher latitudes.
      • Latitudinal temperature differences are caused by more direct light (greater energy per unit of area) at the equator (more solar energy) and less direct light at the poles (less solar energy).
      • A general latitudinal pattern of drier and wetter climates caused by the shift in the amount of air moisture during precipitation from rising moisture-rich air and the sinking of dry air.
      • In general, areas at higher altitudes have lower average temperatures than do areas at lower altitudes. Because of the direct relationship between temperature and pressure, given the same amount of thermal energy, air at lower pressures (higher altitudes) will have lower temperatures than air at higher pressures (lower altitudes).
      • Features on the Earth's surface, such as the amount of solar energy reflected back into the atmosphere or the absorption of solar energy by living things, affect the amount of solar energy transferred into heat energy.
      • Landforms affect atmospheric flows (e.g., mountains deflect wind and/or force it to higher elevation, known as the rain shadow effect).
      • The geographical distribution of land limits where ocean currents can flow.
      • The Earth's rotation causes oceanic and atmospheric flows to curve when viewed from the rotating surface of Earth (Coriolis force).
      • Fluid matter (i.e., air, water) flows from areas of higher density to areas of lower density (due to temperature or salinity). The density of a fluid can vary for several different reasons (e.g., changes in salinity and temperature of water can each cause changes in density). Differences in salinity and temperature can, therefore, cause fluids to move vertically and, as a result of vertical movement, also horizontally because of density differences.
      • Ocean circulation is dependent upon the transfer of heat by the global ocean convection cycle, which is constrained by the Coriolis effect and the outlines of continents.
      • Because water can absorb more solar energy for every degree change in temperature compared to land, there is a greater and more rapid temperature change on land than in the ocean. At the centers of landmasses, this leads to conditions typical of continental climate patterns.
      • Climates near large water bodies, such as marine coasts, have comparatively smaller changes in temperature relative to the center of the landmass. Land near the oceans can exchange thermal energy through the air, resulting in smaller changes in temperature. At the edges of landmasses, this leads to marine climates.
      • Variations in density due to variations in temperature and salinity drive a global pattern of interconnected ocean currents.
      • Radiation is the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic wave motion. The transfer of energy from the sun across nearly empty space is accomplished primarily by radiation.
      • Radiation from the sun (solar energy) introduces heat (thermal energy) into Earth's atmosphere, water, land, and ice.
      • Convection is the transfer of heat by a current and can occur in a liquid or a gas.
      • When air near the ground is warmed by heat radiating from Earth's surface. The warm air is less dense, so it rises. As it rises, it cools. The cool air is dense, so it sinks to the surface. This creates a convection current.
      • Convection is the most important way that heat travels in the atmosphere.
      • Convection in the atmosphere is responsible for the redistribution of heat from the warm equatorial regions to higher latitudes and from the surface upward.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a model of Earth and identify the relevant components of Earth's system, including inputs and outputs.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model including how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation.
      • Identify and describe the phenomenon under investigation, which includes how energy is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere.
      • Identify and describe the purpose of the investigation, which includes providing evidence that energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection and radiation.
      • Collect and record data, according to the given investigation plan.
      • Evaluate the data to determine how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection and radiation.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and organisms. These interactions vary with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns.
      • The ocean exerts a major influence on weather and climate by absorbing energy from the sun, releasing it over time, and globally redistributing it through ocean currents.
      • Radiation from the sun (solar energy) introduces heat (thermal energy) into Earth's atmosphere, water, land, and ice and is represented by temperature. Thermal energy moves from areas of high temperature to areas of lower temperature on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere either through radiation or convection.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Understanding Weather and Climate (for both 13 and 13a)
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., tables, graphs, maps of global and regional temperatures; atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane; rates of human activities) to describe how various human activities (e.g., use of fossil fuels, creation of urban heat islands, agricultural practices) and natural processes (e.g., solar radiation, greenhouse effect, volcanic activity) may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data to describe how various human activities may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.
      • Interpret data to describe how various human activities may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.
      • Analyze data to describe how various natural processes may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.
      • Interpret data to describe how various natural processes may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Natural processes
      • Human activities
      • Global temperatures
      • Mean surface temperature
      • Global warming
      • Solar radiation
      • Greenhouse Effect
      • Volcanic activity
      • Fossil fuels
      • Combustion
      • Urban heat islands
      • Agriculture
      • Natural systems
      • Carbon dioxide (gases)
      • Greenhouse gases
      • Concentration
      • Atmosphere
      • Climate change
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Natural processes and/or human activities may have affected the patterns of change in global temperatures over the past century, leading to the current rise in Earth's mean surface temperature (global warming).
      • Natural processes may include factors such as changes in incoming solar radiation, the greenhouse effect, or volcanic activity.
      • Human activities may include factors such as fossil fuel combustion, the creation of urban heat islands, and agricultural activity.
      • Natural processes and/or human activities may lead to a gradual or sudden change in global temperatures in natural systems (e.g., glaciers and arctic ice, and plant and animal seasonal movements and life cycle activities).
      • Natural processes and/or human activities may have led to changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the past century.
      • Patterns in data connect natural processes and human activities to changes in global temperatures over the past century.
      • Patterns in data connect the changes in natural processes and/or human activities related to greenhouse gas production to changes in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
      • Reducing the level of climate change and reducing human vulnerability to whatever climate changes do occur depend on the understanding of climate science, engineering capabilities, and other kinds of knowledge, such as understanding of human behavior and on applying that knowledge wisely in decisions and activities.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize given data on various human activities, natural processes, and changes in local and global temperatures to allow for analysis and interpretation.
      • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between human activities and natural processes and changes in local and global temperature over time.
      • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Human activities and natural processes may affect local and global temperatures over time.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Understanding Weather and Climate
      Earth and Human Activity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Analyze evidence (e.g., databases on human populations, rates of consumption of food and other natural resources) to explain how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities (e.g., land use, resource development, water and air pollution, urbanization) affect Earth's systems.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze evidence regarding how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities affect Earth's systems.
      • Explain how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities affect Earth's systems.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Population
      • Per capita
      • Consumption
      • Natural resource
      • Environment
      • Earth's systems
      • Consequences
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Increases in the size of the human population or in the per capita consumption of a given population cause increases in the consumption of natural resources.
      • Natural resources are any naturally occurring substances or features of the environment that, while not created by human effort, can be exploited by humans to satisfy their needs or wants.
      • Per capita consumption is the average use per person within a population.
      • Natural resource consumption causes changes in Earth systems.
      • Engineered solutions alter the effects of human populations on Earth systems by changing the rate of natural resource consumption or reducing the effects of changes in Earth systems.
      • All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.
      • The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize given evidence regarding changes in human population, changes in per capita consumption of natural resources, human activities, and Earth's systems to allow for analysis and interpretation.
      • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between changes in human population, changes in per capita consumption of natural resources, human activities, and Earth's systems.
      • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Human population growth affects natural resource consumption and natural resource consumption has an effect on Earth systems; therefore, changes in human populations have a causal role in changing Earth systems.
      • Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      Understanding Weather and Climate
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 6
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Implement scientific principles to design processes for monitoring and minimizing human impact on the environment (e.g., water usage, including withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or construction of dams and levees; land usage, including urban development, agriculture, or removal of wetlands; pollution of air, water, and land).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design a process for monitoring human impact on the environment using scientific principles.
      • Design a process for minimizing human impact on the environment using scientific principles.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Habitat
      • Extinction
      • Species
      • Human Impact
      • Population
      • Per-capita consumption
      • Technology
      • Object
      • System
      • Process
      • Engineer
      • Engineering Design Process (EDP)
      • Monitor
      • Minimize
      • Solution
      • Causal and correlational relationships
      • Criteria
      • Constraints
      • Limitations
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Human activities have significantly altered the environment, sometimes damaging or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species.
      • Changes to Earth's environments can have different positive and negative impacts for different living things.
      • Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise.
      • Technology is anything man-made that solves a problem or fulfills a desire.
      • Technology can be an object, system, or process.
      • Engineering is a systematic and often iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.
      • The Engineering Design Process (EDP) is a series of steps engineers use to guide them as they solve problems.
      • The EDP may include the following cyclical steps: ask, imagine, plan, create, and improve.
      • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that addresses the results of a particular human activity.
      • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that incorporates technologies that can be used to monitor negative effects that human activities have on the environment.
      • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that incorporates technologies that can be used to minimize negative effects that human activities have on the environment.
      • Causal and correlational relationships between the human activity and the negative environmental impact must be distinguished to facilitate the design of the process or solution.
      • Criteria and constraints for the solution must be defined and quantified to include individual or societal needs or desires and constraints imposed by economic conditions (e.g., costs of building and maintaining the solution).
      • Criteria are the principles or standards by which the process or solution is judged.
      • Constraints are the limitations or restrictions on the process or solution.
      • The process or solution must meet the criteria and constraints.
      • Limitations of the use of technologies exist.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use scientific information and principles to generate a design solution for a problem related to human impact on the environment.
      • Identify relationships between the human activity and the negative environmental impact based on scientific principles.
      • Distinguish between causal and correlational relationships to facilitate the design of the solution.
      • Define and quantify, when appropriate, criteria and constraints for the solution.
      • Describe how well the solution meets the criteria and constraints, including monitoring or minimizing a human impact based on the causal relationships between relevant scientific principles about the processes that occur in, as well as among, Earth systems and the human impact on the environment.
      • Identify limitations of the use of technologies employed by the solution.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A process or solution must meet criteria and constraints, including monitoring or minimizing a human impact based on the causal relationships between relevant scientific principles about the processes that occur in, as well as among, Earth systems and the human impact on the environment.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Planetary Systems
      From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Engage in argument from evidence to support claims of the cell theory.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Argue using evidence to support claims that all living things are made of cells.
      • Argue using evidence to support claims that the cell is the basic unit of life.
      • Argue using evidence to support claims that cells come from other cells.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Cell
      • Cell theory
      • Unicellular
      • Multicellular
      • Living
      • Non-living
      • Organism
      • Evidence
      • Scientific argument
      • Claims
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The presence or absence of cells in living and nonliving things.
      • The presence of cells in a variety of organisms, including unicellular and multicellular organisms.
      • Different types of cells within one multicellular organism.
      • Cells only arise from preexisting cells by division.
      • The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make a claim about a given explanation or model for a phenomenon, including the cell theory .
      • Identify and describe the given evidence that supports the claim.
      • Evaluate the evidence and identify its strengths and weaknesses.
      • Use reasoning to connect the necessary and sufficient evidence and construct the argument.
      • Present oral or written arguments to support or refute the given explanation or model for the phenomenon.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The three components of the cell theory:
      • All life forms are made from one or more cells.
      • Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.
      • The cell is the smallest unit of life.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Gather and synthesize information to explain how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in structure and function, including the methods of asexual and sexual reproduction.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Gather and synthesize information with attention given to accuracy, credibility, and bias.
      • Explain, based on gathered information, the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as they relate to structure, function, and methods of reproduction.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Cell
      • Prokaryotic cells
      • Eukaryotic cells
      • Structure
      • Function
      • Asexual reproduction
      • Sexual reproduction
      • Mitosis
      • Meiosis
      • Chromosome
      • DNA
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Prokaryotic cells are microscopic, single-celled organisms that have neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
      • Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
      • The function of prokaryotic cells.
      • The reproductive methods of prokaryotic cells.
      • Eukaryotic cells consist of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.
      • Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaebacteria.
      • The function of eukaryotic cells.
      • The reproductive methods of eukaryotic cells.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information about cells, including structure, function, and method of reproduction, from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
      • Determine and describe whether the gathered information is relevant.
      • Use information to explain how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in structure and function, as well as method of reproduction.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 8
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Construct an explanation of the function (e.g., mitochondria releasing energy during cellular respiration) of specific cell structures (i.e., nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and vacuoles) for maintaining a stable environment.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use multiple valid and reliable sources for evidence.
      • Explain, based on gathered evidence, the function of specific cell structures and how each organelle helps to maintain a stable environment.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Explanation
      • Structure
      • Function
      • Organelle
      • Nucleus
      • Cell membrane
      • Cell wall
      • Ribosome
      • Mitochondria
      • Chloroplast
      • Vacuole
      • Homeostasis
      • System
      • Valid
      • Reliable
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Function of organelles (i.e., nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, ribosome, mitochondria, chloroplast, vacuole).
      • Roles of organelles in maintaining a stable environment.
      • Key differences between animal and plant cells (e.g., Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, etc.).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how different parts of a cell contribute to how the cell functions as a whole, both separately and together with other structures.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The function of an organelle contributes to the overall function of the cell, both separately and together with other organelles, to maintain a stable environment.
      • Organelles function together as parts of a system (the cell).
      • Organelles function together as parts of a system that determines cellular function.
      • Energy is required to maintain a stable environment.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Construct models and representations of organ systems (e.g., circulatory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, nervous) to demonstrate how multiple interacting organs and systems work together to accomplish specific functions.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct models demonstrate how multiple systems (including the organs of those systems) function together to serve specific purposes within the human body.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • System
      • Tissues
      • Organ
      • Organ System
      • Biological hierarchy (e.g., cells, tissues, organs, etc.)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Biological hierarchy (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms).
      • Specialized cells make up specialized tissues; specialized tissues make up organs (e.g., the heart contains muscle, connective, and epithelial tissues that allow the heart to receive and pump blood).
      • Major organs of the body systems (e.g., circulatory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, nervous).
      • Functions of the body systems.
      • Interacting organ systems are involved in performing specific body functions.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct a model or representation that demonstrates how interacting organs and systems accomplish functions.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems (organ systems).
      • Different organs work together to form organ systems that carry out complex functions (e.g., the heart and blood vessels work together as the circulatory system).
      • The interaction of organ systems are needed for survival, growth, and development of an organism.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring Body Systems
      Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Examine the cycling of matter between abiotic and biotic parts of ecosystems to explain the flow of energy and the conservation of matter.

      a. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how food is broken down through chemical reactions to create new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as it moves through an organism.

      b. Generate a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Asking Questions and Defining Problems; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Explain that matter is cycled and conserved within an ecosystem's abiotic factors and biotic organisms.
      • Gather and synthesize information with attention given to accuracy, credibility, and bias.
      • Explain that food moves through a series of chemical reactions in which it is broken down or rearranged to support growth, or release energy, using collected evidence.
      • Articulate the idea that photosynthesis and cellular respiration result in the cycling of matter and energy into and out of organisms using collected evidence from a variety of sources.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Abiotic
      • Organisms as producers, consumers, and/or decomposers
      • Biotic
      • Evaluate
      • Ecosystem
      • Communicate
      • Chemical reaction
      • Molecules
      • Photosynthesis
      • Food web
      • Cellular respiration
      • Energy
      • Matter
      • Energy transfer
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Organisms can be classified as producers, consumers, and/or decomposers.
      • Abiotic parts of an ecosystem provide matter to biotic organisms.
      • Biotic organisms of an ecosystem provide matter to abiotic parts.
      • Energy flow within an ecosystem.
      • The number of each type of atom is the same before and after chemical reactions, indicating that the matter ingested as food is conserved as it moves through an organism to support growth.
      • During cellular respiration, molecules of food undergo chemical reactions with oxygen to release stored energy.
      • The atoms in food are rearranged through chemical reactions to form new molecules.
      • All matter (atoms) used by the organism for growth comes from the products of the chemical reactions involving the matter taken in by the organism.
      • Food molecules taken in by the organism are broken down and can then be rearranged to become the molecules that comprise the organism (e.g., the proteins and other macromolecules in a hamburger can be broken down and used to make a variety of tissues in humans).
      • As food molecules are rearranged, energy is released and can be used to support other processes within the organisms.
      • Plants, algae, and photosynthetic microorganisms require energy and must take in carbon dioxide and water to survive.
      • Energy from the sun is used to combine molecules (e.g., carbon dioxide and water) into food molecules (e.g., sugar) and oxygen.
      • Animals take in food and oxygen to provide energy and materials for growth and survival.
      • Some animals eat plants algae and photosynthetic microorganisms, and some animals eat other animals, which have themselves eaten photosynthetic organisms.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the cycling of matter and flow of energy among biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystems.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation.
      • Obtain information about how food is broken down through chemical reactions to create new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as it moves through an organism from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
      • Determine and describe whether the gathered information is relevant.
      • Use information to communicate how food is broken down through chemical reactions to create new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as it moves through an organism.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the idea that photosynthesis and cellular respiration cycle matter and energy.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to explain the roles of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in cycling matter and energy.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation of the roles of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There is a transfer of energy and a cycling of atoms that were originally captured from the nonliving parts of the ecosystem by the producers.
      • The transfer of matter (atoms) and energy between living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem at every level within the system, which allows matter to cycle and energy to flow within and outside of the system.
      • The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
      • Matter and energy are conserved through transfers within and outside of the ecosystem.
      • Relationship among producers, consumers, and decomposers (e.g., decomposers break down consumers and producers via chemical reactions and use the energy released from rearranging those molecules for growth and development.
      • Within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions in which it is broken down and rearranged to form new molecules, to support growth, or to release energy.
      • Plants, algae, and photosynthetic microorganisms take in matter and use energy from the sun to produce organic molecules that they can use or store, and release oxygen into the environment through photosynthesis.
      • Plants use the food they have made for energy, growth, etc.
      • Animals depend on matter from plants for growth and survival, including the following:
        • Eating photosynthetic organisms, thus acquiring the matter they contain, that they gained through photosynthesis.
        • Breathing in oxygen, which was released when plants completed photosynthesis.
      • Animals acquire their food from photosynthetic organisms (or organisms that have eaten those organisms) and their oxygen from the products of photosynthesis, all food and most of the oxygen animals use from life processes are the results of energy from the sun driving matter flows through the process of photosynthesis.
      • Photosynthesis has an important role in energy and matter cycling within plants as well as from plants and other organisms.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence regarding how resource availability impacts individual organisms as well as populations of organisms within an ecosystem.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Organize data (tables, graphs, charts, etc.) that allows for analysis and interpretation of relationships between resource availability and organisms in an ecosystem.
      • Analyze data that shows identification of relationships between factors like population size, the growth and survival of individual organisms, and resource availability.
      • Make relevant predictions, based on interpretation of organized data, of relationships between factors like population size, the growth and survival of individual organisms, and resource availability.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Analyze
      • Interpret
      • Evidence
      • Resource(s)
      • Organism(s)
      • Ecosystem
      • Biotic
      • Abiotic
      • Populations (e.g., sizes, reproduction rates, growth information)
      • Competition
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living (biotic) things and with nonliving (abiotic) things.
      • In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction.
      • Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize the given data to allow for analysis and interpretation of relationships between resource availability and organisms in an ecosystem.
      • Analyze the organized data to determine the relationships between the size of a population, the growth and survival of individual organisms, and resource availability.
      • Determine whether the relationships provide evidence of a causal link between factors.
      • Interpret the organized data to make predictions based on evidence of causal relationships between resource availability, organisms, and organism populations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
      • Causal links exist between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Use empirical evidence from patterns and data to demonstrate how changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem (e.g., deforestation, succession, drought, fire, disease, human activities, invasive species) can lead to shifts in populations.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use information gained from data patterns and analysis to demonstrate that any change in an ecosystem can lead to shifts in populations.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Empirical evidence
      • Patterns
      • Data
      • Ecosystem
      • Populations
      • Physical components (e.g., water, air, temperature, sunlight, soil, etc.)
      • Biological components (e.g., plants, animals, etc.)
      • Phenomena (e.g., deforestation, succession, drought, fire, disease, human activities, invasive species, etc.)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Ecosystems are dynamic in nature and can change over time.
      • Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations.
      • Changes in the physical or biological components of an ecosystem (e.g., rainfall, species introduction) can lead to changes in populations of species.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate the scientific idea that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem can affect the populations living there.
      • Identify and describe the given evidence needed to demonstrate the scientific idea that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem can affect the populations living there.
      • Evaluate the given evidence, identifying the necessary and sufficient evidence for supporting the scientific idea.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation using patterns in the evidence to predict the causal relationship between physical and biological components of an ecosystem and changes in organism populations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Changes in the amount and availability of given resource may result in changes in the population of an organism.
      • Changes in the amount or availability of a resource may result in changes in the growth of individual organisms.
      • Resource availability drives competition among organisms, both within a population as well as between populations.
      • Resource availability may have an effect on a population's rate of reproduction.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Construct an explanation to predict patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships between and among organisms (e.g., competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Articulate a statement that similar patterns of interactions occur between organisms and their environment, regardless of the ecosystem or the species involved.
      • Use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation concerning relationships between and among organisms within ecosystems.
      • Use multiple valid and reliable sources for the evidence to identify and describe quantitative or qualitative patterns of interactions among organisms that can be used to identify causal relationships within ecosystems.
      • Use reasoning to predict patterns in the evidence.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Interactions
      • Evidence
      • Reasoning
      • Quantitative
      • Qualitative
      • Patterns
      • Ecosystems
      • Relationships
      • Competition
      • Predation
      • Mutualism
      • Commensalism
      • Parasitism
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Competitive relationships occur when organisms within an ecosystem compete for shared resources.
      • Predatory interactions occur between organisms within an ecosystem.
      • Mutually beneficial interactions occur between organisms within an ecosystem; some organisms are so dependent upon one another that they can not survive alone.
      • Resource availability affects interactions between organisms (e.g., limited resources may cause competitive relationships among organisms; those same organisms may not be in competition where resources are in abundance).
      • Competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions occur across multiple, different ecosystems.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including that similar patterns of interactions occur between organisms and their environment, regardless of the ecosystem or the species involved.
      • Use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation for the given phenomenon.
      • Identify and describe quantitative or qualitative patterns of interactions among organisms that can be used to identify causal relationships within ecosystems, related to the given phenomenon.
      • Describe that regardless of the ecosystem or species involved, the patterns of interactions are similar.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation using patterns in the evidence to predict common interactions among organisms in ecosystems as they relate to the phenomenon.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Although the species involved in relationships (e.g., competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Engage in argument to defend the effectiveness of a design solution that maintains biodiversity and ecosystem services (e.g., using scientific, economic, and social considerations regarding purifying water, recycling nutrients, preventing soil erosion).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Argue using evidence to support claims of the effectiveness of the design solution.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evidence
      • Engineering design process
      • Design solution
      • Biodiversity
      • Ecosystem
      • Ecosystem service
      • Scientific argument
      • Criteria
      • Constraint
      • Economic considerations
      • Social considerations
      • Recycling nutrients
      • Soil Erosion
      • Water Purification
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Evidence about performance of the given design solution. Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in the earth's ecosystems.
      • The completeness of the biodiversity of an ecosystem is often used as a measure of health.
      • Changes in biodiversity can influence humans' resources and ecosystem services.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify and describe a given design solution for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
      • Identify and describe the additional evidence (in the form of data, information, or other appropriate forms) that is relevant to the problem, design solution, and evaluation of the solution.
      • Collaboratively define and describe criteria and constraints for the evaluation of the design solution.
      • Use scientific evidence to evaluate and critique a design solution.
      • Present oral or written arguments to support or refute the given design solution.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • There are processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Use evidence and scientific reasoning to explain how characteristic animal behaviors (e.g., building nests to protect young from cold, herding to protect young from predators, attracting mates for breeding by producing special sounds and displaying colorful plumage, transferring pollen or seeds to create conditions for seed germination and growth) and specialized plant structures (e.g., flower brightness, nectar, and odor attracting birds that transfer pollen; hard outer shells on seeds providing protection prior to germination) affect the probability of successful reproduction of both animals and plants.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Make a claim to support a given explanation including the idea that characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Evidence
      • Cause and effect
      • Scientific Reasoning
      • Characteristics
      • Behaviors
      • Specialization
      • Probability
      • Reproduction
      • Validity
      • Reliability
      • Relevance
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction.
      • Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and specialized features for reproduction.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make a claim to support a given explanation of a phenomenon, including the idea that characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.
      • dentify the given evidence that supports the claim (e.g., evidence from data and scientific literature).
      • Evaluate the evidence and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence used to support the claim.
      • Use reasoning to connect the appropriate evidence to the claim, using oral or written arguments.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Many characteristics and behaviors of animals and plants increase the likelihood of successful reproduction.
      • Animal behavior plays a role in the likelihood of successful reproduction in plants.
      • Because successful reproduction has several causes and contributing factors, the cause and effect relationships between any of these characteristics and reproductive likelihood can be accurately reflected only in terms of probability.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Analyze and interpret data to predict how environmental conditions (e.g., weather, availability of nutrients, location) and genetic factors (e.g., selective breeding of cattle or crops) influence the growth of organisms (e.g., drought decreasing plant growth, adequate supply of nutrients for maintaining normal plant growth, identical plant seeds growing at different rates in different weather conditions, fish growing larger in large ponds than in small ponds).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Predict, using analysis and interpretation of data, how both environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Analyze
      • Interpret
      • Data
      • Predict
      • Environmental
      • Conditions (e.g., weather, resource availability, etc.)
      • Genetics
      • Genetic Factors (e.g., selective breeding, etc.)
      • Organisms
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Environmental factors can influence growth.
      • Genetic factors can influence growth.
      • Changes in the growth of organisms can occur as specific environmental and genetic factors change.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize given data on how both environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms to allow for analysis and interpretation.
      • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between environmental and genetic factors and the growth of organisms.
      • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Genetic factors as well as local conditions affect the growth of organisms.
      • Because both environmental and genetic factors can influence organisms simultaneously, organism growth is the result of environmental and genetic factors working together.
      • Because organism growth can have several genetic and environmental causes, the contributions of specific causes or factors to organism growth can be described only using probability.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 8
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 6
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Construct and use models (e.g., monohybrid crosses using Punnett squares, diagrams, simulations) to explain that genetic variations between parent and offspring (e.g., different alleles, mutations) occur as a result of genetic differences in randomly inherited genes located on chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify and describe the relevant components of the model.
      • Develop a model for a given phenomenon involving the variations that arise between parent and offspring as a result of randomly inherited genes and alteration of genetic material.
      • Use a model to explain a given phenomenon involving the variations that arise between parent and offspring as a result of randomly inherited genes and alteration of genetic material.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Punnett square - monohybrid cross
      • Homozygous and Pure
      • Heterozygous and
      • Hybrid
      • Homologous
      • Dominant
      • Recessive
      • Models
      • Genetic variation
      • Parent
      • Offspring
      • DNA
      • Genes
      • Inheritance
      • Allele
      • Variation
      • Mitosis (introduced in Standard 2; use here for comparison to Meiosis)
      • Meiosis
      • Chromosome
      • Mutation
      • Probability
      • Gregor Mendel
      • Mendel's laws
      • Sexual reproduction
      • Asexual reproduction
      • Sperm
      • Egg
      • Zygote
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Chromosomes are the source of genetic information.
      • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to offspring.
      • Variations of inherited traits from parent to offspring arise from the genetic differences of chromosomes inherited.
      • In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring.
      • Individuals have two of each chromosome, one acquired from each parent; therefore individuals have two alleles (versions) for each gene. The alleles (versions) may be identical or may differ from each other.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct a model for a given phenomenon involving the differences in genetic variation that arise from genetic differences in genes and chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.
      • Identify and describe the relevant components of the model.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use the model to describe a causal account for why genetic variations occur between parents and offspring.
      • Use the model to describe a causal account for why genetic variations may occur from alteration of genetic information.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • During reproduction (both sexual and asexual) parents transfer genetic information in the form of genes to their offspring.
      • Under normal conditions, offspring have the same number of chromosomes (and genes) as their parents.
      • In asexual reproduction: Offspring have a single source of genetic information and their chromosomes are complete copies of each single parent pair of chromosomes. Offspring chromosomes are identical to parent chromosomes.
      • In sexual reproduction: Offspring have two sources of genetic information that contribute to each final pair of chromosomes in the offspring because both parents are likely to contribute different genetic information, offspring chromosomes reflect a combination of genetic material from two sources and therefore contain new combinations of genes that make offspring chromosomes distinct from those of either parent.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to describe how genetic mutations result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation describing how genetic mutations result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Explanation
      • Evidence
      • Gene
      • Genetic mutation
      • Chromosome
      • Protein
      • Trait
      • Structure
      • Function
      • Protein structure
      • Protein function
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of gene.
      • Genes control the production of proteins.
      • Proteins affect the structures and functions of the organism, thus changing traits.
      • Genetic information can be altered because of mutations.
      • Mutations, though rare, can result in changes to the structure and function of proteins.
      • Mutations can be beneficial, harmful, or have neutral effects on organisms.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the relationship between mutations and the effects on organisms.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation that structural changes to genes (i.e., mutations) may result in observable effects at the level of the organism.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation that beneficial, neutral, or harmful changes to protein function can cause beneficial, neutral, or harmful changes in the structure and function of organisms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Mutations are the result of changes in genes which may affect protein production and, in turn, affect traits.
      • Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have neutral effects on organisms.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Gather and synthesize information regarding the impact of technologies (e.g., hand pollination, selective breeding, genetic engineering, genetic modification, gene therapy) on the inheritance and/or appearance of desired traits in organisms.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Gather information about at least two technologies, which influence the inheritance of desired traits, with attention given to accuracy, credibility, and bias.
      • Synthesize information from multiple sources to provide examples of how technologies have changed the ways that humans are able to influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Technology (e.g., hand pollination, selective breeding, genetic engineering, genetic modification, gene therapy)
      • Inheritance
      • Traits
      • Synthesize
      • Bias
      • Credibility
      • Accuracy
      • Probability
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Through technologies, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms.
      • One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed to offspring.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather information about multiple technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance and/or appearance of desired traits in organisms.
      • Use multiple appropriate and reliable sources of information for investigating each technology.
      • Assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and method used in the information they gather.
      • Use their knowledge of artificial selection and additional sources to describe how the information they gather is or is not supported by evidence.
      • Synthesize the information from multiple sources to provide examples of how technologies have changed the ways that humans are able to influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
      • Use the information to identify and describe how a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in how traits occur in organisms has led to advances in technology that provide a higher probability of being able to influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cause-and-effect relationships in how traits occur in organisms has led to advances in technology that provide a higher probability of being able to influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Unity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Analyze and interpret data for patterns of change in anatomical structures of organisms using the fossil record and the chronological order of fossil appearance in rock layers.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze and interpret data, focusing on patterns, to describe the evolution of organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Relative dating
      • Fossil
      • Evolve
      • Extinct
      • Mass extinction
      • Analogous structures
      • Homologous structures
      • Diversity
      • Vestigial structures
      • Species
      • Speciation
      • Anatomical structures
      • Chronological
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Oldest fossils are found deeper in the earth, younger fossils are found closer to the surface.
      • Life evolved from simple to more complex forms of life.
      • Periodic extinctions occurred throughout the history of earth.
      • Fossils found closer to the surface more resemble modern species.
      • Bacteria today closely resemble earliest fossils.
      • Fossils of transitional species exist, and suggest evolution from one species to another (e.g., whale hind leg bones).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize the given data, including the appearance of specific types of fossilized organisms in the fossil record as a function of time, as determined by their locations in the sedimentary layers or the ages of rocks.
      • Organize the data in a way that allows for the identification, analysis, and interpretation of similarities and differences in the data.
      • Analyze and interpret the data to determine evidence for patterns of change in anatomical structures of organisms using the fossil record and the chronological order of fossil appearance in rock layers.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is known as the fossil record. It records the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on earth.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Construct an explanation based on evidence (e.g., cladogram, phylogenetic tree) for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms, including living fossils (e.g., alligator, horseshoe crab, nautilus, coelacanth).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use evidence to explain anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms.
      • Use evidence to explain anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and fossilized organisms, including living fossils.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Explanation
      • Evidence
      • Cladogram
      • Phylogenetic tree
      • Anatomical similarities
      • Anatomical differences
      • Organism
      • Fossil
      • Living fossil
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Anatomical similarities and differences among organisms can be used to infer evolutionary relationships among modern organisms and fossil organisms.
      • Anatomical similarities and differences between modern organisms (e.g., skulls of modern crocodiles, skeletons of birds; features of modern whales and elephants).
      • Organisms that share a pattern of anatomical features are likely to be more closely related than are organisms that do not share a pattern of anatomical features, due to the cause-and-effect relationship between genetic makeup and anatomy (e.g., although birds and insects both have wings, the organisms are structurally very different and not very closely related; the wings of birds and bats are structurally similar, and the organisms are more closely related; the limbs of horses and zebras are structurally very similar, and they are more closely related than are birds and bats or birds and insects).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including anatomical similarities and differences among organisms.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation for anatomical similarities and differences among organisms.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation for anatomical similarities and differences among organisms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Organisms that share a pattern of anatomical features are likely to be more closely related than organisms that do not share a pattern of anatomical features.
      • Changes over time in the anatomical features observable in the fossil record can be used to infer lines of evolutionary descent by linking extinct organisms to living organisms through a series of fossilized organisms that share a basic set of anatomical features.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      17 ) Obtain and evaluate pictorial data to compare patterns in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the adult anatomy.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain and evaluate pictorial data of embryological development across multiple species, with attention given to accuracy, credibility, and bias.
      • Identify patterns of similarities and changes in embryo development, which describe evidence of relatedness among apparently diverse species.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Embryo
      • Embryological development
      • Development
      • Species
      • Anatomy
      • Compare
      • Obtain
      • Evaluate
      • Pictorial data
      • Data
      • Patterns
      • Relatedness
      • Diverse
      • Accuracy
      • Bias
      • Credibility
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The more closely related the organisms, the longer the embryonic development proceeds in a parallel fashion (e.g., mammals and fish are more closely related than they appear based on adult features (presence of gill slits), human embryos have tails like other mammals but these features disappear before birth, etc.).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain pictorial data of embryological development across multiple species from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
      • Organize the displays of pictorial data of embryos by developmental stage and by organism to allow for the identification, analysis, and interpretation of relationships in the data.
      • Analyze the organized pictorial displays to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
      • Use patterns of similarities and changes in embryo development to describe evidence for relatedness among apparently diverse species, including similarities that are not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Comparison of the embryological development of different species reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 7
      Life Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      18 ) Construct an explanation from evidence that natural selection acting over generations may lead to the predominance of certain traits that support successful survival and reproduction of a population and to the suppression of other traits.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use multiple valid and reliable sources for evidence Construct an explanation of how natural selection affects the frequency of occurrence and distribution of traits in populations.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Explanation
      • Evidence
      • Evolution
      • Extinct
      • Extinction
      • Natural selection
      • Generation
      • Predominance
      • Heredity
      • Trait
      • Overproduction
      • Reproduction
      • Population
      • Suppression
      • Adaptation
      • Variation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Characteristics of a species change over time (i.e., over generations) through adaptation by natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions.
      • Traits that better support survival and reproduction in a new environment become more common within a population within that environment.
      • Traits that do not support survival and reproduction as well become less common within a population in that environment.
      • When environmental shifts are too extreme, populations do not have time to adapt and may become extinct.
      • Multiple cause-and-effect relationships exist between environmental conditions and natural selection in a population.
      • The increases or decreases of some traits within a population can have more than one environmental cause.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including natural selection and traits.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation for natural selection and its effect on traits in a population.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation for natural selection and its effect on traits in a population.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.
      • Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
      Matter and Its Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze patterns within the periodic table.
      • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms.
      • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Element
      • Atom
      • Protons
      • Nucleus
      • Electrons
      • Neutrons
      • Atomic number
      • Periodic table
      • Array
      • Atomic mass
      • Period
      • Group
      • Chemical properties
      • Physical properties
      • Molecule
      • Bond
      • Chemical bond
      • Valence electron
      • Ion
      • Ionic bond
      • Nonmetal
      • Metal
      • Covalent bond
      • Metallic bond
      • Conductivity
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus.
      • Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
      • Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
      • The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number.
      • The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
      • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
      • Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.
      • Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
      • The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.
      • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically.
      • A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
      • Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
      • Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.
      • Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics.
      • Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models.
      • Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
      • The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Plan and carry out investigations to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan an investigation to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
      • Carry out an investigation to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigation
      • Claims
      • Evidence
      • Substance
      • Matter
      • Composition
      • Property
      • Element
      • Compound
      • Pure substance
      • Characteristic properties
      • Physical property (includes, but not limited to, color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, solubility)
      • Chemical property (includes, but not limited to, flammability, reactivity with water, pH)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A substance is matter which has a specific composition and specific properties.
      • Every pure element is a substance. Every pure compound is a substance.
      • Pure substances have characteristic properties.
      • Characteristic properties are physical or chemical properties that are not affected by the amount or shape of a substance.
      • Characteristic properties can be used to identify a pure substance.
      • Physical properties of a substance are characteristics that can be observed without altering the identity (chemical nature) of the substance.
      • Color, odor, density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, and solubility are examples of physical properties.
      • Chemical properties of a substance are characteristics that can be observed but alter the identity (chemical nature) of the substance.
      • Flammability, reactivity with water, and pH are examples of chemical properties.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes pure substances and their characteristic properties.
      • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes demonstrating that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
      • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
      • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
      • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
      • Make a claim, to be supported by evidence, to support or refute an explanation or model for a given phenomenon, including the idea that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
      • Identify evidence to support the claim from the given materials.
      • Evaluate the evidence for its necessity and sufficiency for supporting the claim.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and evaluation to the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
      • Pure substances can be distinguished from other pure substances based on characteristic properties.
      • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring the Properties of Matter
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Construct explanations based on evidence from investigations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.

      a. Collect and analyze information to illustrate how synthetic materials (e.g., medicine, food additives, alternative fuels, plastics) are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze evidence from investigations related to compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Interpret evidence from investigations related to compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Construct explanations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions based on evidence from investigations.
      • Collect information related to how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
      • Analyze information related to how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
      • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Molecule
      • Atom
      • Compound
      • Element
      • Mixture
      • Intermingled
      • Component
      • Physical means
      • Properties
      • Solution
      • Homogeneous
      • Solute
      • Solvent
      • Dissolve
      • Analyze
      • Synthetic
      • Natural resources
      • Society
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically.
      • A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.
      • All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds.
      • A mixture consists of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically intermingled.
      • A mixture can be separated into its components by physical means, and often retains many of the properties of its components.
      • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase.
      • A solution consists of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
      • Synthetic materials are made by humans.
      • Synthetic materials can be derived from natural resources through chemical processes.
      • The effects of the production and use of synthetic materials have impacts on society.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation differentiating among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation of differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Identify and describe the phenomenon under investigation, which includes the differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Identify and describe the purpose of the investigation, which includes providing evidence of differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Collect and record data, according to the given investigation plan.
      • Evaluate the data to determine the differences between compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
      • Obtain information about synthetic materials from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
      • Determine and describe whether the gathered information is relevant.
      • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources.
      • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials impact society.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Compounds, mixtures, and solutions can be differentiated from one another based on characteristics.
      • Synthetic materials come from natural resources.
      • Synthetic materials have an impact on society.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring the Properties of Matter
      Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Design and conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed from a system.
      • Conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed from a system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Particle motion
      • Temperature
      • State [of Matter]
      • Pure substance
      • Thermal Energy
      • Kinetic Energy
      • System
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Changes in particle motion of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
      • Changes in temperature of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
      • Changes in state of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
      • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes determining changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
      • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
      • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
      • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
      • Use data from the investigation to provide an causal account of the relationship between the addition of removal of thermal energy from a substance and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in particle motion of a pure substance.
      • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in temperature of a pure substance.
      • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in state of a pure substance.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring the Properties of Matter
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Observe and analyze characteristic properties of substances (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point) before and after the substances combine to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Observe characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combine.
      • Analyze characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combine.
      • Determine if chemical reactions have occurred based on observations and analysis of the characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combined.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Characteristic properties (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point)
      • Substances
      • Chemical reaction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties that can be used to identify it.
      • Characteristic properties of substances may include odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, and boiling point.
      • Chemical reactions change characteristic properties of substances.
      • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways.
      • In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Observe characteristic physical and chemical properties of pure substances before and after they interact.
      • Analyze characteristic physical and chemical properties of pure substances before and after they interact.
      • Analyze the properties to identify patterns (i.e., similarities and differences), including the changes in physical and chemical properties of each substance before and after the interaction.
      • Use the analysis to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Observations and analyses can be used to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred.
      • The change in properties of substances is related to the rearrangement of atoms in the reactants and products in a chemical reaction (e.g., when a reaction has occurred, atoms from the substances present before the interaction must have been rearranged into new configurations, resulting in the properties of new substances).
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring the Properties of Matter
      Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Create a model, diagram, or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction and explain the resulting differences between products and reactants.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create a model, diagram or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
      • Explain the differences between products and reactants in a chemical reaction.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Conservation of mass
      • Chemical reaction
      • Product
      • Reactant
      • Model (e.g., diagram, digital simulation)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways.
      • In a chemical reaction, the atoms that make up the original substances (reactants) are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances (products) have different properties from those of the original substances (reactants).
      • In a chemical reaction, the total number of each type of atom is conserved, and the mass does not change. In a chemical reaction, each molecule in each of the reactants is made up of the same type(s) and number of atoms.
      • In a chemical reaction, the number and types of atoms that make up the products are equal to the number and types of atoms that make up the reactants.
      • Each type of atom has a specific mass, which is the same for all atoms of that type.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model, diagram, or digital simulation in which they identify the relevant components for a given chemical reaction.
      • Describe relationships between the components.
      • Use the model to describe that the atoms that make up the reactants rearrange and come together in different arrangements to form the products of a reaction.
      • Use the model to provide a causal account that mass is conserved during chemical reactions because the number and types of atoms that are in the reactants equal the number and types of atoms that are in the products, and all atoms of the same type have the same mass regardless of the molecule in which they are found.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • In a chemical reaction, the atoms of the reactants are regrouped into different molecules, and these products have different properties from those of the original reactants.
      • Mass is conserved during chemical reactions and the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the products.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Exploring the Properties of Matter
      Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Design, construct, and test a device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap) that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water) and modify the device as needed based on criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
      • Construct a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
      • Test a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
      • Modify the device as needed based on criteria.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Design
      • Construct
      • Test
      • Modify
      • Device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap)
      • Engineering
      • Engineering Design
      • Process
      • Temperature
      • Exothermic (release thermal energy)
      • Endothermic (absorb thermal energy
      • Thermal energy
      • Chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving calcium chloride in water)
      • Criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Engineering is a systematic and often iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.
      • The Engineering Design Process (EDP) is a series of steps engineers use to guide them as they solve problems.
      • The EDP may include the following cyclical steps: ask, imagine, plan, create, and improve.
      • In chemical reactions, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into new substances with different properties.
      • Chemical reactions can release thermal energy or store thermal energy. Criteria are requirements for successful designs.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Design and construct a solution to a problem that requires either heating or cooling.
      • Describe the given criteria and constraints.
      • Test the solution for its ability to solve the problem via the release or absorption of thermal energy to or from the system.
      • Use the results of the tests to systematically determine how well the design solution meets the criteria and constraints, and which characteristics of the design solution performed the best.
      • Modify the design of the device based on the results of iterative testing, and improve the design relative to the criteria and constraints.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy.
      • The transfer of energy can be measured as energy flows through a designed or natural system.
      • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it.
      • Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process - that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.
      • The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
      Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Demonstrate, using Newton's First Law, that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
      • Explain Newton's First Law.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Sir Isaac Newton
      • Newton's First Law of Motion
      • Constant velocity
      • Balanced force
      • Unbalanced force
      • External force
      • Rest
      • Motion
      • Inertia
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • An object at rest remains at rest unless acted on by an external force.
      • An object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
      • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
      • An object subjected to balanced forces does not change its motion.
      • An object subjected to unbalanced forces changes its motion over time.
      • Constant velocity indicates that an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate Newton's first law.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's first law and the motion of an object.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Newton's First Law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force.
      • Newton's First Law states that an object at in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Demonstrate, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
      • Explain, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Sir Isaac Newton
      • Newton's Second Law of Motion
      • Mass
      • Acceleration
      • Potential energy
      • Kinetic energy
      • Force
      • External force
      • Sum
      • Motion
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The acceleration of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.
      • The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.
      • For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate Newton's second law.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's second law and the motion of an object.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Newton's Second Law states that changes in an object's motion depends on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design a model of two colliding objects.
      • Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
      • Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Sir Isaac Newton
      • Newton's Third Law of
      • Motion
      • Force
      • Model
      • Mass
      • Speed
      • Velocity
      • Action
      • Reaction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other.
      • These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs.
      • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
      • The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.
      • The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object.
      • The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases.
      • The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Plan and carry out investigations to evaluate how various factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
      • Carry out investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
      • Plan investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
      • Carry out investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Investigation
      • Evaluate
      • Factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core)
      • Force
      • Magnetic force
      • Electric force
      • Electromagnetic Force
      • Attraction
      • Repulsion
      • Magnitude
      • Charges
      • Currents
      • Magnetic strength
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The strength of electric forces can vary.
      • Cause-and-effect relationships affect the strength of electric forces. These relationships include the magnitude and signs of the electric charges on the interacting objects and distances between the interacting objects.
      • The strength of magnetic forces can vary.
      • Cause-and-effect relationships affect the strength of magnetic forces. These relationships include the magnitude of any electric current present in the interaction, or other factors related to the effect of the electric current (e.g., number of turns of wire in a coil), the distance between the interacting objects, the relative orientation of the interacting objects, and the magnitude of the magnetic strength of the interacting objects.
      • Electric and magnetic forces can be attractive or gravitational.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes objects (which can include particles) interacting through electric and magnetic forces.
      • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes which includes objects (which can include particles) interacting through electric and magnetic forces.
      • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
      • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
      • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
      • Use data from the investigation to provide an causal account of the relationship between various factors and the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
      • Various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Construct an argument from evidence explaining that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other (e.g., interactions of magnets, electrically charged strips of tape, electrically charged pith balls, gravitational pull of the moon creating tides) even when the objects are not in contact.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct an argument using evidence that fields exist between objects that are exerting forces on each other even when they are not in contact.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Argument
      • Evidence
      • Field
      • Forces
      • Distance
      • Exert
      • Contact
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Two interacting objects can exert forces on each other even though the two interacting objects are not in contact with each other.
      • Fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the two interacting objects are not in contact with each other. The existing fields may be electric, magnetic, or gravitational.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the idea that objects can interact at a distance.
      • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Energy
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Create and analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object (e.g., riding a bicycle at different speeds, hitting a table tennis ball versus a golf ball, rolling similar toy cars with different masses down an incline).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create graphical displays of data to illustrate relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and the speed of an object.
      • Analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Graphical display
      • Data
      • Kinetic energy
      • Motion
      • Mass
      • Speed linear
      • Nonlinear
      • Proportional
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Kinetic energy is energy that an object possesses due to its motion or movement.
      • Kinetic energy increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or both.
      • Kinetic energy decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or both. The relationship between kinetic energy and mass is a linear proportional relationship (KE ∝ m).
      • In the linear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy doubles as the mass of the object doubles.
      • In the linear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy halves as the mass of the object halves.
      • The relationship between kinetic energy and speed is a nonlinear (square) proportional relationship (KE ∝ v2).
      • In the nonlinear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy quadruples as the speed of the object doubles.
      • In the nonlinear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy decreases by a factor of four as the speed of the object is cut in half.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a graphical display of data that illustrates the relationships between kinetic energy and the mass and speed of an object.
      • Use observations from the display of data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The relationship between kinetic energy, mass, and speed is proportional.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Use models to construct an explanation of how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy (e.g., observing the movement of a roller coaster cart at various inclines, changing the tension in a rubber band, varying the number of batteries connected in a series, observing a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying types of potential energy.
      • Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying amounts of potential energy.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Model
      • System
      • Potential energy
      • Force
      • Electric force
      • Magnetic force
      • Gravitational force
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Potential energy is stored energy.
      • When two objects interact a distance, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from an object. The exerted forces may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational forces.
      • As the relative position of two objects (neutral, charged, magnetic) changes, the potential energy of the system (associated with interactions via electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces) changes.
      • Elastic potential energy is potential energy stored as a result of work done to an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the spring constant k as well as the distance stretched.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a model of a system containing varying types and amounts of potential energy and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The types of potential energy in a system of objects may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational potential energy.
      • The amount of potential energy in a system of objects changes when the distance between stationary objects interacting in the system changes because a force has to be applied to move two attracting objects farther apart, or a force has to be applied to move two repelling objects closer together, both resulting in a transfer of energy to the system.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Experimenting with Forces and Motion
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Analyze and interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature (e.g., comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melt in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, observing the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass and the same material with different masses when adding a specific amount of energy).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature.
      • Interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Factors
      • Matter
      • State of matter
      • Energy transfer
      • Temperature
      • Mass
      • Volume
      • Environment
      • Kinetic energy
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Various factors affect the transfer of energy.
      • The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
      • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
      • Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of particles of matter.
      • Temperature, when measured in Kelvin, is directly proportional to average kinetic energy.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation to determine how various factors affect energy transfer.
      • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between various factors and energy transfer.
      • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
      • Various factors, such as the state of matter, the amounts of matter present, and the environment, affect the amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter. A measure of temperature can indicate the amount of energy transfer.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a car).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Law of Conservation of Energy
      • Argument
      • Claim
      • Kinetic Energy
      • Energy Transfer
      • System
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Kinetic energy is energy that an object possesses due to its motion or movement.
      • Changes in kinetic energy may include changes in motion, temperature, or other observable features of an object.
      • When the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from that object.
      • When the kinetic energy of an object increases or decreases, the energy of other objects or the surroundings within the system increases or decreases, indicating that energy was transferred to or form the object.
      • The Law of Conservation of Energy states that in a closed system, the total energy of the system is conserved and energy is neither created nor destroyed.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Make a claim about a given explanation or model for a phenomenon, including the idea that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from that object .
      • Identify and describe the given evidence that supports the claim.
      • Evaluate the evidence and identify its strengths and weaknesses.
      • Use reasoning to connect the necessary and sufficient evidence and construct the argument.
      • Present oral or written arguments to support or refute the given explanation or model for the phenomenon.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The law of conservation of energy states that in a closed system, the total amount of energy remains constant and energy is neither created nor destroyed.
      • Energy can be converted from one form to another, but the total energy within the system remains fixed.
      • Energy can be transferred between objects in the system.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      17 ) Create and manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.

      a. Analyze and interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
      • Manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
      • Analyze data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
      • Interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Manipulate
      • Model
      • Wave
      • Simple wave
      • Predict
      • Wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength)
      • Energy
      • Analyze
      • Interpret
      • Illustrate
      • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
      • Electromagnetic radiation
      • Photons
      • Hertz
      • Volts
      • Joules
      • Displacement
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Waves represent repeating quantities.
      • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
      • The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point in a certain time. The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz) and one hertz is equal to one wave per second.
      • Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the wave pattern from equilibrium.
      • Wavelength is the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs.
      • The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it travels.
      • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
      • Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of mass-less particles, called photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount of energy. The different types of radiation are defined by the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwave photons have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared photons have still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and, the most energetic of all, gamma-rays.
      • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, or Hertz. Wavelength is measured in meters. Energy is measured in electron volts or Joules.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model of a simple wave and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      • Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
      • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between waves and their positions in the electromagnetic spectrum.
      • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Relationships exist between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.
      • These relationships can be predicted and described with models of simple waves.*The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation.
      • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency and the types of radiation are arranged in the spectrum based on the measure of their energy, wavelength, and/or frequency.
      • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      18 ) Use models to demonstrate how light and sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use models to demonstrate how light waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.
      • Use models to demonstrate how sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Light
      • Sound
      • Absorption
      • Reflection
      • Transmission
      • Media
      • Transparent
      • Translucent
      • Opaque
      • Frequency
      • Amplitude
      • Wavelength
      • Electromagnetic waves
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A medium is not required to transmit electromagnetic waves.
      • A sound wave, a type of mechanical wave, needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
      • When a sound wave strikes an object, it is absorbed, reflected, or transmitted depending on the object's material.
      • When a light wave shines on an object, it is absorbed, reflected, or transmitted depending on the object's material and the frequency of the light.
      • The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the path of light bends.
      • The absorption, reflection, and transmission of light and sound waves can be identified by observing relevant characteristics of the wave, such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength.
      • Materials with certain properties are well-suited for particular functions (e.g., lenses and mirrors, sound absorbers in concert halls, colored light filters, sound barriers next to highways).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop models of light and sound waves and identify the relevant components.
      • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
      • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Light and sound waves differ in how they interact with different types of media.
      • The absorption, reflection, and transmission of light and sound waves depends on the type of media through which they are transmitted.
      • Materials with certain properties are well-suited for particular functions (e.g., lenses and mirrors, sound absorbers in concert halls, colored light filters, sound barriers next to highways).
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 8
      Physical Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      19 ) Integrate qualitative information to explain that common communication devices (e.g., cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems [GPS], wireless technology components) use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use qualitative information to explain how communication devices use electromagnetic waves to encode information.
      • Use qualitative information to explain how communication devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit information.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Qualitative
      • Information
      • Communication devices (e.g., cellular phone, Global Positioning System (GPS), remote control, Wi-Fi, etc.)
      • Electromagnetic waves
      • Energy
      • Energy wave
      • Electric field
      • Magnet
      • Magnetic field
      • Mechanical wave
      • Vacuum
      • Frequency
      • Wavelength
      • Crest
      • Medium
      • Amplitude
      • Displacement
      • Rest position
      • Encode
      • Transmit
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Electromagnetic waves are a form of energy waves that have both an electric and magnetic field. Electromagnetic waves are different from mechanical waves in that they can transmit energy and travel through a vacuum.
      • The different types of electromagnetic waves have different uses and functions in our everyday lives.
      • Electromagnetic waves differ from each other in wavelength, frequency, and energy, and are classified accordingly. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.
      • Frequency refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium
      • The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude. The amplitude of a wave refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position.
      • Electromagnetic waves can be used to encode information.
      • Electromagnetic waves can be used to transmit information.
      • Examples of common communication devices may include cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems (GPS), and wireless technology components.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather evidence sufficient to explain a phenomenon that includes the idea that using waves to carry digital signals is a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than using waves to carry analog signals.
      • Combine the relevant information (from multiple sources) to articulate the explanation.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Common communication devices use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.
      AMSTI Resources:
      AMSTI Module:
      Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
      From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Use models to compare and contrast how the structural characteristics of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids define their function in organisms.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Describe the particles that compose an atom and relate these particles to types of chemical bonding such as covalent, ionic and hydrogen and describe Van der Waals forces.
      • Identify patterns in the elements that compose each macromolecule and the arrangement of monomer units in carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids .
      • Use standard experimental tests to predict the macromolecular content of a given substance.
      • Use models to differentiate macromolecules based on common characteristics.
      • Build models of each of the four macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and describe their role in biological processes.
      • Compare and contrast the structure of each macromolecule and predict the function of each from its structure.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Atom
      • Nucleus
      • Proton
      • Neutron
      • Electron
      • Element
      • Compound
      • Isotope
      • Covalent bond
      • Molecule
      • Ion
      • Ionic bond
      • Van der Waals force
      • Macromolecule
      • Polymer
      • Carbohydrate
      • Monosaccharide
      • Disaccharide
      • Polysaccharide
      • Lipid
      • Saturated fats
      • Unsaturated fats
      • Triglyceride
      • Phospholipid
      • Hydrophobic
      • Steroids
      • Protein
      • Amino acid
      • Peptide bonds
      • Nucleic acid
      • Nucleotide
      • DNA
      • RNA
      • ATP
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • An atom is composed of smaller particles, such as protons, neutrons and electrons.
      • Atoms of the same or different elements can form chemical bonds. The type of bond formed, such as covalent, ionic, or hydrogen, depends on the atomic structure of the element. Carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are the four macromolecules that compose life.
      • Carbohydrates are composed of a monomer of one carbon, 2 hydrogen and one oxygen atoms (CH2O). The role of carbohydrates in biological processes such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
      • The role of lipids in biological processes such as cell membrane function and energy storage.
      • The basic structure of a lipid includes fatty acid tails composed of a chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen and other carbon atoms by single or double bonds.
      • Proteins are made of amino acids, which are small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen hydrogen and sometimes sulfur. The structure of an amino acid consists of a carbon atom in the center which is bonded with a hydrogen, an amino group, a carboxyl group and a variable group—its that variable group that makes each amino acid different.
      • The roles of proteins in biological processes such as enzyme function or structural functionality.
      • Nucleic acids are made of smaller repeating subuntits composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and hydrogen atoms, called nucleotides.
      • There are six major nucleotides—all of which have three units—a phosphate, a nitrogenous base, and a ribose sugar. The role of nucleic acids in biological processes such as transmission of hereditary information.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Describe the particles that compose an atom.
      • Relate atomic particles to types of chemical bonding such as covalent, ionic and hydrogen.
      • Describe Van der Waals forces.
      • Identify patterns in the elements that compose each macromolecule.
      • Identify the arrangement of monomer units in carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.
      • Differentiate macromolecules based on common characteristics.
      • Construct models of the four major macromolecules.
      • Analyze models of the four major biomolecules to identify the monomer unit that repeats across the macromolecule polymer and relate molecular structure to biological function.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Cells are made of atoms.
      • The four macromolecules that compose life are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
      • Macromolecules contain distinct patterns of monomer subunits that repeat across the macromolecule polymer and that structure affects the biological function of the macromolecule.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Macromolecules: Structure and Function; DNA Model; Enzymes; Designer Enzymes; Macromolecules in Food
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe the function and diversity of organelles and structures in various types of cells (e.g., muscle cells having a large amount of mitochondria, plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plant cells).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Describe the cell theory and discuss the historical context of its development.
      • Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
      • Compare and contrast various types of cells.
      • Using various sources (prepared or wet mount slides, images, digital animations), identify cellular organelles.
      • Gather, analyze, and communicate the diversity of organelles and structures that exist within different types of cells.
      • Based on their function, describe why certain organelles and structures are found in particular types of cells
      .
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Cell
      • Cell theory
      • Plasma membrane
      • Organelle
      • Cell structures (e.g., cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, etc.)
      • Cell organelles (e.g., nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, etc.)
      • Prokaryote
      • Eukaryote
      • Bacterial cell
      • Plant cell
      • Animal cell
      • Muscle cell
      • Other types of cells such as unicellular organisms (e.g., amoeba), nerve cell, sex cell (sperm/egg), etc.
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Historical contributions to the cell theory by scientists such as Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden etc.
      • The cell theory is one of the fundamental ideas of modern biology and includes three principles:
        1. All living things are composed of cells.
        2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.
        3. Cells arise only from previously existing cells.
      • There are many types of organelles.
      • Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.
      • Prokaryotic cells are cells without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.
      • How organelles function within a cell.
      • How the function of organelles relates to their presence in various types of cells.
      • The characteristics of different types of cells can be determined based on the presence of certain organelles.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information about the function and diversity of organelles and cell structures.
      • Evaluate the function of a cell based on the presence or absence of particular organelles and/or cell structures.
      • Communicate information to describe the function of organelles and cell structures in various types of cells.
      • Communicate information to describe the diversity of organelles and structures in various types of cells.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Structures within different types of cells will have different functions.
      • Cellular function is related to the presence and number of particular organelles and cell structures.
      • Various types of cells can be identified by the presence of particular organelles and/or cell structures.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Comparing Cell Structures; Observing Protist Locomotion; Osmosis and Plasmolysis in Onion Cells; Why must Cells be Small?
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Formulate an evidence-based explanation regarding how the composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determines the structural organization of proteins.

      a. Obtain and evaluate experiments of major scientists and communicate their contributions to the development of the structure of DNA and to the development of the central dogma of molecular biology.

      b. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that explains how advancements in genetic technology (e.g., Human Genome Project, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] project, 1000 Genomes Project) have contributed to the understanding as to how a genetic change at the DNA level may affect proteins and, in turn, influence the appearance of traits.

      c. Obtain information to identify errors that occur during DNA replication (e.g., deletion, insertion, translocation, substitution, inversion, frame-shift, point mutations).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify the structural components within a model of DNA including monomer units and hydrogen bonds.
      • Use models to demonstrate how information encoded in DNA leaves the nucleus.
      • Investigate the process of semi-conservative replication and compare the lead strand to the lagging strand.
      • Compare and contrast the functionality of multiple types of RNA and relate that function to protein synthesis.
      • Illustrate how mRNA serves as a template for building a polypeptide chain and how other types of RNA are utilized in the process.
      • Use a codon chart to determine the sequence of amino acids (polypeptide chains) that will be built from a given mRNA sequence.
      • Explain protein folding in terms of the rules of chemistry and physics to describe how the folding of the protein affects its function.
      • Relate the levels of protein structure to the final three-dimensional shape and functionality of the protein.
      • Cite and evaluate evidence that supports Watson and Crick's model of the double helix structure of DNA.
      • Annotate a diagram of the Central Dogma of Biology to include relevant discoveries and their implications on the understanding of the Central Dogma.
      • Evaluate the major findings of research projects such as the Human Genome Project, ENCODE, and the 1000 Genomes Project and modify my working definition of "a gene" based on the findings of those projects.
      • Communicate the impact of modern genome research projects on our understanding of gene structure and function.
      • Interpret the impacts of DNA changes using lab techniques such as gel electrophoresis, PCR, or computer based resources.
      • Explain gene expression in terms of genes being "turned on or off" and in broad terms identify the factors that influence gene expression.
      • Use data to support the concept that changes in DNA impact protein function in predictable ways.
      • Draw conclusions about errors that occur during replication.
      • Compare and contrast types of mutations and use a model to show how changes in DNA can result in changes in protein function.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Nitrogenous bases
      • Deoxyribose
      • Phosphates
      • Hydrogen bonding
      • Nucleotides
      • Semi-conservative replication
      • Central Dogma
      • Transcription
      • Various types of RNA, including those involved in protein synthesis (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA) and those associated with gene regulation (e.g., IncRNA, miRNA, siRNA) and post-transcriptional modification (snRNA)
      • RNA polymerase
      • Introns
      • Exons
      • Codon
      • Translation
      • Anticodon
      • Deletion
      • Insertion
      • Substitution
      • Variant
      • DNA sequencing
      • PCR
      • Gel electrophoresis
      • Big Science Projects conducted over last 30 years: Human Genome Project, The International Hap Map, ENCODE, Cancer Genome Atlas, 1000 Genomes project, ClinVar and ClinGen, and the Exome Aggregation
      • Consortium.
      • Deletion
      • Insertion
      • Translocation
      • Substitution
      • Inversion
      • Frameshift mutations
      • Point mutations
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • All living things have DNA How the 5' and 3' orientation of DNA nucleotides results in the antiparallel nature of DNA.
      • The complementary nature of nitrogenous bases.
      • How hydrogen bonding holds complementary bases together across two DNA strands.
      • The basic mechanism of reading and expressing genes is from DNA to RNA to Protein (The Central Dogma of Biology).
      • The first step of the Central dogma is a process called transcription, which synthesizes mRNA from DNA.
      • The process where the mRNA connects to a ribosome, the code is read and then translated into a protein is called translation.
      • To become a functional protein, a translated chain of amino acids must be folded into a specific three-dimensional shape.
      • Historically important experiments that led to the development of the structure of DNA, including Mieshcer, Chargraff, Rosalind Franklin, Watson/Crick, etc.
      • DNA changes can be linked to observable traits in the natural world, such as diseases.
      • Common laboratory techniques are used to obtain evidence that supports the premise that DNA changes may affect proteins and in turn the appearance of traits.
      • Types of errors that can occur during replication and the impact these errors have on protein production and/or function.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Build from scratch or work with previously constructed models of DNA to identify the key structural components of the molecule.
      • Obtain and communicate information (possibly through a conceptual model) describing how information encoded in DNA leaves the nucleus.
      • Obtain and expand explanation to include how the information transcribed from DNA to RNA determines the amino acid sequence of proteins.
      • Identify and describe the function of molecules required for replication and differentiate between replication on the leading and lagging DNA strands.
      • Group mRNA into codons and identify the amino acid associated with each codon. Create and manipulate polypeptide models to demonstrate protein folding.
      • Use a variety of resources (web-based timelines, original publications, documentaries, and interviews), explain how historically important experiments helped scientists determine the molecular structure of DNA, and develop the concept of the Central Dogma of Biology.
      • Analyze a variety of diagnostic techniques that identify genetic variation in a clinical setting.
      • Relate protein structure to enzyme function and discuss the causes and impacts of protein denaturation on both enzymes and structural proteins.
      • Identify the impact of DNA changes on the structure and/or function of the resulting amino acid sequences.
      • Predict the impact of errors during DNA replication in terms of protein production and/or function.
      • Classify types of DNA changes (deletions, insertions, and substitutions).
      • Use models to explain how deletions, insertions, translocation, substitution, inversion, frameshift, and point mutations occur during the process of DNA replication.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The traits of living things are ultimately determined by inherited sequences of DNA.
      • The end product of transcription is always RNA, but the process produces many different types of RNA with varying functions.
      • DNA instructions are replicated and passed from parent to offspring, segregating traits across generations in a mathematically predictable manner.
      • A protein is a linear sequence of amino acids that spontaneously folds following rules of chemistry and physics.
      • A series of historically important experiments let to the current understanding of the structure of DNA and the Central Dogma of Biology.
      • Errors that occur during DNA replication can affect protein production and/or function. Important projects over the past 30 years have changed the definition of a "gene" and increased the ability to assess the impact of DNA variation in a trait or disease.
      • Genetic change can lead to altered protein function and the appearance of a different trait or disease.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Protein Synthesis Manipulative; Manipulating DNA; Genes and Consequences; Protein Synthesis with Words; Expanded DNA Extraction; HNPCC
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Develop and use models to explain the role of the cell cycle during growth and maintenance in multicellular organisms (e.g., normal growth and/or uncontrolled growth resulting in tumors).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Illustrate the amount of time spent in each phase of the cell cycle by a cell.
      • Develop and use a model to describe patterns in typical cell growth and relate those patterns to the mechanisms of cell reproduction for growth, differentiation, and repair.
      • Develop a model of chromosome movement and use the model to explain the maintenance of chromosome number during meiosis.
      • Use chromosome models to illustrate mitosis and explain the role of mitosis in maintaining populations of cells.
      • Use a model to demonstrate errors that may occur during cell division.
      • Identify the strengths and limitations of a model in representing the cell cycle and cell differentiation.
      • Use evidence to describe the internal and external factors that influence cell cycle control mechanisms.
      • Use a model to compare multiple pathways to tumor formation.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Cell cycle
      • Chromosome
      • Somatic cell
      • Chromatin
      • Spindle fibers
      • Kinetochore microtubules
      • Centrioles
      • Centrosome
      • Centromere
      • Sister chromatids
      • Mitosis
      • Prometaphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Metaphase plate
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
      • Cytokinesis
      • Cell plate
      • Cleavage furrow
      • Interphase
      • S phase
      • G1
      • G2
      • Growth
      • Maintenance
      • Checkpoints
      • Signaling factors
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The phases of the cell cycle (Interphase-G1, S, and G2 phases, Mitosis and cytokenisis), the amount of time spent in each cycle and what occurs during each cycle.
      • The process of cell cycle regulation.
      • Mechanisms, checkpoints and signaling factor molecules that regulate the cell cycle.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Generate a graphic illustrating the amount of time a cell spends in each phase of the cell cycle.
      • Observe video, image or microscope slide and identify cells in each phase, relative abundance, and estimate the time spent in each phase.
      • Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between the cell cycle and the growth and maintenance of an organism.
      • Illustrate chromosome behavior during mitosis using chromosome models.
      • Distinguish between replicated and un-replicated chromosomes.
      • Demonstrate the events and cellular processes involved in each stage of mitosis.
      • Investigate the impact of errors in the process of cell division.
      • Identify the basic mechanisms, checkpoints, and general categories of signaling factor molecules (both internal and external).
      • Relate errors in control mechanisms to uncontrolled cell growth (cancer).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The cell cycle is necessary for growth and maintenance in multi-cellular organisms.
      • Mitosis only makes somatic (body) cells.
      • Errors in control mechanisms within the cell cycle lead to uncontrolled cell growth (cancer).
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      The Cell Cycle
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) and cellular processes (e.g., active and passive transport) that maintain homeostasis.

      a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain how the unique properties of water (e.g., polarity, cohesion, adhesion) are vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function; Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Distinguish the components of a feedback loop and identify the function of each.
      • Predict the characteristics necessary for maintaining homeostasis and investigate factors that affect homeostasis in living organisms.
      • Use evidence from my investigation to explain how negative feedback mechanisms regulate and maintain a narrow range of internal conditions in living systems among a wide range of external conditions.
      • Investigate the phospholipid bilayer structure of the plasma membrane and how its hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties help separate the environment inside the cell from the environment outside of the cell.
      • Investigate how materials move across membranes and categorize the movements as active or passive transport.
      • Conduct several short investigations to predict the unique properties of water.
      • Build a model of a water molecule that illustrates hydrogen bonding.
      • Use model to illustrate how water molecules interact with each other and with other polar and non-polar molecules, based on oppositely charged pats of the molecule.
      • Distinguish between solution types based on solute concentration (hypo-, hyper-, isotonic solutions).
      • Relate multiple properties of water to impacts on cells and living systems as well as the maintenance of homeostasis.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Negative feedback loop
      • Positive feedback
      • Enzyme related feedback
      • Stimulus
      • Response
      • Effector
      • Receptor
      • Afferent pathway
      • Efferent pathway
      • Integration
      • Phospholipid bilayer
      • Selective permeability
      • Transport protein
      • Fluid mosaic model
      • Polarity
      • Surface tension
      • Capillary
      • Adhesion
      • Cohesion
      • Hypotonic
      • Hypertonic
      • Isotonic
      • Active transport
      • Passive transport
      • Mixture
      • Solution
      • Solvent
      • Solute
      • Diffusion
      • Dynamic equilibrium
      • Facilitated diffusion
      • Osmosis
      • Endocytosis
      • Exocytosis
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A negative feedback loop is when the body senses (receptor) an internal change (stimulus) and activates mechanisms (effector) that reverse, or negate (response) that change (e.g., Regulation of body temperature).
      • The positive feedback loop is a process where the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that accelerate or increase that change—can aid in homeostasis but also can be life threatening (e.g., blood clotting (helpful), response to myocardial infarction (potentially fatal).
      • The chemical structure of the phospholipid membrane and the various ways large and small molecules move between the inside and outside of the cell to maintain homeostasis.
      • The movement of water is a cellular response to different solute concentrations within and outside the cell.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Investigate and communicate factors that affect homeostasis in living organisms.
      • Develop an answerable scientific question and plan and carry out an investigation that provides data about homeostasis.
      • Investigate the function of the plasma membrane in relation to cellular processes that maintain homeostasis within the cell.
      • Observe and explore simple experiments to develop a working list of the properties of water.
      • Use a model to explain the properties of water at a molecular level.
      • Use a model to illustrate chemical interactions between water molecules and other polar and non-polar compounds.
      • Design an experiment that provides data regarding one property of water and communicate the experimental design, results and conclusions.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Homeostasis is the tendency of an organism or cell to regulate its internal environment and maintain equilibrium, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning.
      • A complex set of chemical, thermal and neural factors interact in complex ways, both helping and hindering the body while it works to maintain homeostasis.
      • Water movement is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis for cells and vascular systems.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Osmosis and Diffusion; Rubber Egg Diffusion; We Got the Beet; Homeostasis; Thirsty for Water; Osmosis and Plasmolysis in Onion Cells; Pass the Molecules Please!; Expanded DNA Extraction
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Analyze and interpret data from investigations to explain the role of products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.

      a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain the interactions among pigments, absorption of light, and reflection of light.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Collect and analyze data to identify the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
      • Use evidence to describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and illustrate that relationship.
      • Collect and analyze data from an investigation to explain how energy is transferred and used in cells to power life processes.
      • Analyze and interpret data from experiments related to photosynthesis to draw conclusions about the cycling of matter and energy.
      • Collect and analyze data from an investigation to explain how energy is transferred and used in cells to power life processes.
      • Compare respiration strategies in terms of energy required and energy released.
      • Use data from investigations to support the premise that light energy is absorbed by pigments during photosynthesis.
      • Relate evidence from an experiment to light absorption and reflection in photosynthetic organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Energy
      • Thermodynamics
      • Metabolism
      • Photosynthesis
      • Cellular respiration
      • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
      • Autotroph
      • Heterotroph
      • Chloroplasts
      • chlorophylls
      • Thylakoid
      • Granum
      • Stroma
      • Pigment
      • Photosystems I & II
      • NADP+
      • NADPH
      • chemiosmosis
      • Calvin Cycle
      • Rubisco
      • Anaerobic process
      • Aerobic respiration
      • Aerobic process
      • Glycolysis
      • ATP
      • Pyruvate
      • Krebs cycle
      • Fermentation (lactic acid and alcohol)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Autotrophs obtain energy directly from sunlight.
      • Heterotrophs obtain energy by eating autotrophs and other heterotrophs.
      • The relationship between CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and respiration—recognize that the reactants of one are the products of the other.
      • The inputs and outputs of energy at each stage of photosynthesis—stage I, the light-dependent reactions and stage II, the light-independent reactions (Calvin Cycle).
      • The structure and function of ATP--Energy is stored in the bonds between phosphates in ATP and released when those bonds are broken.
      • The inputs and outputs of energy at each stage of Cellular respiration—Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and Electron transport.
      • The role of plant pigments in photosynthesis.
      • The red and blue ends of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum are used by plants in photosynthesis while the reflection and transmission of the middle of the spectrum gives leaves their green visual color (in most cases).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Formulate a scientific question about how energy is stored and/or released in living systems.
      • Analyze information about how photosynthesis converts light energy into stored chemical energy.
      • Interpret data illustrating the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
      • Explain the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy flow and cycling of matter.
      • Investigate the relationship between wavelength and energy.
      • Investigate the energy absorbed and reflected by photosynthetic pigments at specific wavelengths.
      • Interpret data describing the absorption and reflection of wavelengths by various pigments.
      • Describe the relationship between pigments, wavelength and energy.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two important processes that cells use to obtain energy.
      • The products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose, the reactants needed for cellular respiration.
      • The products of cellular respiration, carbon dioxide and water, are the reactants needed for photosynthesis.
      • Photosynthesis is dependent on the absorption of light by pigments in the leaves of plants.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Plants and Energy; Photosynthesis, Energy, and the Cycling of Matter; Leaf Disk Photosynthesis; Chromotography of Photosynthetic Pigments; Comparing Conditions of CO2Pproducation for Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration; Factors affecting Photosynthesis; Yeast in Anaerobic Respiration; Cellular Events in Seed Germination; Tree Carbon Sequestration
      Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Develop and use models to illustrate examples of ecological hierarchy levels, including biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, and organism.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use observations to develop a model that illustrates ecological hierarchies and compare developed model to hierarchies existing in nature.
      • Use models to investigate the role of different environmental factors within the hierarchy.
      • Use data to develop a model depicting the ecological hierarchy of a novel ecosystem and communicate the dynamics of the hierarchy.
      • Investigate biomes, using a variety of resources to compare and contrast the characteristics of each.
      • Use evidence to classify major geographical regions into biomes, based on climate and dominant life forms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Ecology
      • Biosphere
      • Biotic factor
      • Abiotic factor
      • Population
      • Biological community
      • Ecosystem
      • Biome
      • Species
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The biosphere is the portion of the Earth that supports life.
      • The lowest level of organization is the individual organism itself.
      • Individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographical location at the same time make up the population.
      • A group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographical area at the same time is a biological community.
      • An ecosystem is the biological community and all the abiotic factors that affect it (e.g., water temperature, light availability).
      • A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize objects or organisms into levels of hierarchy.
      • Develop a hierarchical classification model using standard language and parameters.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • In order to study relationships within the biosphere, it is divided into smaller levels of organization.
      • The simplest level of organization is the organism, with increasing levels of complexity as the numbers and interactions between organisms increase, shown in the population, biological community, ecosystem, and biome until reaching the most complex level of the biosphere.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Biome Bags; Protozoa Symbiosis; Global Carbon
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 11
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 10
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Develop and use models to describe the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, water) and flow of energy (e.g., food chains, food webs, biomass pyramids, ten percent law) between abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models; Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Categorize organisms in an ecosystem based on evidence of how they obtain energy.
      • Construct a food chain that differentiates between producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers and integrate multiple food chains into a food web.
      • Use relationships between organisms to develop a food web and use it to demonstrate flow of energy and predict the impacts of population changes. Construct a pyramid of biomass, given population data about organisms in the ecosystem and make calculations using data from the pyramid.
      • Use mathematical examples, such as the 10% law to explain why there is less energy available at each level of an energy pyramid.
      • Analyze data to identify patterns in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and water in ecosystems.
      • Use patterns identified in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and water to build models of matter cycling through ecosystems.
      • Predict the effect of the reduction of a population of species on the carbon, nitrogen or water cycle.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Autotroph
      • Heterotroph
      • Primary producer
      • Primary consumer
      • Secondary consumer
      • Tertiary consumer
      • Herbivore
      • Carnivore
      • Omnivore
      • Detritivore
      • Trophic levels: primary, secondary and tertiary
      • Food chain
      • Food web
      • Biomass
      • Energy pyramid
      • Biomass pyramid
      • Number pyramid
      • Matter
      • Nutrient
      • Biogeochemical cycle
      • Nitrogen fixation
      • Denitrification
      • Law of conservation of mass
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • A food chain is a simple model representing the transfer of energy from organism to organism (e.g., sun → plant → grasshopper → mouse → snake).
      • Each step of a food chain represents a trophic level always starting with an autotroph in the first level and heterotrophs in the remaining levels.
      • The overlapping relationships between multiple food chains are shown in a food web.
      • An ecological pyramid is a model that can show the relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
      • In an energy pyramid, only 10% of energy is passed from one trophic level to the next due to loss of energy in the form of heat caused by cellular respiration (10% rule).
      • In a biomass pyramid, the total mass of living matter at each trophic level tends to decrease.
      • In a numbers pyramid, it shows the number of organisms at each trophic level tends to decrease because there is less energy available to support organisms.
      • The exchange of matter through the biosphere is called the biogeochemical cycle and involves living organisms (bio), geological processes (geo), and chemical processes (chemical).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a self-created food web diagram to predict the impact of removing one organism on other organisms within the food web.
      • Use data to create ecological pyramids to show flow of energy, biomass and number of organisms.
      • Model the cycling of matter (e.g., Carbon, water, nitrogen) through the biosphere.
      • Combine a food web diagram with a matter cycling diagram to provide a holistic view of the many aspects that make up an ecosystem.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Everything in an ecosystem is connected to everything else (both abiotic and biotic), either directly or indirectly.
      • Nutrients, in the form of elements and compounds, flow through organisms in an ecosystem (e.g., grass captures substances from the air, soil and water and converts them into usable nutrients → cow eats the grass → human eats the cow → decomposers return the nutrients to the cycle at every level).
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Traveling Carbon Passport; Traeling Nitrogen Passport; Traveling Phosphorus Passport; Food Chains, Food Webs and Energy; Owl Pellets; Tree Carbon Sequestration
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Use mathematical comparisons and visual representations to support or refute explanations of factors that affect population growth (e.g., exponential, linear, logistic).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create graphs representing exponential, linear, and logistic growth and use those graphs to calculate doubling time for a population.
      • Use mathematical or computer models to investigate the factors that affect population growth in an ecosystem.
      • Identify patterns in the characteristics of population growth that distinguish exponential growth from linear growth from logistic growth.
      • Investigate factors that impact population growth and make predictions of how changing environmental conditions will affect population growth.
      • Use growth curves of predators and prey to evaluate the impact of one species on another.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Population growth rate
      • Emigration
      • Immigration
      • Exponential, linear and logistic growth
      • Doubling time
      • Carrying capacity
      • Density-independent
      • Density-dependent
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Exponential population growth occurs when the growth rate is proportional to the size of the population (J shaped curve).
      • Logistic population growth shows the population leveling off when it reaches carrying capacity (S shaped curve).
      • Linear population growth is the addition of the same number of organisms to the population at a constant rate, no matter the size of the population (strait line growth).
      • Environmental factors (density-independent factors) that can impact population growth (flood, drought, extreme heat or cold, etc.).
      • Ecological factors (density-dependent) that can affect population growth (e.g., predation, disease, parasites, competition).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use data to create graphs.
      • Calculate doubling time for a population.
      • Mathematically compare populations experiencing varying conditions.
      • Investigate various factors (both environmental and ecological) that impact population growth.
      • Draw conclusions from population growth graphs.
      • Using various visual representations of data, make claims about specific causes and effects.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • An important characteristic of any population is its growth rate.
      • Some populations remain approximately the same size from year to year while others vary in size depending on conditions within their habitats.
      • Populations tend to stabilize near the carrying capacity of their environment.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Predator-Prey Populations Exponential Population Growth
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Construct an explanation and design a real-world solution to address changing conditions and ecological succession caused by density-dependent and/or density-independent factors.*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data on population growth to identify limiting factors, both abiotic and biotic.
      • Analyze data to find patterns that distinguish density-dependent from density-independent limiting factors.
      • Distinguish between primary and secondary ecological succession and show that an ecosystem responds to such a disturbance in a predictable manner. Analyze historical data to find patterns in an ecosystem's response to disturbance.
      • Design a solution to changing environmental conditions or ecological succession that accounts for density-dependent and independent factors.
      • Synthesize data and reasoning to evaluate potential solutions to an environmental problem.
      • Communicate proposed solution and support conclusions with evidence and reasoning.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Population density
      • Dispersion
      • Density-independent factor
      • Density-dependent factor
      • Population growth rate
      • Limiting factor
      • Ecological succession
      • Primary succession
      • Climax community
      • Secondary succession
      • Pioneer species
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Factors associated with population density are important regulators of population growth.
      • Density-independent factors that can impact population growth (e.g., flood, drought, extreme heat or cold, tornadoes, etc.).
      • Density-dependent factors that can impact population growth (e.g., predation, disease, parasites, competition).
      • The different types of ecological succession and their causes. Primary succession is the development of a community in an area of exposed rock that does not have any topsoil (e.g., hardened lava flow).
      • Secondary Succession is the change that takes place after a community of organisms have been removed but the topsoil remains intact (e.g., fire, flood, etc.).
      • Engineering design principles.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Collect and organize population growth data compiled on population growth under varying conditions related to food availability, rainfall, predation, migration, and disease.
      • Analyze data to categorize factors, organize data and draw conclusions about a variety of limiting factors to classify each as density-dependent or independent.
      • Identify a problem, assess the data, determine if enough information is provided to make an informed decision, assess whether a solution is needed, and recommend what form that solution should take.
      • Apply engineering design principles to the development of a solution, identifying required inputs and expected outcomes and determine how the solution will be tested and refined.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Ecosystems are constantly changing.
      • Changes in an ecosystem are the result of density-dependent or density-independent factors, sometimes including human activity.
      • By using the engineering design process, solutions to ecological problems can be developed, tested and refined.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Limiting Factors; Bead Bugs; Bluegill Limiting Factors; Bio-Assessment; Soil Profiles; Ecological Succession
      Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Analyze and interpret data collected from probability calculations to explain the variation of expressed traits within a population.

      a. Use mathematics and computation to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and percentages by constructing Punnett squares, including using both homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs.

      b. Develop and use models to demonstrate codominance, incomplete dominance, and Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

      c. Analyze and interpret data (e.g., pedigree charts, family and population studies) regarding Mendelian and complex genetic disorders (e.g., sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, type 2 diabetes) to determine patterns of genetic inheritance and disease risks from both genetic and environmental factors.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Collect and analyze data on traits within a population to identify patterns within expressed traits in a population.
      • Mathematically calculate the probability of expressed traits of offspring, given parental traits and an understanding of inheritance patterns.
      • Use a model to determine potential gametes from parental genotype and develop a Punnett square to predict inheritance outcomes.
      • Annotate a Punnett square, identifying maternal and paternal gametes, and use mathematics to explain the predicted outcomes.
      • Observe traits in offspring and use knowledge of inheritance patterns and Punnett squares to infer parental genotypes.
      • Use probability to predict the likelihood of specific offspring given parent traits and inheritance pattern.
      • Distinguish between homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs and relate these to phenotype.
      • Analyze data to find inheritance patterns and explain those patterns in terms of incomplete dominance, codominance and Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.
      • Use models, diagrams, and/or text to connect Mendel's laws of inheritance to the biological processes of meiosis.
      • Differentiate genetic disorders in humans in terms of errors of meiosis, either large scale (chromosomal) or small scale (point mutations).
      • Apply concepts of inheritance to explain patterns seen in pedigrees, offspring ratios, and trait prevalence in a population.
      • Identify non-genetic factors that may impact expressed traits.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Genetics
      • Allele
      • Dominant
      • Recessive
      • Homozygous
      • Heterozygous
      • Genotype
      • Phenotype
      • Law of segregation
      • Hybrid
      • Law of independent assortment
      • F1 and F2 generations
      • Monohybrid
      • Dihybrid
      • Punnet square
      • Probability
      • Crossing over
      • Genetic recombination
      • Carrier
      • Pedigree
      • Incomplete dominance
      • Codominance
      • Multiple alleles
      • Epistasis
      • Sex chromosome
      • Autosome
      • Sex-linked trait
      • Polygenic trait
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Inheritable genetic variations may result from: new genetic combinations through meiosis, viable errors occurring during replication, and mutations caused by environmental factors.
      • Variations in genetic material naturally result during meiosis when corresponding sections of chromosome pairs exchange places.
      • Genetic material is inheritable.
      • Genetic variations produced by mutations and meiosis are inheritable.
      • The difference between genotypic and phenotypic ratios and percentages.
      • Examples of genetic crosses that do not fit traditional inheritance patterns (e.g., incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multi-allelic, polygenic) and explanations as to how the observed phenotypes are produced.
      • Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.
      • Pedigrees can be used to infer genotypes from the observation of genotypes.
      • By analyzing a person's family history or a population study, disorders in future offspring can be predicted.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Perform and use appropriate statistical analysis of data, including probability measures to determine the relationship between a trait's occurrence within a population and environmental factors.
      • Differentiate between homozygous and heterozygous allele pairings.
      • Create Punnett squares to predict offspring genotypic and phenotypic ratios.
      • Explain the relationship between the inherited genotype and the visible trait phenotype.
      • Examine genetic crosses that do not fit traditional inheritance patterns (incomplete dominance and co-dominance).
      • Use chromosome models to physically demonstrate the points in meiosis where Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment are observed.
      • Analyze pedigrees to identify the patterns of inheritance for specific traits/ disorders including autosomal dominant/ recessive as well as sex-linked and mitochondrial patterns.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis, thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation.
      • Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation.
      • Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited.
      • Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population.
      • The variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Dragon Genetics; Alkaptonuria; Blood Typing; Corn Lab; HNPCC; Chromosocks; Collecting Cancer Causing Changes (C4)
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Develop and use a model to analyze the structure of chromosomes and how new genetic combinations occur through the process of meiosis.

      a. Analyze data to draw conclusions about genetic disorders caused by errors in meiosis (e.g., Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model of a replicated and non-replicated chromosome to compare their structure and use scientific vocabulary to describe chromosome structures.
      • Develop a model of chromosome movement at multiple points during meiosis and use the model to determine when cells are haploid and diploid.
      • Identify when crossing over occurs and explain the significance of crossing over in genetic variation.
      • Use models to demonstrate a variety of chromosomal changes such as deletions, insertions, inversions, translocation, and nondisjunction.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Chromosome
      • Replicated chromosome
      • Sister chromatids
      • Telomeres
      • Centromere
      • Homologous chromosome pairs
      • Haploid (n)
      • Diploid (2n)
      • Gene
      • Gamete
      • Fertilization
      • Meiosis
      • Crossing over
      • Meiosis I
      • Interphase
      • Prophase I
      • Metaphase I
      • Anaphase I
      • Telophase I
      • Meiosis II
      • Prophase II
      • Metaphase II
      • Anaphase II
      • Telophase II
      • Cytokinesis
      • Karyotype
      • Nondisjunction
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Chromosomes appearing as an "X" shape are replicated chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids.
      • The difference between mitosis and meiosis in terms of chromosome number and number of daughter cells produced.
      • Crossing over is where chromosomal segments are exchanged when homologous chromosomes are lined up during Prophase I.
      • Crossing over leads to more genetic variation within the population.
      • Types of errors that can occur during meiosis that can lead to genetic disorders such as nondisjunction where chromosomes fail to separate properly during Meiosis I or II and result in gametes not having the proper number of chromosomes or in disorders caused by breakage and improper rejoining of chromosome broken ends such as in deletions, insertions, inversions and translocations.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop models of replicated and non-replicated chromosomes and identify important parts of their structure.
      • Compare diagrams of mitosis and meiosis and list the differences between the two.
      • Develop a model of chromosome movement at each stage of meiosis.
      • Determine whether a cell is haploid or diploid.
      • Evaluate meiosis models, comparing them to the biological process, and identify strengths and weaknesses of the model.
      • Interpret human karyotypes to identify typical chromosome patterns as well as various large-scale chromosome errors.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis, thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation.
      • Errors can occur during meiosis which can lead to genetic disorders.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Disorder Detectives; HNPCC
      Unity and Diversity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 20
      Learning Activities: 8
      Lesson Plans: 12
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how organisms are classified by physical characteristics, organized into levels of taxonomy, and identified by binomial nomenclature (e.g., taxonomic classification, dichotomous keys).

      a. Engage in argument to justify the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use major features to classify unfamiliar organisms using accepted classification schemes and justify classification.
      • Use binomial nomenclature and tools such as dichotomous keys to classify unfamiliar organisms and determine where they fit into accepted taxonomic schemes.
      • Identify characteristics of organisms within each of the six kingdoms of life.
      • Distinguish biotic from abiotic materials using the scientifically accepted characteristics of life.
      • Create a logical argument based on evidence and reasoning, to support the premise that viruses are not living things.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Classification
      • Taxonomy
      • Binomial nomenclature
      • Taxon
      • Genus
      • Family
      • Order
      • Class
      • Phylum
      • Division
      • Kingdom
      • Domain
      • Dichotomous key
      • Virus
      • Capsid
      • Lytic cycle
      • Lysogenic cycle
      • Retrovirus
      • Prion
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Historical systems of classification (Aristotle, Linnaeus).
      • Taxa are organized into a hierarchal system—each taxa contained within another, arranged from broadest to most specific.(domain ← kingdom ← phylum ← class ← order ← family ← genus ← species)
      • Characteristics of living things: made of cells, obtain and use energy, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to their environment, adapt to their environment.
      • Viruses do not exhibit all the characteristics of life: they do not possess cells, nor are they cells, they have no organelles to take in nutrients or use energy, they cannot make proteins, they cannot move, and they cannot replicate on their own.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize items based on physical characteristics and/or DNA sequences, etc. and communicate reasoning to others.
      • Design a classification scheme (e.g., dichotomous key) for a collection of common but not necessarily related objects.
      • Correctly write an organism's name using binomial nomenclature.
      • Research viruses using a variety of sources—analysis should include viral life cycles, reproductive strategies and their structure and function.
      • Argue from evidence whether a virus is living or not.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Biologists find it easier to communicate and retain information about organisms when organisms are organized into groups.
      • Though viruses exhibit several of the characteristics of life, they are not considered to be living things and are not included in the biological classification system.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Classification of Living Things; Observing Protist Locomotion; Animal Characteristics
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Analyze and interpret data to evaluate adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g., antibiotic-resistant bacteria, beak types, peppered moths, pest-resistant crops).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Collect and analyze data to identify patterns in survival and trait frequency in a population of organisms.
      • Analyze and Interpret data about which traits in a population will confer an adaptive advantage while going through changing conditions.
      • Analyze and interpret data to predict how an environmental change could influence selection, driving changes in traits in a species that will persist in the population.
      • Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection and predict how artificial selection will impact the traits of an organism.
      • Analyze and interpret data to evaluate the impact of human intervention in determining the traits of agriculturally important plants and animals.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Artificial selection
      • Natural selection
      • Evolution
      • Genetic variation
      • Geographic variation
      • Mutation
      • Evolutionary fitness
      • Phenotypes
      • Genotypes
      • Sexual reproduction
      • Adaptations
      • Artificial selection
      • Genetic isolation
      • Adaptive radiation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Organisms can produce enormous numbers of offspring.
      • These offspring must compete for limited resources.
      • These offspring also have genetic differences that are observed as phenotypic trait variations.
      • The offspring whose phenotypes provide the best chance to survive to adulthood and reproduce will pass on the highest frequency of their traits (and therefore genetic differences) to the next generation.
      • The process of directed breeding to produce offspring with desired traits is called selective breeding or artificial selection.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze and interpret data to recognize a pattern in changes in populations over time.
      • Analyze different sources of evidence.
      • Interpret the validity of data.
      • Read and construct a graph.
      • Recognize examples of artificial selection.
      • Predict phenotypic adaptations as a result of changing environments.
      • Compare organisms derived from artificial selection with their wild ancestors, who were products of natural selection.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Natural selection leads to adaptation—to a population dominated by organisms that are anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a specific environment.
      • Survival and reproduction of organisms that have an advantageous heritable trait leads to an increase in the proportion of individuals in future generations that have the trait and to a decrease in the proportion of individuals that do not.
      • The distribution of traits in a population can change when conditions change.
      • Artificial selection allows humans to produce plants or animals with desired traits.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Whale Evolution; Which beak is Best?; Peppered Moth; Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance; Fly Now
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Engage in argument from evidence (e.g., mathematical models such as distribution graphs) to explain how the diversity of organisms is affected by overpopulation of species, variation due to genetic mutations, and competition for limited resources.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze evidence to describe the main ideas behind natural selection (overproduction of offspring, competition for limited resources, inherited variation in phenotypes and differential survival/reproduction).
      • Use mathematical models to test the concept that organisms with favorable adaptations are more likely to survive and reproduce.
      • Develop a logical argument for a proposed mechanism of evolution, including necessary adaptations, mutations, and environmental changes.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Variation
      • Adaptation
      • Fitness
      • Biodiversity
      • Habitat
      • Ecosystems
      • Diversity
      • Population
      • Population density
      • Limiting factors
      • Carrying capacity
      • Genetic mutation
      • Competition
      • Natural selection
      • Genetic recombination
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • As species grow in number, competition for limited resources can arise.
      • Individuals in a species have genetic variation (through mutations and sexual reproduction) that is passed on to their offspring.
      • Genetic variation can lead to variation of expressed traits in individuals in a population.
      • Individuals can have specific traits that give them a competitive advantage relative to other individuals in the species.
      • Individuals that survive and reproduce at a higher rate will provide their specific genetic variations to a greater proportion of individuals in the next generation.
      • Over many generations, groups of individuals with particular traits that enable them to survive and reproduce in distinct environments using distinct resources can evolve into a different species.
      • Natural selection is a process while biological evolution can result from that process.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify examples of adaptations among various organisms that increase fitness—camouflage, mimicry, drought tolerance, defensive coloration, beak adaptations.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to construct an argument.
      • Interpret data.
      • Defend a position.
      • Use evidence to correlate claims about cause and effect.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Natural selection occurs only if there is both variation in the genetic information between organisms in a population and variation in the expression of that genetic information (trait variation) that leads to differences in performance among individuals.
      • Evolution is the consequence of the interaction of four factors:
        1. The potential for a species to increase in number.
        2. The genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction.
        3. Competition for an environment's limited supply of the resources that individuals need in order to survive and reproduce.
        4. The ensuing proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Whale Evolution; Bead Bugs; Which beak is Best?
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Biology
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Analyze scientific evidence (e.g., DNA, fossil records, cladograms, biogeography) to support hypotheses of common ancestry and biological evolution.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Unity and Diversity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze data, including fossil records, to support the premise that organisms have changed over time and that only a small fraction of the species that have previously existed currently survive on Earth.
      • Identify patterns of biogeography that are significant to Darwin's theory.
      • Make inferences about the diversity of life on Earth using examples and evidence of co-evolution, divergent and convergent evolution.
      • Describe homologous structures and explain how these structures are used as lines of evidence to support biological evolution.
      • Identify patterns in embryologic development among diverse organisms and explain how these patterns are used as lines of evidence to support biological evolution.
      • Describe vestigial structures and explain how these structures are used as lines of evidence to support biological evolution.
      • Interpret similarities in the genetic code to provide evidence of comment descent.
      • Create a cladogram of related objects or organisms and interpret cladograms to draw conclusions about the relatedness of organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Biogeography
      • Parasitism
      • Mutualism
      • Commensalism
      • Co-evolution
      • convergent evolution
      • divergent
      • cladogram
      • phylogenetic tree
      • vestigial structures
      • homologous structures
      • embryonic
      • genetic conservation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence including:
        1. Information derived from DNA sequences.
        2. Similarities of the patterns of amino acid sequences.
        3. Patterns in the fossil record.
        4. Pattern of anatomical and embryological similarities.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Examine historical explanations for the diversity of life on earth, including the work of Lamarck, Wallace, and Darwin.
      • Analyze parasitic, mutualistic and commensalistic relationships to investigate large scale evolutionary strategies such as coevolution, convergent evolution and divergent evolution.
      • Analyze fossil records, comparing the structure of extinct to existing species of living things.
      • Analyze DNA or amino acid sequences of closely related and distantly related organisms.
      • Construct a cladogram or phylogenetic tree using molecular sequences and fossil records.
      • Compare and contrast vestigial and homologous structures in modern organisms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Genetic information, like the fossil record, provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences vary among species, but there are many overlaps—multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of different organisms.
      • There are multiple lines of empirical evidence that support biological evolution.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Physical Anthropology: Comparing Fossil Hominids; Whale Evolution; Molecular Evolution; Reproduction, Development and Cellular Division; Caminacules
      Matter and Its Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify scientists whose experiments added to our knowledge of atomic structure and the arrangement of the periodic table.
      • Obtain information about these scientists, their experiments, their discoveries about atomic structure, and how their discoveries aer represented on the periodic table.
      • Communicate information in a manner that connects the scientific discovery to the structure and function of an atom as well as the patterns in the periodic table.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Atomic theory
      • Periodic table history
      • Macroscopic level
      • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Examples of scientists and scientific discoveries that changed our knowledge of atomic structure.
      • How these scientific discoveries relate to the information found on the periodic table.
      • Each atom has a charged substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
      • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar properties in columns.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain information from multiple, grade-level appropriate materials (text, media, visual displays, data).
      • Communicate information from a variety of reliable sources in multiple formats (oral, graphical, textual, and/or mathematical).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • It is important to gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used.
      • Our knowledge of the structure and function of the atom changed over time due to scientific discoveries, and the history of the periodic table traces our understanding of the atom.
      • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      History of the Atomic Theory; Excited Electrons; Coinium Isotopes of Atoms; Flame Tests
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Develop and use models of atomic nuclei to explain why the abundance-weighted average of isotopes of an element yields the published atomic mass.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify isotopes of elements.
      • Develop a model that relates the published atomic mass of an element on the periodic table to the abundance of that element's isotopes.
      • Use the model to determine the most common isotopic form of an element in nature.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Atomic mass
      • Isotopes
      • Abundance
      • Weighted average
      • Nucleus
      • Protons
      • Neutrons
      • Macroscopic level
      • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Each atom has a charge substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
      • The majority of an atom's mass comes from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
      • Electrons have a very small mass, so they are not typically included in atomic mass calculations.
      • Atoms of an element can have different masses, and we call those atoms isotopes.
      • Isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
      • Most elements exist in nature in isotopic form.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationship between the structure of the atom and the average atomic mass of an element.
      • Use the model to make predictions.
      • Calculate weighted averages.
      • Determine the most common isotopic form of an element in nature.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Models can be computational or mathematical.
      • The published atomic mass of an element is a weighted average of all known isotopes of that element.
      • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Calculating Average Atomic Mass Coinium Isotopes of Atoms, Coinium Isotopes of Atoms
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 12
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 9
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

      a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

      b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

      c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use the periodic table as a model to predict relationships between the arrangements of elements on the periodic table and the structure of the atom.
      • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles.
      • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
      • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns in bonding and shape based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
      • Use the arrangement of elements on the periodic table to name compounds.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Protons
      • Neutrons
      • Nucleus
      • Electrons
      • Valence
      • Main group elements
      • Properties
      • Atoms
      • Elements
      • Periods/ Rows
      • Groups/ Families/ Columns
      • Atomic/ molecular level
      • Macroscopic level
      • Periodic trends
      • metal/ nonmetal/ metalloid behavior
      • electrical/ heat conductivity
      • electronegativity
      • electron affinity
      • ionization energy
      • atomic-covalent/ ionic radii
      • Molecular modeling
      • Lewis dot
      • 3-D ball-and-stick
      • space-filling
      • VSEPR
      • Types of bonds
      • ionic bonds
      • covalent/ molecular bonds
      • metallic bonds
      • Molecular shapes
      • Ions
      • Ionic compounds
      • Covalent/ molecular compounds
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The atom has a positively-charged nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.
      • The periodic table can be used to determine the number of particles in an atom of a given element.
      • The relationship between the arrangement of main group elements on the periodic table and the pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
      • The relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the number of protons in their atoms.
      • The trends in relative size, reactivity, and electronegativity in atoms are based on attractions of the valence electrons to the nucleus.
      • The number and types of bonds formed (i.e. ionic, covalent, metallic) by an element and between elements are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
      • The shapes of molecules are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
      • The rules for naming chemical compounds are based upon the type of bond formed.
      • The number and charges in stable ions that form from atoms in a group of the periodic table are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Predict relative properties of elements using the periodic table.
      • Predict patterns in periodic trends based on the structure of the atom.
      • Predict patterns in bonding and shape based on the structure of the atom.
      • Use the periodic table to determine how elements will bond.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Models are based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
      • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
      • The periodic table arranges elements into periods/ rows by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus.
      • Elements with similar properties are placed into groups/ families/ columns based on the repeating pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
      • Attraction and repulsion between electrical charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properites, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
      • The attraction and repulsion of charged particles in the atom creates patterns of properties of elements.
      • The arrangement of valence electrons in an atom also creates patterns of properties of elements.
      • Elements form bonds based upon their valence electron arrangement.
      • Chemical compounds are named based upon the type of bonds formed by their constituent atoms/ ions.
      • Different patterns may be observed at the atomic/ molecular level and the macroscopic level.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Chemicool People; It's In The Cards; Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism; Periodic Trends; Properties of Elements; Chem Cubes; Chemical Nomenclature; Bond Types and Physical Properties; Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures; Molecular Shape and Polarity; Elephant Toothpaste
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 7
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
      • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
      • Use evidence from investigation to classify properties as intensive or extensive.
      • Use evidence from investigation to identify substances based on their intensive properties.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Properties
      • Intensive properties and examples (e.g., density, viscosity, melting point, etc.)
      • Extensive properties and examples (e.g., mass, volume, heat, etc.)
      • Matter
      • Macroscopic level
      • Atomic/ molecular level
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Properties of matter can be classified as intensive or extensive.
      • Some examples of intensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, density, boiling point, and specific heat.
      • Some examples of extensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, heat, mass, and volume.
      • Intensive properties can be used to identify a substance.
      • Some properties of matter are visible on the macroscopic level, while others are evident at the atomic/ molecular/ particulate level.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
      • Determine the types, quantity, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
      • Classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
      • Evaluate investigation design to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
      • Identify a compound based on its intensive properties.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
      • The data generated from an investigation serves as the basis for evidence.
      • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular level structure.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Density of a Liquid; Thickness of Aluminum Foil; Intensive and Extensive Properties; Extraction and Identification of Dyes (Kool-Aid); Flame Test; Specific Heat; Melting Points
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 11
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 7
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

      a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.

      b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
      • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
      • Use evidence from the investigation to explain how the patterns of valence electrons can be used to predict the number and types of bonds each element forms.
      • Describe the cause and effect relationship between the observable macroscopic patterns of reactivity of elements in the periodic table, and the patterns of valence electrons for each atom.
      • Determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions of a component of a chemical reaction using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
      • Use stoichiometric calculations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
      • Use the mass of substances to determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Chemical reactions
      • Valence electrons
      • Reactants
      • Products
      • Macroscopic level
      • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
      • Ionic bonds
      • Covalent/ molecular bonds
      • Types of reactions:
        • synthesis
        • decomposition
        • single replacement/ displacement
        • double replacement/ displacement
        • combustion
      • Chemical reactions
      • Reactants
      • Products
      • Chemical equations
      • Coefficients
      • Subscripts
      • Mass
      • Moles
      • Mole ratio
      • Ratio
      • Atoms
      • Conservation of matter
      • Quantitative
      • Qualitative
      • Stoichiometry
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The total number of atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products is the same.
      • The number and types of bonds that each atom forms is determined by their valence electron arrangement.
      • The valence electron state of the atoms that make up the reactants and the products is based on their location on the periodic table.
      • Patterns of attraction allow the prediction of the type of reaction that occurs.
      • Chemical equations are a mathematical representation of chemical reactions.
      • Coefficients of a balanced chemical equation indicate the ratio in which substances react or are produced.
      • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
      • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels.
      • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions.
      • Matter cannot be created or destroyed but is conserved during a chemical change.
      • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
      • Conversion between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels requires the use of moles and Avogadro's number.
      • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
      • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify reactions and determine the quantity of reactants and products.
      • Write correct chemical formulas of products and reactants using valence electron arrangement.
      • Demonstrate that the numbers and types of atoms are the same both before and after the reaction.
      • Identify the numbers and types of bonds in both the reactants and products.
      • Describe how the patterns of reactivity at the macroscopic level are determined using the periodic table.
      • Identify reactants and products in a chemical reaction using a chemical equation.
      • Balance chemical equations.
      • Determine the number of atoms/ molecules and number of moles of each component in a chemical reaction using a balanced chemical equation.
      • Determine the molar mass of all components of a chemical reaction.
      • Calculate the mass number of atoms, molar mass and number of moles of substances in a chemical reaction.
      • Calculate the mass of a component in a chemical reaction given the mass or number of moles of any other component using proportional relationships.
      • Predict the number of atoms in the reactant and product at the atomic or molecular scale.
      • Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms and therefore mass are conserved during a chemical reaction.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
      • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
      • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons and places those with similar properties into columns, which reflect patterns of valence electrons.
      • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
      • Different patterns may be observed at each level (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular, etc.) and can provide evidence to explain phenomena.
      • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
      • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
      • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
      • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
      • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with the knowledge of the chemical properties of the substances involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
      • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
      • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Tortoise Island; Mole Concept; Chemical Changes; Chemical Reactions; Empirical Formulas; Color of Chemistry; Aluminum Leftovers; Aspirin Synthesis; Mass and Mole Relationships in Reactions; Using Stoichiometry to Identify the Products of a Reaction; Acid Titrations; Ideal Gas Law and Molar Volume
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 9
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 8
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.

      a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.

      b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.

      c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

      d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Cause and Effect; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Determine the molarity of a solution given mass or moles of a solute and volume of a solvent.
      • Represent the process of dissolving to identify the solute and solvent at the atomic/molecular/particulate level.
      • Use data to predict how changes in temperature and pressure will affect solubility.
      • Plan an investigation and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
      • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
      • Use evidence from investigation to describe the relationship between conductivity of a solution and the components of the solution (ionic and covalent substances).
      • Determine whether substances are acids or bases using the concept of pH.
      • Predict the relative properties of acids and bases using the concept of pH.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Molarity
      • Moles
      • Volume
      • Solution
      • Solute
      • Solvent
      • Concentrations
      • Dissolving
      • Solubility
      • Ionic
      • Covalent
      • atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
      • macroscopic level
      • pH
      • hydronium ion
      • hydroxide ion
      • concentration
      • concentrated
      • dilute
      • acids and bases (strong/ weak)
      • properties
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular and macroscopic levels.
      • Concentrations of solutions can be compared quantitatively using molarity.
      • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
      • Solutions are a type of mixture that appears homogeneous at the macroscopic level but may be heterogeneous at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • Solutes are the portion of a solution present in the lesser amount.
      • Solvents are the portion of a solution present in the greater amount.
      • Both temperature and pressure affect the solubility of solutes.
      • The effect of temperature on the solubility of a liquid or solid solute differs from that of gaseous solutes.
      • The effect of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes differs from that of liquid or solid solutes.
      • The ability of a substance to conduct electricity is determined by the presence of charged particles that are able to move about freely.
      • Ionic compounds typically conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the charged particles are able to move about freely.
      • Covalent compounds typically do not conduct electricty when melted or dissolved in water because there are no charged particles.
      • Exceptions to the typical conductivity of solutions include strong acids, which ionize in water solutions.
      • An acid has more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.
      • A base has more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions. pH is a measure of the number of hydronium ions present in a solution.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify solute and solvent in a solution.
      • Calculate the molarity of a solution.
      • Represent the process of dissolving using a model.
      • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/ or models to identify relationships within the datasets.
      • Use analyzed data as evidence to describe the relationships between temperature changes and pressure changes on solubility.
      • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
      • Conduct a planned investigation to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in solution.
      • Analyze collected and recorded data from investigation to determine conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances.
      • Use the pH scale to determine if a substance is acidic or basic.
      • Determine the concentration of hyfronium or hydroxide ions in a solution based on pH value.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to describe explanations.
      • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
      • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
      • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
      • Data can be analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
      • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and ca provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
      • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
      • Scientists plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • The function of a material and its macroscopic properties are related to the atomic/ molecular level structure of the material.
      • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
      • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
      • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Temperature and Solubility; Conducting Solutions; Determining the Concentration of a Solution; Spectroscopy; Molarity; Acid Ionization; Acid Titrations
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.

      a. Use mathematics to describe the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas when only the amount of gas is constant.

      b. Use mathematical and computational thinking based on the ideal gas law to determine molar quantities.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Plan an investigation, considering the types of data, how much data, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Evaluate investigation design to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
      • Use evidence from investigation to explain the relationships among pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles in a gaseous system.
      • Mathematically describe the relationships of pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas, when only the amount of gas is constant.
      • In terms of the ideal gas law, determine molar quantities using mathematical and computational thinking.
      • Analyze, represent, and model data related to the gas laws using mathematical and computational thinking.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Pressure
      • Volume
      • Temperature
      • Number of particles
      • System
      • Atomic/ molecular level
      • Macroscopic level
      • independent variable
      • Dependent variable
      • controlled variable(s)
      • Direct proportional/ relationship
      • Inverse proportional/ relationship
      • Avogadro's Law
      • Boyle's Law
      • Charles' Law
      • Gay-Lussac's Law (Amontons' Law)
      • Ideal gas law
      • Constant
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Behavior of gases is determined by the movement and interactions of the particles.
      • Relationships among the variables (pressure, volume, temperature, number of particles) can be used to predict the changes to a gaseous system.
      • The movement and interactions of gas particles within a system and the type of sytem determine the behavior of gases.
      • Relationships among the variables (pressure, volume, temperature, number of particles) can be used to predict the changes to a gaseous system.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure, including how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
      • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to describe the relationship between the measureable properties of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
      • Analyze recorded data to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.
      • Identify relevant components in mathematical representations of the gas laws.
      • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
      • Use mathematical representations to determine the value of any relevant components in mathematical representations of the gas laws, given the other values.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
      • Changes in the variables that affect the motion of gas particles can be described and predicted using scientific investigations.
      • The patterns of interactions between particles at the atomic/ molecular/ particulate level are reflected in the patterns of behavior at the macroscopic scale.
      • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
      • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
      • Changes in the variables that affect the motion of gas particles can be described and predicted using scientific investigations.
      • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Calcium Carbonate Decomposition AP
      Boyle's Law
      Ideal Gas Law and Molar Volume

      7a. & 7b.
      Emphasis is placed on the relationships between gas variables in the gas laws.
      Mathematical thinking is emphasized over memorization and algorithmic problem-solving.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Refine the design of a given chemical system to illustrate how LeChâtelier's principle affects a dynamic chemical equilibrium when subjected to an outside stress (e.g., heating and cooling a saturated sugar- water solution).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, identify stresses that can affect equilibrium using LeChatelier's principle and identify the results of those stresses on the system's equilibrium.
      • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, describe criteria and constraints for refining the system's design.
      • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, evaluate different stresses by comparing criteria and constraints.
      • Refine the given system to increase product(s) and describe reasoning for refinements.
      • Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • system
      • dynamic equilibrium
      • stresses
      • LeChatelier's principle
      • criteria
      • constraints
      • reversible reaction
      • forward/ backward rates
      • macroscopic level
      • atomic/ molecular level
      • claim
      • evidence
      • reasoning
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Various stresses made at the macroscopic level, such as change in temperature, pressure, volume, concentration, affect a chemical system at the molecular level.
      • Reaction rates of forward/ backward reactions change with stresses until rates are equal again.
      • Forward/ reverse reactions occur at the same rate in dynamic equilibrium, so chemical systems appear stable at macroscopic level.
      • The egineering design process is a cycle with no official starting or ending point, and, therefore, can be used repeatedly to refine your work.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use the engineering design process (ask, imagine, plan, create, improve) to refine a chemical system.
      • Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
      • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, and peer review).
      • Construct and present arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
      • Solutions to real-world problems can be refined using scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
      • In many situations, a balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present.
      • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      This standard does not require students to calculate equilibrium constants and concentrations. Chemical Equilibrium; Modeling Reversible Reactions and Determining "K"
      Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Evaluate data to describe the relationship between the strength of intermolecular forces of a substance and the effect of those forces on the measureable properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.) of a substance.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • physical properties
      • melting point
      • boiling point
      • solubility
      • phase-change diagrams
      • Atomic/ molecular level
      • Macroscopic level
      • Particles
      • ions
      • atoms
      • molecules
      • networked materials (like graphite)
      • Intermolecular/ electrical forces
      • System
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • As kinetic energy is added to a system, the forces of attraction between particles can no longer keep the particles close together.
      • Patterns of interactions between particles at the molecular level are reflected in the patterns of behavior at the macroscopic scale.
      • Patterns observed at multiple levels (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular/ particulate) can provide evidence of the causal relationships between the strength of the electrical forces between particles and the structure of the substance at the macroscopic level.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze and interpret data to describe why properties provide information about the strength of electrical forces between the particles of chosen substances, including phase-change diagrams.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Data is analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
      • The structure and interactions of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
      • Different patterns may be observed at each of the levels at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Fractional Distillation; Paper Chromatography - Ransom Notes; Melting Points; Evaporation and Intermolecular Forces
      Energy
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Plan and conduct experiments that demonstrate how changes in a system (e.g., phase changes, pressure of a gas) validate the kinetic molecular theory.

      a. Develop a model to explain the relationship between the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance and the temperature of the substance (e.g., no kinetic energy equaling absolute zero [0K or -273.15oC]).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter; Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Investigation design should include types of data, how much data, accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements, and safety considerations.
      • Evaluate investigation to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
      • Use data from experiment as evidence to describe the relationship between the measureable properties (state of matter, pressure, temperature) of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
      • Develop a model that explains how the average particle motion of a substance affects the temperature of the substance.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Kinetic molecular theory
      • Kinetic energy
      • phase changes
      • Particle collisions
      • Pressure
      • Temperature
      • Absolute zero
      • Kelvin
      • Celsius
      • System
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • As the kinetic energy of colliding particles increases, the number of collisions increases and vice versa.
      • Behavior of gases is determined by the movement and interactions of the particles.
      • Particles of a gas are in rapid, constant motion and move in straight lines.
      • The particles of a gas are tiny compared to the distance between them.
      • Intermolecular forces do not affect the behavior of gases because of the large distance between the particles.
      • Energy is conserved when gas particles collide (energy lost by one particle is gained by the other).
      • Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of gas particles.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure, including how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
      • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to describe the relationship between the measureable properties of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
      • Use evidence from experiment to show how changes to the system change the number of particle collisions.
      • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate/ explain the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
      • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
      • Models are used to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      Focus of this standard is on the mathematical modeling of how changes to a system affect the properties and motion of particles in that system. Temperature - Pressure Relationship of Gases; Kinetic Molecular Theory; Energy Changes in Simple Distillation; Evaporation and Intermolecular Forces
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Chemistry
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Construct an explanation that describes how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends upon changes in the components of the system.

      a. Develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.

      b. Plan and conduct an investigation that demonstrates the transfer of thermal energy in a closed system (e.g., using heat capacities of two components of differing temperatures).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models; Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Explain how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends on changes that occur in the components of the system.
      • Develop a model to illustrate how changes in total bond energy determine if a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
      • Plan an investigation and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
      • Evaluate the investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time) and to identify potential causes of apparent loss of energy from a closed system.
      • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
      • Use evidence from investigation to support the idea that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • System
      • Surroundings
      • Reactants
      • Products
      • Endothermic
      • Exothermic
      • Bond energy
      • Molecular collisions
      • Conservation of energy
      • Closed system
      • System boundaries
      • Components
      • Surroundings
      • Conservation of energy
      • Energy transfer
      • Thermal energy
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.
      • Models are developed based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
      • A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.
      • In chemical processes, whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of collisions of molecules and rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.
      • The energy change within a system is accounted for by the change in the bond energies of the reactants and products.
      • Breaking bonds requires an input of energy from the system or surroundings, and forming bonds releases energy to the system and surroundings.
      • The energy transfer between systems and surroundings is the difference in energy between bond energies of the reactants and products.
      • Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms (i.e., to thermal energy in the surrounding environment).
      • The overall energy of the system and surroundings is conserved during the reaction.
      • Energy transfer occurs during molecular collisions.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natrual world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
      • Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena.
      • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or components of a system.
      • Describe relationships between system components to illustrate that the net energy change within the system is due to bonds being broken and formed, that the energy transfer between the system and surroundings results from molecular collisions, and that the total energy change of the chemical reaction system is matched by an equal but opposite change of energy in the surroundings.
      • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure (including safety considerations), how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, equipment required, and how the closed system will be constructed and initial conditions of system.
      • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to calculate the change in thermal energy of each of the two components of the system.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.
      • When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
      • Models are developed based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
      • A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.
      • In chemical processes, whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of collisions of molecules and rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.
      • Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states (i.e., toward more uniform energy distribution).
      • The distribution of thermal energy is more uniform after the interaction of the hot and cold components.
      • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be trasported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
      • Scientists plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence and in the design, decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of data. Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states (i.e., toward more uniform energy distribution).
      • The distribution of thermal energy is more uniform after the interaction of the hot and cold components.
      • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be trasported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
      • When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Module:
      This standard does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products. 11b. Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water. Heat capacity values of components in the system should be obtained from scientific literature. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions; Energy Content of Food; Hess's Law; Particle Collisions and Activation Energy; Excited electrons; Energy Changes in Simple Distillation; Elephant Toothpaste; Specific Heat
      Earth and Human Activity
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Investigate and analyze the use of nonrenewable energy sources (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear, natural gas) and renewable energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal) and propose solutions for their impact on the environment.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Identify renewable energy sources and nonrenewable energy sources.
      • Analyze the uses of nonrenewable and renewable energy sources, and investigate any impacts these uses have on the environment.
      • Use evidence to engage in argument of the pros and cons of using various renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.
      • Propose mitigation of any environmental impact(s) resulting from the use of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • renewable resource
      • nonrenewable resource
      • consumption rate
      • sustainability
      • environmental policy
      • conservation (Law of Conservation of Energy)
      • 3 R's = reduce, reuse, recycle
      • fossil fuels
      • pollution
      • energy efficiency
      • resource extraction and harnessing
      • alternative energy
      • waste
      • mining
      • reclamation
      • remediation
      • mitigation
      • biomass
      • hydroelectric
      • geothermal
      • nuclear energy
      • natural gas
      • wind turbine
      • solar power
      • hybrid
      • hydrogen fuel cell
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Examples of renewable energy sources and nonrenewable energy sources, and the uses of each.
      • The origin of different types of nonrenewable energy sources.
      • How various types of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources are harvested, how harvesting may impact the surrounding environment, and how to reduce any negative impacts of harvesting these resources.
      • How various types of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources are used, how using them may impact the environment, and how to reduce any negative impacts of using these resources.
      • The sustainability of human societies and environmental biodiversity require responsible management of natural resources, including renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify various types of energy resources.
      • Explain how various nonrenewable and renewable resources are used to provide energy.
      • Analyze geographical data to ascertain resource availability and sustainability.
      • Evaluate environmental strategies that promote energy resource sustainability.
      • Design and/or refine a solution to mitigate negative impacts of using nonrenewable and renewable energy sources, or evaluate available design solutions based on scientific principles, empirical evidence, and logical arguments.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • All forms of energy production and resource extraction have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical benefits as well as costs and risks.
      • Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems, not what should happen. What should happen involves ethics, values, and human decisions about the use of existing knowledge.
      • Environmental feedback, whether negative or positive, can stabilize or destabilize a system.
      • It is important to consider a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to take into account social, cultural, and environmental impacts when developing and/or evaluating solutions.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include: Tree Carbon Sequestration
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Use models to illustrate and communicate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as carbon cycles through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Illustrate how photosynthesis and cellular respiration contribute to the cycling of carbon through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere.
      • Communicate the importance of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • source/sink
      • biotic and abiotic reservoirs
      • biosphere
      • atmosphere
      • hydrosphere
      • geosphere
      • photosynthesis
      • cellular respiration
      • glucose
      • carbon
      • atmospheric CO2
      • greenhouse gas
      • methane
      • decomposition
      • fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
      • combustion
      • diffusion
      • phytoplankton
      • products
      • reactants
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and know the relative nature of these two chemical processes.
      • Examples of carbon sources and carbon sinks.
      • Photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide and water into sugars (glucose) plus released oxygen.
      • Sugars formed by photosynthesis are disassembled into chemical elements that recombine in different ways to form different products that are essential for all living things.
      • The process of cellular respiration is a chemical process in which bonds of food molecules (sugars) and oxygen molecules are broken and energy is released along with the byproducts of carbon dioxide and water.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use a model to illustrate the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
      • Identify the components of a model that illustrate carbon cycling through the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
      • Represent carbon cycling from one sphere to another, specifically indicating where it involves the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The main way that solar energy is captured and stored ion Earth is through photosynthesis.
      • Carbon is an essential element that takes on various chemical forms as it cycles within and among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
      • Cellular respiration works with photosynthesis to cycle energy through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Traveling Carbon Passport; Tree Carbon Sequestration; Global Carbon
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Use mathematics and graphic models to compare factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use mathematical and/or graphical representations to compare factors affecting populations in an ecosystem.
      • Use mathematical and/or graphical representations to compare factors affecting biodiversity in ecosystems.
      • Compare the effects of limiting factors on biodiversity and populations in ecosystems.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • interpolation
      • extrapolation
      • anthropogenic
      • limiting factors
      • biodiversity index
      • species richness
      • species evenness
      • population
      • graphic models
      • population pyramid
      • doubling time
      • growth rate
      • slope
      • exponential growth
      • population curve
      • logistic growth model
      • linear growth model
      • constant growth
      • density-dependent limiting factors
      • density-independent limiting factors
      • carrying capacity
      • Biodiversity Treaty
      • demographic transition
      • correlation
      • endangered species
      • extinction
      • survivorship
      • sustainability
      • population properties
      • density and dispersion
      • reproductive potential
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The carrying capacity of an ecosystem results from such factors as availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges as predation, competition, and disease.
      • Anthropogenic changes in the environment, including habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, and climate change, can disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the survival of some species.
      • Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.
      • The difference between density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors, examples of each, and how each affects populations and biodiversity within an ecosystem.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Differentiate between constant and exponential growth.
      • Use graphs to compare multiple sets of data.
      • Determine trends in data sets.
      • Use a variety of graphs and charts, including: (e.g., scatterplots, tables, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms) to evaluate the impact of factors on populations and biodiversity.
      • Utilize interpolation, extrapolation and statistical analyses to determine relationships between biodiversity and population numbers.
      • Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. (ALCOS Mathematics S-IC)
      • Choose a scale and the origins in graphs (ALCOS Mathematics ALGI. 4.2) in order to accurately compare graphical data.
      • Determine an appropriate graphic model to display relationships comparing populations by biodiversity.
      • Describe how factors affecting ecosystems at one scale can cause observable changes in ecosystems at a different scale.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The number of populations in a given area reflects the biodiversity of that area.
      • Ecosystems can exist in the same location on a variety of scales, and these populations can interact in ways that may, or may not, significantly alter the ecosystems.
      • Using the concept of orders of magnitude, a model at one scale relates to a model at another scale.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Exponential Population Growth
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Engage in argument from evidence to evaluate how biological or physical changes within ecosystems (e.g., ecological succession, seasonal flooding, volcanic eruptions) affect the number and types of organisms, and that changing conditions may result in a new or altered ecosystem.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • From the given explanation, identify the claims to be evaluated, the evidence to be evaluated, and the reasoning to be evaluated.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how biological changes within ecosystems affect the number and types of organisms.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how physical changes within ecosystems affect the number and types of organisms.
      • Engage in argument from evidence to assess how changing conditions may result in a new or altered ecosystem.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • ecological succession
      • seasonal flooding
      • volcanic eruptions
      • ecosystem
      • biological changes
      • physical changes
      • keystone species
      • pioneer species
      • habitat alteration
      • density-dependent limiting factors
      • density-independent limiting factors
      • primary succession
      • secondary succession
      • remediation/bioremediation
      • symbiosis
      • abiotic factors
      • biotic factors
      • food chain
      • food web
      • energy pyramid
      • energy flow
      • bioaccumulation
      • ecological system
      • ecosystem services
      • deforestation
      • organism
      • species
      • population
      • community
      • ecosystem
      • biome
      • biosphere
      • desertification
      • overharvesting
      • overgrazing
      • pathogen
      • climax community
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The components of a scientific argument including the claim, alternative claim, evidence, justification, and the challenge to the alternative claim.
      • Factors that affect biodiversity.
      • The relationships between species and the physical environment in an ecosystem.
      • Examples of biological changes (e.g., ecological succession, disease) and physical changes (e.g., volcanic activity, desertification) that affect the number and types of organisms, and that may result in a new or altered ecosystem.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use additional relevant evidence to assess the validity and reliability of the given evidence and its ability to support the proposed argument.
      • Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the given claim in accurately explaining a particular response of the ecosystem to a changing condition, based on an understanding of factors that affect biodiversity and the relationships between species and the physical environment.
      • Assess the logic of the reasoning, including the relationship between degree of change and stability in ecosystems, and the utility of the reasoning in supporting the explanation.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions.
      • When modest biological or physical disturbances occur in an ecosystem, it returns more or less to its original status (i.e., it is resilient).
      • Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of an ecosystem in terms of resources and habitat availability, and can even result in a new ecosystem.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Predator-Prey Populations; Bluegill Limiting Factors; Limiting Factors; Bio-Assessment; Changes in an Ecosystem
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare how individual versus group behavior (e.g., flocking; cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming) may affect a species' chance to survive and reproduce over time.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • From the given explanation, identify the claims to be evaluated, the evidence to be evaluated, and the reasoning to be evaluated.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how individual behavior affects a species' chances of survival and reproduction over time.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how group behavior affects a species' chances of survival and reproduction over time.
      • Compare, using evidence, the affects of individual behavior and group behavior on a species' potential to survive and reproduce over time.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • natural selection
      • genetics
      • proximity
      • recognition mechanism
      • stability
      • dynamic grouping
      • social isolation
      • equal status
      • hierarchy
      • communication
      • social drive
      • flocking
      • hunting
      • migrating
      • swarming
      • herding
      • schooling
      • evolution
      • coevolution
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning must be used to defend and critique claims and explanations.
      • The difference between group and individual behavior.
      • Examples and descriptions of social interactions and group behavior, including but not limited to: flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors like hunting, migrating, and swarming.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple reliable sources to determine how individual behavior and group behavior affect a species' chance to survive and reproduce.
      • Assess the validity, reliability, strengths, and weaknesses of the evidence.
      • Identify evidence for causal relationships between specific group behaviors (e.g., schooling, herding, migrating, swarming, flocking) and individual survival and reproduction rates.
      • Evaluate the evidence for the degree to which it supports a causal claim that group behavior can have a survival advantage for some species, including how the evidence allows for distinguishing between causal and correlational relationships as well as how it supports cause and effect relationships between various kinds of group behavior and individual survival rates.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
      • Group behavior can increase the chances for an individual and a species to survive and reproduce.
      • Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the changes of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe how human activity may affect biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms, including threatened and endangered species.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain and evaluate information about how human activity may affect biodiversity, including threatened and/or endangered species.
      • Obtain and evaluate information about how human activity may affect genetic variation of organisms (for multiple species).
      • Use at least two different formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically) to communicate scientific information regarding the effect of human activity on biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • speciation
      • extinction
      • genetic variation
      • anthropogenic
      • overpopulation
      • overexploitation
      • habitat destruction/habitat alteration
      • pollution
      • invasive species
      • climate change
      • threatened species
      • endangered species
      • habitat fragmentation
      • desertification
      • deforestation
      • urbanization
      • manufacturing
      • globalization
      • ecological indicators
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Biodiversity is increased by the formation of new species (speciation) and decreased by the loss of species (extinction).
      • Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity.
      • Anthropogenic (caused by humans) changes in the environment can disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the survival of some species.
      • Examples of human activities that may adversely affect biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms include but are not limited to: overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, and introduction of invasive species.
      • Knowledge of the various formats to communicate scientific information (e.g., oral, graphical, textual, and mathematical).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple credible sources about the effects of various human activities on biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms.
      • Synthesize evidence to describe how human activities, like overpopulation, urbanization, pollution, etc. affect biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms.
      • Communicate informative/explanatory conclusions through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Changes in the physical environment can be created by naturally occurring events or may be human induced. Regardless of the cause, these changes may have contributed to the expansion of some species, the emergence of new and distinct species and the decline, and the possible extinction, of some species.
      • Biodiversity is increased by the formation of new species and decreased by the loss of species.
      • Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change.
      • Sustaining biodiversity so that the functioning of an ecosystem can be maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Bio-Assessment
      *Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others (ALCOS Appendix A, p. 65)
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Analyze and interpret data to investigate how a single change on Earth's surface may cause changes to other Earth systems (e.g., loss of ground vegetation causing an increase in water runoff and soil erosion).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Organize and analyze data that represent measurements of changes in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, or geosphere in response to a change in Earth's surface.
      • Analyze and interpret data to identify any effects a single change on Earth's surface may cause to other Earth systems (e.g., how damming a river increases groundwater recharge, decreases sediment transport, and increases coastal erosion or how losing ground vegetation causes an increase in water runoff and soil erosion).
      • Identify and describe relationships in the datasets, including the relationships between the changes in one system and changes in another (or within the same) system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • soil erosion
      • hydrosphere
      • geosphere
      • cryosphere
      • atmosphere
      • biosphere
      • deposition
      • conduction
      • convection
      • reflection
      • absorption
      • feedback (positive or negative)
      • tectonic plates
      • catastrophic events (natural and human-caused) — volcano, mudflow, earthquake, Tsunami, flooding, drought, forest fire, oil spills, coral bleaching
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The components and basic interactions of Earth's systems.
      • The foundation for Earth's global climate systems is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems, and this energy's reradiation into space.
      • There are various factors that alter the Earth's surface, including but not limited to: conduction, convection, reflection, absorption, erosion, deposition, and greenhouse gases.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models in order to make reliable scientific claims about how a single change on Earth's surface may cause changes to other Earth systems.
      • Analyze data to describe a mechanism for the feedbacks between two of Earth's systems and whether the feedback is positive or negative, increasing (destabilizing) or decreasing (stabilizing) the original changes.
      • Compare and contrast various types of data sets to examine consistency of measurements and observations, and acknowledge how variation or uncertainty in the data (e.g., limitations, accuracy, any bias in the data resulting from choice of sample, scale, instrumentation, etc.) may affect the interpretation of the data.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A single change to the Earth's surface can cause changes to other Earth systems as a result of the dynamic and interacting nature of these systems.
      • Earth's systems, being dynamic and interacting, cause feedback effects that can increase or decrease the original change.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Engage in an evidence-based argument to explain how over time Earth's systems affect the biosphere and the biosphere affects Earth's systems (e.g., microbial life increasing the formation of soil; corals creating reefs that alter patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a claim, based on data and evidence, to explain the simultaneous coevolution of Earth's systems and life on Earth (e.g., how microbial life on land increases the formation of soil which in turn allows for the proliferation of land plants; how corals reating reefs alters patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provides habitats for diverse life forms).
      • Use at least two examples to construct oral and written logical arguments that identify causal links and feedback mechanisms between changes in the biosphere and change in Earth's other systems.
      • Identify and describe evidence supporting the argument, including scientific explanations about the composition of Earth's atmosphere shortly after its formation, current atmospheric composition, evidence for the emergence of photosynthetic organisms, evidence for the effect of the presence of free oxygen on evolution and processes in other Earth systems, in the context of the selected argument.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • weathering
      • deposition
      • leaching
      • desertification
      • photosynthesis
      • chemosynthesis
      • closed system
      • open system
      • eutrophication
      • evapotranspiration
      • biogeochemical cycles — carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, oxygen, hydrologic
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The components of a scientific argument including the claim, alternative claim, evidence, justification, and the challenge to the alternative claim.
      • The dynamic causes, effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth's other systems, through which geoscience factors influence the evolution of life which in turn continuously alter Earth's surface.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Evaluate the claims, evidence, and/or reasoning behind currently accepted explanations to determine how, over time, Earth's systems affect the biosphere and the biosphere affects Earth's systems.
      • Evaluate the evidence, and include a statement in the claim or argument, regarding how variation or uncertainty in the data may affect the usefulness of the data as a source of evidence.
      • Assess the ability of the data to be used to determine causal or correlational effects between changes in the biosphere and changes in Earth's other systems.
      • Generalize from multiple sources of evidence an oral or written argument explaining how Earth's systems affect the biosphere and the biosphere affects Earth's systems.
      • Identify causal links and feedback mechanisms between changes in the biosphere and changes in Earth's other systems.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Gradual atmospheric changes were due to plants and other organisms that captured carbon dioxide and released oxygen.
      • The dynamic and delicate feedbacks between the biosphere and other Earth systems cause a continual coevolution of Earth's surface and the life that exists on it.
      • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Global Carbon
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Develop and use models to trace the flow of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a model to identify and describe the flow of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
      • Use the model to illustrate the relationships among the components of the water, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, including how matter flows through the different spheres and how chemical elements are recombined to form different products.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • nitrogen cycle — nitrates, nitrites, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrogen fixation, ammonification
      • carbon cycle — photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, sedimentation, erosion, hydrologic cycle, evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, precipitation, condensation, sublimation, percolation
      • phosphorus cycle — phosphates, decomposition
      • diffusion
      • acid precipitation
      • mental model
      • conceptual model
      • functional model
      • analogy
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The pathways by which nitrogen, phosphorus, and water move through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
      • Students know:
        • How to use mathematical computations to solve for the motion of an object.
        • How to analyze both linear and nonlinear graphs of motion.
        • Laboratory safety procedures.
        • Appropriate units of measure.
        • Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.
        • How to determine area under a curve on a graph.
        Students know:
        • How to use mathematical computations to solve for the motion of an object.
        • How to analyze both linear and nonlinear graphs of motion.
        • Laboratory safety procedures.
        • Appropriate units of measure.
        • Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.
        • How to determine area under a curve on a graph.
        ich nitrogen, phosphorus, and water move through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Model biogeochemical cycles that include the cycling of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere (including humans).
      • Use simulations to obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about biogeochemical cycles.
      • Use simulations to analyze and interpret data related to how matters moves through biogeochemical cycles.
      • Synthesize, develop, and use models to show relationships between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • As matter flows through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products.
      • The total amount of matter in closed systems is conserved.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Traveling Nitrogen Passport; Traveling Phosphorus Passport
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Design solutions for protection of natural water resources (e.g., bioassessment, methods of water treatment and conservation) considering properties, uses, and pollutants (e.g., eutrophication, industrial effluents, agricultural runoffs, point and nonpoint pollution resources).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution for the protection of natural water resources considering properties, uses, and pollutants based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • bioassessment
      • water conservation
      • water treatment
      • eutrophication
      • industrial effluents
      • agricultural runoff
      • point pollution
      • nonpoint pollution
      • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
      • EPA Safe Drinking Water Act
      • Clean Water Act
      • hydrological cycle
      • watershed
      • free and total chlorine
      • total hardness
      • pH
      • total alkalinity
      • nitrate
      • nitrite
      • contaminant
      • aquifer
      • surface water
      • groundwater
      • permeability
      • recharge zone
      • potable
      • pathogens
      • water management
      • dam
      • reservoir
      • heavy metals
      • wastewater
      • desalination
      • water table
      • industrial waste
      • sludge
      • phytoremediation
      • mechanical treatment - precipitators, scrubbers, trickling filters, flocculation
      • sedimentation
      • suspended solids
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The types and uses of natural water resources.
      • Structure of a watershed and its functions through time.
      • Strategies for water management and conservation.
      • Sources of freshwater and ocean water pollution.
      • Legislation that addresses the protection of natural water resources.
      • Methods of water treatment.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify sources of point and nonpoint contamination.
      • Identify natural water resources and factors that affect them.
      • Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information on the properties, uses, and pollutants of natural water resources.
      • Analyze and interpret data to evaluate water resources and EPA standard limits.
      • Make a quantitative or qualitative claim regarding the relationship between a natural water resource and a factor that negatively impacts its use/function.
      • Investigate and assess the health of natural water resources.
      • Design or refine a solution to protect natural water resources, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
      • Identify costs, safety, aesthetics, reliability, cultural and environmental impacts of proposed solution.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Resource availability has guided the development of human society.
      • Scientists and engineers can develop technologies that produce less pollution and waste and that preclude ecosystem degradation.
      • When evaluating solutions, cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics must be taken into consideration, as well as any social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
      • The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Solutions for Clean Water
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Engage in argument from evidence to defend how coastal, marine, and freshwater sources (e.g., estuaries, marshes, tidal pools, wetlands, beaches, inlets, rivers, lakes, oceans, coral reefs) support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain scientific information to generate an argument for the preservation of coastal, marine, and freshwater sources based on their foundational support of biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.
      • Consider cost, safety, aesthetics, reliability, cultural, and environmental impacts in generating the argument.
      • Use appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique currently accepted claims and explanations.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • estuary
      • marsh
      • tidal pool
      • wetlands
      • beaches
      • inlet
      • river
      • lake
      • ocean
      • coral reef
      • biodiversity
      • economic stability
      • coastal
      • marine
      • freshwater
      • fisheries
      • oil
      • natural gas
      • offshore industries
      • transportation
      • tourism
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Classification of aquatic ecosystems.
      • Components and functions of wetlands, marine ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems, estuaries, and coral reefs.
      • Management strategies of aquatic sources.
      • Knowledge of abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions in aquatic biomes.
      • Economic stability is sustained by a multitude of factors, including, but not limited to, offshore drilling, fishing industry, tourism, transportation.
      • Environmental benefits of aquatic sources include critical habitats, breeding sites, and migratory paths for a wide variety of species.
      • Many humans rely on coastal, marine, and freshwater sources for food, recreation, and jobs.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Argue from evidence to defend how coastal, marine, and freshwater sources support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.
      • Apply scientific reasoning, theory, and/or models to link evidence to claims to assess the extent to which the reasoning and data support how aquatic resources support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Coastal, freshwater, and marine sources support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.
      • The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources.
      • Change and rates of change to systems can be quantified over short or long periods of time, and some system changes are irreversible.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Aquatic Ecosystems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Analyze and interpret data and climate models to predict how global or regional climate change can affect Earth's systems (e.g., precipitation and temperature and their associated impacts on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmosphere and ocean composition).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze and interpret data (e.g., graphs) from global climate models (e.g., computational simulations) and regional climate observations to predict how any changes may affect the physical parameters or chemical composition of the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and/or biosphere.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • global climate change
      • abiotic reservoirs
      • biotic reservoirs
      • photosynthesis
      • cellular respiration
      • Greenhouse Effect
      • Industrial Revolution
      • carbon sequestration
      • non-fossil fuel energy sources
      • carbon footprint
      • sea level variations
      • temperature
      • precipitation
      • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) = refrigerants, aerosols, foams, propellants, solvents
      • methane
      • nitrous oxide
      • water vapor
      • Kyoto Protocol
      • IPCC
      • The Paris Agreement
      • UNFCCC
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Gases that absorb and radiate heat in the atmosphere are greenhouse gases.
      • Increasing greenhouse gases increases global temperature that may result in climate change.
      • Climate change can produce potentially serious environmental problems that affect Earth's systems.
      • Global awareness and policies have been established in response to the potential threats caused by global climate change.
      • Examples of evidence for climate change (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (e.g., affects on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmospheric and oceanic composition).
      • The outcomes predicted by climate models depend on the amounts of greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere each year and by the ways in which these gases are absorbed by the hydrosphere and biosphere.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Compare and contrast greenhouse gas production in developed and developing countries.
      • Analyze the data and identify and describe relationships within the datasets, including changes over time on multiple scales and relationships between quantities in the given data.
      • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims about global climate change.
      • Analyze the data to describe a selected aspect of present or past climate and the associated physical parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation, sea level) or chemical composition.
      • Analyze the data to predict the future effect of a selected aspect of climate change on the physical parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation, sea level) or chemical composition (e.g., ocean pH) of the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, or cryosphere.
      • Describe whether the predicted effect on the system is reversible or irreversible.
      • Identify sources of uncertainty in the prediction of the effect in the future of a selected aspect of climate change.
      • Identify limitations of the models that provided the data and ranges used to make the predictions.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Important discoveries are still being made about how the ocean, the atmosphere, and the biosphere interact and are modified in response to changing climate conditions.
      • Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and scientific arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.
      • The magnitudes of human impact are greater than they have ever been, and so too are human abilities to model, predict, and manage current and future impacts .
      • Change and rates of change to systems can be quantified over short or long periods of time, and some system changes are irreversible.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Global Carbon; Global Climate Change: Human Impact
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information based on evidence to explain how key natural resources (e.g., water sources, fertile soils, concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels), natural hazards, and climate changes influence human activity (e.g., mass migrations).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain and evaluate valid and reliable information based on evidence that explains how human activity is influenced by key natural resources, natural hazards, and climate.
      • Use multiple formats to communicate scientific ideas of specific cause and effect relationships between environmental factors and features of human societies, including population size and migration patterns.
      • Communicate how technology in modern civilization has mitigated some of the effects of natural hazards, climate, and the availability of natural resources on human activity.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • natural hazards - earthquake, volcano, tsunami, soil erosion, hurricane, drought, flood
      • natural resources - fresh water, fertile soil, minerals, fossil fuels
      • climate change
      • acid precipitation
      • acid shock
      • biodegradable material
      • greenhouse gases
      • demographic change
      • desalinization
      • ecological footprint
      • fuel cell
      • hydroelectric energy
      • land use planning
      • leachate
      • limiting resource
      • migration
      • natural selection
      • nuclear energy
      • solar heating
      • petroleum
      • sustainability
      • urbanization
      • urban sprawl
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Examples of natural resources, natural hazards, and climate changes.
      • Over time, historical technological advances have been made in response to limited natural resources, increasing natural hazards, and climate change.
      • Resource availability has guided the development of human society.
      • Natural hazards have shaped the course of human history and have altered the sizes and distributions of human populations.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources, assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source.
      • Analyze and interpret data regarding human activity over time, including how features of human societies have been affected by availability of natural resources and how human populations have depended on technological systems to acquire natural resources and modify physical settings.
      • Describe the reasoning for how the evidence allows for the distinction between causal and correlational relationships between environmental factors and human activity.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Resource availability has guided the development of human society.
      • Natural hazards, changes in climate, and the availability of natural resources have had and will continue to have an effect on the features of human society, including population sizes and migration patterns.
      • Technology has changed the cause and effect relationship between the development of human society and natural hazards, climate, and natural resources.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Analyze cost-benefit ratios of competing solutions for developing, conserving, managing, recycling, and reusing energy and mineral resources to minimize impacts in natural systems (e.g., determining best practices for agricultural soil use, mining for coal, and exploring for petroleum and natural gas sources).*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Evaluate the competing solutions for the development, conservation, management, recycling, and reusing of energy and/or natural resources that minimize impacts on natural systems. Analysis should include the relative strengths of the given design solution, the reliability and validity of the evidence used to evaluate the design solutions, and the constraints within which each design was created, including costs, safety, reliability, and aesthetics evaluation.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • mineral resources — ore mineral, metal, non-metal, subsurface mining, surface mining, placer deposit, smelting, subsidence, reclamation
      • hydrothermal solutions
      • solar evaporation
      • sustainability
      • fossil fuels
      • electric generator
      • petroleum
      • natural gas
      • fracking
      • oil reserves
      • nuclear energy
      • nuclear fusion
      • renewable energy
      • nonrenewable energy
      • active solar heating
      • biomass fuel
      • geothermal energy
      • energy efficiency
      • energy conservation
      • ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
      • fuel cell
      • hybrid
      • biodegradable
      • source reduction
      • compost
      • economics
      • gross national product
      • no till farming
      • land use planning
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • National and global patterns of energy consumption and production.
      • State and federal regulations for mining and reclamation of mined land, and the environmental consequences of mining.
      • Factors that influence the value of a fuel.
      • The advantages and disadvantages of the following: fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and alternative energies.
      • The uses of mineral resources as well as how they are formed.
      • The components of a cost-benefit of ratio.
      • The basic economic principle of supply and demand.
      • When evaluating solutions, it is important to consider cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as cultural, social, and environmental impacts
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Evaluate the evidence for each design solutions, including societal needs for the energy or mineral resource, the cost of extracting or developing the energy reserve or mineral resource, the costs and benefits of the given design solutions, and the feasibility, costs, and benefits of recycling or reusing the mineral resource.
      • Use logical arguments, based on empirical evidence, evaluation of the design solutions, costs and benefits (both economical and environmental), and scientific ideas, to support one design over the other.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • All forms of energy production and other resource extraction have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks as well as benefits. New technologies and social regulations can change the balance of these factors.
      • Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems - not what should happen. The latter involves ethics, values, and human decisions about the use of knowledge.
      • Modern civilization depends on major technological systems. These systems are continuously modified to increase benefits while decreasing costs and risks.
      • New technologies can have significant impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated.
      • Analysis of cost-benefit ratios is an essential component to making decisions regarding the use of technology.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Construct an explanation based on evidence to determine the relationships among management of natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity (e.g., resources, waste management, per capita consumption, agricultural efficiency, urban planning).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources to explain the relationships among management of natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • solid waste — biodegradable, landfill, leachate, municipal solid waste
      • agricultural efficiency — no till farming, compost, contour plowing
      • waste management — source reduction, recycling, compost
      • hazardous waste — deep well injection, surface impoundment
      • urban planning — urbanization, urban sprawl, infrastructure, heat island, land use planning, global information system (GIS)
      • resource extraction
      • per capita consumption
      • conservation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • There is a dynamic relationship between natural resources and the biodiversity and human populations that depend on them.
      • Resource availability has guided the development of human society.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify factors that affect the management of natural resources, including but not limited to cost of resource extraction, per capita consumption, and waste management.
      • Identify factors affecting human sustainability and biodiversity, including but not limited to agricultural efficiency, conservation, and urban planning.
      • Analyze evidence describing relationships among natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity.
      • Make a qualitative and/or quantitative claim regarding the relationships among management of natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources.
      • Factors affecting one component of a system also have the potential to impact the other components of the system, thus it is critical to seek to understand the relationships among the components (i.e., management of natural resources, biodiversity, and human sustainability).
      • New technologies can have significant impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated.
      • Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      16 ) Obtain and evaluate information from published results of scientific computational models to illustrate the relationships among Earth's systems and how these relationships may be impacted by human activity (e.g., effects of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide on photosynthetic biomass, effect of ocean acidification on marine populations).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Evaluate and use information from scientific computational models to illustrate how human activity could affect the relationships between Earth's systems.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • greenhouse gases
      • climate change
      • computational models
      • emissions
      • dynamic
      • Kyoto Protocol
      • biomass
      • ocean acidification
      • hydrosphere
      • cryosphere
      • geosphere
      • atmosphere
      • biosphere
      • carbon footprint
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Examples of interactions that commonly occur between and among Earth's systems (e.g., the relationship between atmospheric CO2 and the production of photosynthetic biomass and ocean acidification).
      • Predicted future environment changes are based on computational models.
      • Examples of how human activity may affect Earth's systems.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify and describe the relevant components of each of the Earth systems represented in the given computational model, including system boundaries, initial conditions, inputs and outputs, and relationships that determine the interaction.
      • Use the computational model of Earth systems to illustrate and describe relationships between at least two of Earth's systems, including how the relevant components in each individual Earth system can drive changes in another, interacting Earth system.
      • Use evidence from the computational model to describe how human activity could affect the relationships between the Earth's system under consideration.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Although regional climate changes will be complex and varied, current models predict that average global temperatures will continue to rise.
      • The outcomes predicted by global climate models strongly depend on the amounts of human-generated greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere each year and by the ways in which these gases are absorbed by the ocean and biosphere.
      • Computer simulations and other studies are yielding discoveries about how the ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere interact and are modified in response to human activities.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Global Carbon; Global Climate Change: Human impact
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Environmental Science
      All Resources: 9
      Learning Activities: 8
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      17 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate geological and biological information to determine the types of organisms that live in major biomes.

      a. Analyze and interpret data collected through geographic research and field investigations (e.g., relief, topographic, and physiographic maps; rivers; forest types; watersheds) to describe the biodiversity by region for the state of Alabama (e.g., terrestrial, freshwater, marine, endangered, invasive).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      \]EV.L.LRB.P.;;V.V F"d} Gf'['gr fd"| fb|Ffg|F|"f\f\
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Gather, read, and evaluate the biological and geological parameters of major biomes to determine the types of organisms that live in each.
      • Analyze and interpret data collected by geographic research and field investigations to convey biodiversity by region in the state of Alabama.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • biome
      • climate
      • latitude
      • longitude
      • altitude
      • flora
      • fauna
      • tundra
      • desert
      • tropical rain forest
      • temperate forests
      • deciduous forest
      • taiga
      • savannah
      • grasslands
      • chaparral
      • aquatic biomes — marine, freshwater, estuary, wetlands, marshes, swamps, coral reef
      • topography
      • endangered species
      • invasive species
      • threatened species
      • native species
      • relief map
      • topographic map
      • physiographic map
      • endangered species
      • invasive species
      • watershed
      • native species
      • keystone species
      • threatened species
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Biotic and abiotic factors of major biomes.
      • Classification of biomes based on biological and geological characteristics, including, but not limited to geographical location, climate, flora, and fauna.
      • Examples of native, invasive, and endangered species of Alabama.
      • The climate, geology, geography, evolutionary history, and habitats of Alabama.
      • Factors that influence Alabama's biodiversity.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify biological and geological characteristics of major biomes.
      • Compare, integrate, and evaluate sources of geological and biological information presented in different media or formats to determine the types of organisms that live in major biomes.
      • Analyze and interpret data from geographic research and field investigations (such as physiographic, topographic, and relief maps, forest types, rivers, and watersheds).
      • Use appropriate analyses of data collected from geographic research and field investigations to predict regional diversity in Alabama's terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats.
      • Evaluate data to describe the distribution of organisms by region for the state of Alabama.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Biomes are regions of the world with similar biological and geological characteristics.
      • A biome comprises a large geographical area and contains unique plant and animal groups that are adapted for survival in that physical environment.
      • Alabama is one of the richest regions in the nation in terms of biodiversity. It ranks fifth in the nation in number of species of plants and animals. Alabama's rich diversity is attributed to a combination of climate, geology, and a variety of aquatic and terrestrial habitats.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM Activities include:
      Biome Bags; Global Carbon
      Other resources: *Southern Wonder: Alabama's Surprising Biodiversity by R. Scot Duncan *"America's Amazon" by Ben Raines and Lynn Rabren *Fishes of Alabama by Boschung and Mayden *"Encyclopedia of Alabama" at www.encyclopediaofalabama.org
      Earth's Place in the Universe
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the lifespan of the sun, including energy released during nuclear fusion that eventually reaches Earth through radiation.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Order the events a star progresses through during its lifespan from initial formation, through its main sequence, to its eventual death after fuel exhaustion.
      • Model the proton-proton chain of nuclear fusion occurring at the core of the Sun.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • mass
      • temperature
      • nuclear fusion
      • radiation
      • convection
      • hydrostatic equilibrium
      • flux
      • random walk
      • red giant
      • planetary nebula
      • white dwarf
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The sun is a star The sun is changing and will burn out eventually.
      • Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun release energy that reaches Earth as radiation. Hydrogen is the sun's fuel.
      • Helium and energy are products of fusion processes in the sun.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The scale of the energy released by the fusion process is much larger than the scale of the energy released by chemical processes.
      AMSTI Resources:
      This standard establishes many fundamental principles of stellar nature that are essential to learning the elements of E&SS standard 3.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare various theories for the formation and changing nature of the universe and our solar system (e.g., Big Bang Theory, Hubble's law, steady state theory, light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, composition of matter in the universe).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Determine distance and recession velocity of a given galaxy from its redshift value.
      • Argue for the existence of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe using information gained from published astronomical observations of galaxy behavior and supernovas.
      • Compare and contrast evidences for and observations supporting both the Big Bang and Steady State theories.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • electromagnetic spectrum
      • spectral lines
      • emission spectra
      • absorption spectra
      • redshift
      • blueshift
      • Hubble's Law
      • scientific theory
      • evidence
      • cosmology
      • hot Big Bang
      • Steady State
      • cosmic microwave background radiation
      • Big Bang nucleosynthesis
      • dark matter
      • dark energy
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The stars' light spectra and brightness may be used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth.
      • Energy cannot be created or destroyed-only moved between one place and another place.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a claim based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources.
      • Identify and describe evidence supporting the claim.
      • Use examples to construct oral and/or written logical arguments.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted.
      • If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.
      • The universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
      AMSTI Resources:
      This standard demands a firm understanding of the nature of observational evidence, the character of physical laws and the role of reproducibility and prediction in scientific theories.
      The ability of both the teacher and the student to argue from evidence should be a special focus when addressing this standard.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Evaluate and communicate scientific information (e.g., Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) in reference to the life cycle of stars using data of both atomic emission and absorption spectra of stars to make inferences about the presence of certain elements.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Compare and contrast stars according to color-spectral types based on temperature and luminosity.
      • Make inferences of stellar mass, size and final state through analysis of Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams.
      • Explain why medium and small stars will not produce black holes.
      • Explain how large mass stars produce the heavy elements of the periodic table.
      • Differentiate among stars by mass to predict life span, elements produced, sequence of stages, and final state.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
      • temperature
      • luminosity
      • planetary nebula
      • main sequence
      • red giant
      • white dwarf
      • neutron star
      • black hole
      • event horizon
      • blackbody curve
      • Stefan-Boltzmann Law
      • Wien's Law
      • emission spectrum
      • absorption spectrum
      • continuous spectrum
      • classification
      • nuclear fusion
      • Balmer series for Hydrogen
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The study of the stars' light spectra and brightness is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth.
      • Nuclear fusion within stars produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including iron, and the process releases electromagnetic energy (other than hydrogen and helium).
      • Heavier elements are produced when certain massive stars achieve a supernova stage and explode.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Communicate scientific information (using oral, graphical, textual, or mathematical formats) and cite origin as appropriate.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved.
      AMSTI Resources:
      This would be best following E&SS standard 1 and before E&SS standard 2.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Apply mathematics and computational thinking in reference to Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws to predict the orbital motion of natural and man-made objects in the solar system.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Using Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, make qualitative inferences of how the force of attraction between two objects will vary according to changes in mass or separation distance.
      • Use Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion to qualitatively describe the motions of planets around the Sun.
      • Use computational thinking to determine the parameters (period, distance) of an object's orbit around a much larger body (e.g., planet/Sun, moon/planet).
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Orbital period
      • Ellipse
      • Focal point
      • Semi-major axis
      • Eccentricity
      • Gravitation
      • Force
      • Weight
      • Mass
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun are described using Kepler's laws.
      • Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use algebraic thinking (no use of calculus is necessary) to example scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another.
      • Use mathematical or computational representations to describe explanations.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Relevant components in a mathematical or computational representation of orbital motion may be used to depict Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Use mathematics to explain the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis (e.g., zenith angle, solar angle, surface area) and its revolution about the sun, addressing intensity and distribution of sunlight on Earth's surface.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
      Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Explain that seasons are not due to the Earth's proximity to the sun
      • Show that sunlight concentrated in a small area will produce warmer temperatures than when spread out over a larger area.
      • Explain that the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere have opposite seasons due to the axial tilt.
      • Mathematically compute the sun angle for a given day of the year at a given latitude.
      • Create a data set and graph that can be used to determine the solar energy expected at a specified location and date on the Earth's surface.
      • Graphically display the variations over one year of seasons of the sunlight received on the Earth's surface.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • zenith
      • solar angle
      • surface area
      • horizon
      • north/ south pole
      • axis
      • revolution
      • rotation
      • hemisphere
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Earth's spin axis is fixed in direction over the short term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Use mathematical representations to describe cyclic patterns of the seasons.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The seasons are a result of Earth's tilt relative to its orbit around the sun and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
      • Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Obtain and evaluate information about Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein to communicate how their findings challenged conventional thinking and allowed for academic advancements and space exploration.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Compare and contrast the arguments for the geocentric system of planetary motions (i.e., the Ptolemaic system) and the heliocentric system (Copernican) providing explanations for why each system was widely accepted for many centuries.
      • Graphically organize the claims and declarations of Copernicus, Galielo, Kepler and Newton, showing the correlation and development of the varioul Laws and principles that resulted in modern understanding of the motion of all objects.
      • Gather, read and evaluate scientific information from other disciplines (e.g., chemistry or biology) showing how initial non-traditional ideas were developed and extended by a progression of scientists into a modern view.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Copernicus
      • Galileo
      • Kepler
      • Newton
      • Einstein
      • heliocentric
      • orbit
      • gravity
      • relativity
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Copernicus contributed the heliocentric or sun-centered conception of the universe.
      • Kepler contributed the three laws of planetary motion Galileo contributed through telescopic observations that materials in universe were more earth like rather than ethereal.
      • Newton contributed the laws of motion and universal gravitation.
      • Einstein contributed the theories of relativity.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify relevant evidence found in case studies from the history of science on Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein.
      • Evaluate the validity, reliability of evidence along with its ability to support reasonable arguments.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Science knowledge is a result of human endeavor, imagination, and creativity.
      • Individuals and teams from many nations and cultures have contributed to science and to advances in engineering.
      • Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology.
      Earth's Systems
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics, including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic crusts.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze major geologic formations occurring at plate boundaries to determine the frequency of earthquakes to be expected.
      • Interpret topographical features presented on geologic maps to predict the associated type of plate boundary.
      • Draw diagrams that depict circulation within the mantle as it affects tectonic plate movement.
      • Analyze magnetic seafloor patterns to calculate oceanic crustal ages and directions of motion.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • continental plate
      • Pangaea
      • continental drift
      • rift
      • continental crust
      • oceanic crust
      • mantle
      • hot spot
      • magnetometer
      • magnetic reversal
      • paleomagnetism
      • isochron
      • seafloor spreading
      • plate boundary
      • topography
      • divergent boundary
      • convergent boundary
      • transform boundary
      • subduction zone
      • ridge push
      • slab pull
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth's crust.
      • Spontaneous radioactive decays follow a characteristic exponential decay law.
      • Radiometric dating is used to determine the ages of rocks and other materials.
      • The youngest rocks are at the top, and the oldest are at the bottom in an undisturbed column of rock, .
      • Rock layers have sometimes been rearranged by tectonic forces and the rearrangements can be seen or inferred, such as inverted sequences of fossil types.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Organize data that represents patterns that can be attributed to plate tectonic activity and formation of new rocks.
      • Measure ratio of parent to daughter atoms produced during radioactive decay as a means for determining the ages of rocks.
      • Use analyzed data to determine age and location of continental rocks, ages and locations of rocks found on opposite sides of mid-ocean ridges, and the type and location of plate boundaries relative to the type, age, and location of crustal rocks.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth's surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history.
      • At the boundaries where plates are moving apart, such as mid-ocean ridges, material from the interior of the Earth must be emerging and forming new rocks with the youngest ages.
      • The regions furthest from the plate boundaries (continental centers) will have the oldest rocks because new crust is added to the edge of continents at places where plates are coming together, such as subduction zones.
      • The oldest crustal rocks are found on the continents because oceanic crust is constantly being destroyed at places where plates are coming together, such as subduction zones.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Develop a time scale model of Earth's biological and geological history to establish relative and absolute age of major events in Earth's history (e.g., radiometric dating, models of geologic cross sections, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop a graphical organizer that arranges the broad geologic eons and epochs of Earth's history according to key fossils and radiometric results.
      • Use geologic principles of superposition, original horizontality and relative dating to order the events involved in creating a given rock sequence.
      • Establish radiometrically the age of a rock sample, given the percent of a parent element remaining and a table of half-life data.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
    • fossil
    • fossilization
    • folding
    • faulting
    • igneous intrusions
    • rocks
    • time scale
    • Precambrian Era
    • Paleozoic Era
    • Mesozoic Era
    • Cenozoic Era
    • petrification
    • mold
    • cast
    • Principle of superposition
    • Principle of crosscutting relationships
    • index fossil
    • half-life
    • Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The early Earth and other objects in the solar system were bombarded by impacts. (combined 2)
      • Erosion and plate tectonics on Earth have destroyed much of the evidence of bombardment by impacts, explaining the scarcity of impact craters on Earth.
      • Earth's plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart based on evidence of ancient land and water patterns found in rocks and fossils.
      • The geological time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history.
      • Major historical events include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution and extinction of particular living organisms, volcanic eruptions, periods of massive glaciation, and development of watersheds and rivers through glaciation and water erosion.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Identify age and composition of Earth's oldest rocks and meteorites as determined by radiometric dating.
      • Use evidence to organize the components of the model including a geographical scale showing the geological and biological history of Earth.
      • Describe relationships in the model between components in the model, such as the age and composition of Earth's oldest rocks as determined by radiometric dating, observations of size and distribution of impact craters on the surface of the Earth, and the activity of plate tectonic processes operating on the Earth, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, and igneous intrusions.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Analyses of rock formations and the fossil record are used to establish relative ages.
      • Radiometric ages of lunar rocks, meteorites and the oldest Earth rocks point to the creation of a solid Earth crust about 4.4 billion years ago.
      • Other planetary surfaces and their patterns of impact cratering can be used to infer that Earth had many impact craters early in history.
      • Processes such as volcanism, plate tectonics, and erosion have reshaped Earth's surface.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains, valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information about changes to rocks and geologic formations by mechanical and chemical weathering, erosion, volcanism and gravity.
      • Evaluate varying models of tectonic uplift, mountain-building (orogenic) forces and continental drift to explain the location and features of major mountain belts and chain on Earth.
      • Communicate information about submerged sea features such as seamounts, trenches and ridges, relating their locations to the actions of plate tectonics.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      Students:
      • From a given explanation, identify the claims, the evidence and the reasoning that will require evaluation.
      • Based on evidence, evaluate the mode and ease with which energy moves from one Earth system to another.
      • Evaluate explanations for changes in Earth's mean temperature via changes in the energy budget of Earth's systems.
      • Research and compile a set of explanations both supporting and disavowing the impact of human activities on the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth's crust.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop the claim based on evidence that constructive and destructive processes shape Earth's land features.
      • Identify and describe evidence supporting the claim, such as specific internal processes like volcanism, mountain building or tectonic uplift as causal agents in building up Earth's surface over time; specific surface processes, like weathering and erosion as causal agents in wearing down Earth's surface over time.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The appearance of land features and sea-floor features are a result of both constructive forces and destructive mechanisms.
      • Earth's systems, being dynamic and interacting, cause feedback effects that can increase or decrease the original changes.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Construct an explanation from evidence for the processes that generate the transformation of rocks in Earth's crust, including chemical composition of minerals and characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Compare and contrast rocks, minerals, metals and crystals.
      • Construct a graphical depiction of the transition of a mineral grain through a rock cycle containing igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
      • Evaluate the evidence for the intrusive or extrusive genesis of an igneous rock.
      • Identify and classify samples of rocks.
      • Differentiate among clastic, chemical, and organic sedimentary rocks.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • igneous
      • sedimentary
      • metamorphic
      • minerals
      • ore
      • magma
      • quartz
      • feldspar
      • mica
      • intrusive rock
      • extrusive rock
      • basalt
      • volcanic eruption
      • obsidian
      • clastic rock
      • conglomerate
      • chemical rock
      • organic rock
      • calcium carbonate
      • limestone
      • foliated rock
      • cleavage
      • nonfoliated rock
      • marble
      • rock cycle
      • weathering
      • erosion
      • heat
      • pressure
      • melting
      • coal
      • shale
      • pumice
      • sandstone
      • slate
      • granite
      • rhyolite
      • schist
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Minerals make up rocks.
      • Rocks are formed in many environments upon and within the Earth's crust.
      • Igneous rock is formed by the cooling of magma inside the Earth or on the surface.
      • Sedimentary rock is formed from the products of weathering by cementation or precipitation on the Earth's surface.
      • Metamorphic rock, is formed by temperature and pressure changes inside the Earth.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Construct an explanation that includes specific cause and effect relationships for formation of each type of rock.
      • Identify and describe evidence to construct an explanation such as cooling of magma at different rates form various types of igneous rocks, cementing of materials together or precipitation to form different sedimentary rocks, and pressure and temperature changes within the crust and upper mantle to form metamorphic rock.
      • Use reasoning to connect the evidence to explain transformation of rocks in the Earth's crust.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Earth is a complex system of interacting subsystems: the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
      • The geosphere includes a hot and mostly metallic inner core: a mantle of hot, soft, solid rock: and a crust of rock, soil, and sediments.
      • Solid rocks can be formed by the cooling of molten rock, the accumulation and consolidation of sediments, or the alteration of older rocks by heat, pressure, and fluids.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Obtain and communicate information about significant geologic characteristics (e.g., types of rocks and geologic ages, earthquake zones, sinkholes, caves, abundant fossil fauna, mineral and energy resources) that impact life in Alabama and the southeastern United States.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Create an organized list of the state's fossil finds that have been notable contributions to the understanding of changes over time in both the flora and fauna of the region.
      • Depict on a map the locations of significant mineral and energy deposits within the state, correlated to the physiographic regions in which they are found.
      • List the names and dates of recorded earthquakes within the state and find estimates of the future likelihood of destructive earthquakes in the region.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • earthquake zone
      • sinkholes
      • caves
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Major historical events in Alabama and the southeastern United States include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, volcanic activity, the evolution and extinction of living organisms, and development of watersheds and rivers.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to Earth forces.
      • The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Develop a model of Earth's layers using available evidence to explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials (e.g., seismic waves, movement of tectonic plates).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Model the convective heat flow within the mantle of the Earth with respect to the locations and characteristics of convergent and divergent plate boundaries.
      • Compare and contrast the four types of seismic waves in terms of speed, ability to traverse Earth's core, direction of energy transport, and destructive potential.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • crust
      • mantle
      • core
      • convective currents
      • tectonic plate
      • volcano
      • vents
      • cinder cone
      • shield volcano
      • composite volcano
      • folding
      • fault
      • normal fault
      • reverse fault
      • strike-slip fault
      • earthquake
      • seismic waves
      • seismograph
      • Pressure waves (P-waves)
      • Shear waves (S-waves)
      • Lateral waves (L-waves)
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Tectonic plates are the top parts of giant convection cells that bring matter from the hot inner mantle up to the cool surface.
      • The movements are driven by the release of energy and by the cooling and gravitational downward motion of the dense material of the plates after subduction.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model (i.e., graphical, verbal, or mathematical) in which components are described based on seismic and magnetic evidence.
      • Describe relationships between components in the model such as thermal energy is released at the surface of the Earth as new crust is formed and cooled; the flow of matter by convection in the solid mantle and the sinking of cold, dense crust back into the mantle exert forces on crustal plates that then move, producing tectonic activity; matter is cycled between the crust and the mantle at plate boundaries.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions of historical changes in Earth's surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid mantle and crust.
      • Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth's interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior.
      • Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      13 ) Analyze and interpret data of interactions between the hydrologic and rock cycles to explain the mechanical impacts (e.g., stream transportation and deposition, erosion, frost-wedging) and chemical impacts (e.g., oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonation) of Earth materials by water's properties.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Correlate the mechanical and chemical agents of weathering of rocks with the varied products of those actions.
      • Graphically display the role and ubiquity of water in both mechanical and chemical weathering processes.
      • Develop a model of the sorting and layering of weathered materials achieved by the depositional processes of water, wind, and gravitational transport.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • weathering
      • mechanical weathering
      • frost wedging
      • exfoliation
      • chemical weathering
      • oxidation
      • erosion
      • deposition
      • hydrolysis
      • carbonation
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Heat capacity of water, density of water in its solid and liquid states, and the polar nature of the water molecule due to its molecular structure are properties of water that affect Earth materials.
      • Transportation, deposition, and erosion are three processes occurring in water that depend on the amount of energy in the water.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze and interpret data showing the connection between the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The abundance of liquid water on Earth's surface and its unique combination of physical and chemical properties are central to the planet's dynamics.
      • Water's exceptional capacity to absorb, store and release large amounts of energy, transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and lower the viscosities and melting points of rocks are due to its physical and chemical properties that are central to the planet's dynamics.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      14 ) Construct explanations from evidence to describe how changes in the flow of energy through Earth's systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar output, ocean circulation, surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, Coriolis effect) impact the climate.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • volcanic eruption
      • solar output
      • ocean circulation
      • surface temperature
      • precipitation patterns
      • glacial ice volumes
      • sea levels
      • Coriolis effect
      • jet stream
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Climate changes can occur if any of Earth's systems change.
      • Some climate changes were rapid shifts (volcanic eruptions, meteoric impacts, changes in ocean currents), other were gradual and longer term-due, for example to the rise of plants and other life forms that modified the atmosphere via photosynthesis.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze data to explain aspects of how energy flow impacts climate.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Natural factors that cause climate changes over human time scales include variations in the sun's energy output, ocean circulation patterns, atmospheric composition, and volcanic activity.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Earth and Space Science
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      15 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to verify that weather (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, dew point, adiabatic cooling, condensation, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, barometric pressure, wind velocity) is influenced by energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

      a. Analyze patterns in weather data to predict various systems, including fronts and severe storms.

      b. Use maps and other visualizations to analyze large data sets that illustrate the frequency, magnitude, and resulting damage from severe weather events in order to predict the likelihood and severity of future events.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Energy and Matter
      Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Compare and contrast the means of describing weather conditions.
      • Classify the variety of instruments that measure weather conditions.
      • Use the concept of energy flow to show how air masses and fronts create weather.
      • Analyze a sequence of weather maps for a region over time to show the consistency of weather models.
      • Depict graphically the flow of energy throughout the stages of thunderstorm development.
      • Communicate information detailing Earth's major climate zones.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • weather
      • air temperature
      • humidity
      • fronts
      • air pressure
      • storms
      • precipitation
      • wind direction
      • wind speed
      • air masses
      • barometer
      • thermometer
      • anemometer
      • wind vane
      • rain gauge
      • psychrometer
      • front
      • warm front
      • cold front
      • air mass
      • highs
      • lows
      • isobar
      • tornado
      • lightning
      • thunder
      • hurricane
      • climate zone
      • temperate
      • tropical
      • polar
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a given place and time.
      • Weather and climate are shaped by complex interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things.
      • Energy is redistributed globally through ocean currents and also through atmospheric circulation.
      • Sunlight heats Earth's surface, which in turn heats the atmosphere.
      • Temperature patterns, together with the Earth's rotation and the configuration of continents and oceans, control the large-scale patterns of atmospheric circulation.
      • Winds gain energy and water vapor content as they cross hot ocean regions, which can lead to tropical storms.
      • Prediction Center maps provide weather forecasts and climate patterns based on analyses of observational data.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Analyze data in patterns to predict the outcome of an event.
      • Analyze data models to predict outcome of an event.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns.
      • Weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings protect life and property.
      • Weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings protect life and property.
      From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      1 ) Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body to locate organs and systems.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models
      Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Develop and use models to appropriately identify the anatomical planes and anatomical directions associated with the human body.
      • Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify the anatomical regions and cavities in the human body.
      • Use appropriate anatomical terminology, anatomical landmarks and models to locate major organs and organ systems in the human body.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Transverse plane
      • Coronal plane/ frontal plane
      • Sagittal plane
      • Midsagittal line
      • Coelom
      • Dorsal cavity
      • Ventral cavity
      • Thoracic cavity
      • Abdominopelvic cavity
      • Cranial cavity
      • Anterior
      • Posterior
      • Dorsal
      • Ventral
      • Medial
      • Lateral
      • Proximal
      • Distal
      • Superficial
      • Visceral/deep
      • Plantar
      • Superior
      • Inferior
      • Abdominopelvic region
      • right/left hypochondriac region
      • epigastric region
      • right/left lumbar region
      • umbilical region
      • right/left iliac region
      • hypogastric region
      • right/left upper quadrant
      • right/left lower quadrant
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • In the human body there are eleven major organ systems, including the circulatory, digestive, nervous, excretory, respiratory, and reproductive systems. The skeletal, muscular, integumentary, immune, and endocrine systems complete the list of organ systems.
      • The cavities of the human body contain organ system components, and specific regions within these cavities house specific organs.
      • The use of appropriate terminology is necessary to accurately identify anatomical regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body.
      • The location of anatomical features, such as organs, within the human body and/or their relative position to other anatomical features of the human body can be accurately communicated using appropriate anatomical terminology.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate the locational relationship of organs and organ systems in the human body.
      • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify and evaluate the location of organs and organ systems in the human body.
      • Interpret and accurately apply terminology related to the human body.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The human body, like all multicellular organisms, has a hierarchical structural organization where any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level.
      • Humans are coelomates, meaning the human body contains fluid-filled cavities that are fully lined by mesoderm (skinlike tissue), and these cavities house specific organs.
      • Features of the human body, both internal and external, can be accurately landmarked using anatomical planes, cavities, and regions and anatomical directional terminology.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Human Body Organization and Anthropometry
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      2 ) Analyze characteristics of tissue types (e.g., epithelial tissue) and construct an explanation of how the chemical and structural organizations of the cells that form these tissues are specialized to conduct the function of that tissue (e.g., lining, protecting).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Evaluate the different types of tissue and the basic characteristics of each tissue type.
      • Explain how the chemical and structural organizations of a tissue's cells are specialized to perform the function of that tissue.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Epithelial tissue (ancillary structures, e.g., cilia and goblet cells)
      • Squamous epithelium
      • Cuboidal epithelium
      • Columnar epithelium
      • Simple epithelial tissue
      • Stratified epithelial tissue
      • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
      • Transitional epithelium
      • Connective tissue (associated cell(s) and matrix/ fibers)
      • Loose connective tissue
      • Areolar
      • Adipose
      • Reticular
      • Dense connective tissue
      • Dense regular connective tissue
      • Dense irregular connective tissue
      • Elastic connective tissue
      • Cartilage
      • Chondrocyte
      • Matrix/fibers
      • Lacunae
      • Hyaline cartilage
      • Elastic cartilage
      • Fibrocartilage
      • Bone
      • Osteocyte
      • Osteon
      • Haversian canal
      • lamellae
      • Lacunae
      • Canaliculi
      • Blood
      • Plasma
      • Erythrocyte
      • Leucocyte
      • Thrombocyte
      • Muscle Tissue
      • Smooth muscle
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The function of a particular type of tissue is determined by the specialized chemical and structural organization of cells that make up that tissue.
      • There are four major tissue types in the human body and each type can be broken down into sublevel components that have unique features and functionality.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Examine characteristics of the major types of tissue.
      • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and technical information from multiple legitimate sources to analyze the structural components and organization of the cells that form a particular type of tissue, and interpret how this architecture affects the function(s) of that particular tissue.
      • Construct an explanation of how cellular architecture is specialized to conduct the function(s) of the tissue type it forms.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • Tissues are composed of groups of cells that are comparable in structure and function(s) (epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle). Similarly, groups of different types of tissues form an organ that performs a specific bodily function.
      • The function, or functions, of a particular type of tissue are directly related to the type, composition, and arrangement of its unique cells and ancillary components.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Build a Muscle
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      3 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the integumentary system's structure and function, including layers and accessories of skin and types of membranes.

      a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., burns, skin cancer, bacterial and viral infections, chemical dermatitis) to determine the body's attempt to maintain homeostasis.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function; Stability and Change
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information about the structure of the integumentary system, including layers and their substructure and the accessory structures.
      • Obtain information about the function of the integumentary system, including the function(s) of each layer and its substructure and the accessory structures.
      • Communication information to explain the structure and function of the integumentary system, its layers and their substructure, and its accessory structures.
      • Obtain and communicate information to explain the structure and function of the types of membranes associated with the integumentary system.
      • Analyze the effects of pathological conditions affecting the integumentary system.
      • When pathological conditions affect the integumentary system, determine how the body responds in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • serous membrane
      • serous fluid
      • mucous membrane
      • mucous
      • synovial membrane
      • synovial fluid
      • cutaneous membrane
      • skin
      • hair
      • follicle
      • shaft
      • nails
      • keratinocytes
      • keratin
      • keratinization/cornification
      • melanocytes
      • melanin
      • carotene
      • hemoglobin
      • Epidermis
      • stratified squamous epithelium
      • stratum basale
      • stratum spinosum
      • stratum granulosum
      • stratum lucidum
      • stratum corneum
      • Dermis
      • Arrector pili muscle
      • sensory receptors/ nerve fibers
      • exocrine glands
      • sebaceous glands
      • sebum
      • sweat/ sudoriferous glands
      • apocrine sweat glands
      • eccrine/ merocrine sweat glands
      • capillary
      • Hypodermis/subcutaneous layer
      • ceruminous glands
      • cerumen/earwax
      • Collagen
      • Elastic fibers
      • Adipose tissue
      • Protection
      • Excretion
      • Temperature regulation
      • Sensory perception
      • Carcinoma
      • Melanoma
      • sunburn
      • Ultraviolet radiation
      • Partial thickness burn
      • Full thickness burn
      • Contact Dermatitis
      • Eczema
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Three of the four types of membrane are composed of epithelium covering connective tissue. The fourth membrane type, synovial membranes, is composed solely of connective tissue.
      • The four types of membrane are specialized according to structure, location, and function.
      • The integumentary system is composed of the skin and its accessory structures.
      • The layered structure of the epidermis provides a regenerative, protective barrier to the body's interior.
      • Dermis is the deep inner layer of skin that gives strength and elasticity to skin and that contains the majority of strutures associated with the skin, such as hair follicles, sensory receptors, and glands.
      • The skin is comprosed of various cell types that each have a unique function within the skin.
      • Each of the accessory structures of the integumentary system has a specific structure and location within the skin.
      • Each of the accessory structures of the integumentary system has a particular function within the structure of the skin.
      • The integumentary system is responsible for specific functions, several of which are integral to maintaining homeostasis.
      • The integumentary system is affected by an array of pathological conditions. The effect of such conditions determines how the body responds.
      • The integumentary system is integral to maintaining homeostasis.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Obtain and communicate information to explain the structure and function of the types of membranes.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the integumentary system and its structure, including layers and accessory structures.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the integumentary system and its function, including layers and accessory structures.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the integumentary system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the integumentary system.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The integumentary system is a complex system comprised of organs that have a primary function to protect the body from homeostatic imbalances such as foreign invaders (viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites) and the environment.
      • The integumentary system is comprised of the skin as well as accessory structures that allow the skin to accomplish its various homeostatic functions.
      • Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for compmlex systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
      • Changes in systems may have various causes that may not have equal effects.
      • The body's response to the disease process is complex and involves numerous systems working synergetically to respond to homeostatic imbalances.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      4 ) Use models to identify the structure and function of the skeletal system (e.g., classification of bones by shape, classification of joints and the appendicular and axial skeletons).

      a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the growth and development of the skeletal system (e.g., bone growth and remodeling).

      b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system (e.g., types of bone fractures and their treatment, osteoporosis, rickets, other bone diseases).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use models to identify the structure of the skeletal system.
      • Use models to identify the function of the skeletal system.
      • Use models to identify and classify bones according to shape.
      • Use models to identify and classify the joints of the human skeleton.
      • Use models to identify the components of the appendicular and axial skeletons.
      • Gather, read, and synthesize information about the growth and development of the skeletal system.
      • Communicate information, based on evidence, to demonstrate understanding of bone growth and development.
      • Gather, read, and synthesize information about common pathology of the skeletal system.
      • Communicate information, based on evidence, to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • support
      • protection
      • assists in movement
      • hemopoiesis
      • storage of mineral and energy reserves
      • axial skeleton
      • skull (including all bones and significant landmarks)
      • vertebral column (including all bones and significant landmarks)
      • rib cage (including all bones, significant landmarks, and costal cartilages)
      • appendicular skeleton
      • bones of arms/legs (including all bones and significant landmarks)
      • pectoral girdle (including all bones and significant landmarks)
      • pelvic girdle (including all bones and significant landmarks)
      • long bones
      • short bones
      • flat bones
      • irregular bones
      • sesamoid bones
      • synarthrosis/ immovable joint
      • sutures
      • amphiarthrosis/ slightly movable joint
      • vertebral joints
      • symphysis pubis
      • diarthrosis/ synovial joint
      • hinge joint
      • ball and socket joint
      • pivot joint
      • saddle joint
      • gliding joint/ plane joint
      • condyloid joint/ ellipsoidal joint
      • synovial fluid
      • articular cartilage
      • bursa
      • osseous (bone) tissue
      • osteocytes
      • long bones
      • periosteum
      • endosteum
      • medullary canal
      • diaphysis
      • epiphysis
      • bone marrow
      • yellow bone marrow
      • red bone marrow
      • articular cartilage
      • epiphyseal line
      • matrix
      • flat bones
      • compact bone
      • osteon/ Haversian system
      • lacunae
      • canaliculi
      • lamellae
      • central canal
      • spongy bone
      • trabeculaeosseous tissue
      • osteogenesis/ bone growth
      • epiphyseal plate/ growth plate
      • osteoblasts
      • osteoclasts
      • osteocytes
      • interstitial growth
      • chondroblasts
      • hyaline cartilage
      • appositional growth
      • bone remodeling
      • callus
      • Osteoporosis
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons and provides movement, protection and shape.
      • The axial skeleton is composed of the spine, rib cage and skull.
      • The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the arms, hips, legs and shoulders.
      • Bones can be categorized by shape: flat, irregular, long, and short.
      • Joints can be categorized by their structural components—cartilaginous, fibrous, and synovial—or by their function—amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis, and synarthrosis.
      • Endochondral bones form from cartilage pegs in the embryo—they usually produce long bones and parts of irregular and short bones. They have primary and secondary ossification centers, and a region that produces the bone collar.
      • Dermal bones form in subcutaneous membranes, are mostly composed of cancellous bone with a covering of boney plates and usually produce flat bones and parts of irregular bones.
      • Bone fractures can be simple, commuted or compound, or open.
      • Bone healing involves four stages: fracture, granulation, callus, and normal contour.—sometimes classified as three phases: reactive, reparative and restorative.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information to explain the skeletal system and its function in the human body.
      • Use models to identify and communicate the structure and function of the skeletal system.
      • Communicate an understanding of bone growth and development by compiling and summarizing data about bone growth (compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification, describe the process of long bone growth at the epiphyseal plates).
      • Communicate an understanding of the pathophysiology of bone by compiling and summarizing data about bone growth (bone remodeling and bone repair).
      • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and technical information from multiple sources about the types and causes of bone disease and the treatment for those diseases.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The bones give shape to the body and provide protection and support for the body's organs. The skeletal system, with the support of muscles which attach to bones via tendons allow movement of body parts. The body's joints make up of determines the type of body movements that are possible.
      • Small scale changes in bone construction occur continually. The body frequently recycles bone which allows for prevention of fractures and self-repairs.
      • Any imbalances in bone deposit and bone reabsorption may cause the disease process to occur in the human skeleton. Therefore, maintaining homeostatic balance of bone growth and remodeling is an important component to skeletal disease prevention.
      • By the eighth week of embryonic development human bone has been almost completely constructed. Throughout early life (neonate-pre-adolescence) the long bones continue to lengthen by way of interstitial growth. For most under normal homeostatic conditions growth continues until about the end of adolescence when ceases.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Bones of the Human Skeleton; Bone Growth
      There are many diseases and disorders that affect the skeletal system. The Teacher Vocabulary includes some of the more common ones, in addition to the examples specifically given in the course of study document. Note that these should be considered as suggestions and listing them here does not imply that they must be taught nor does it imply these are the only diseases and disorders that could be taught during instruction.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      5 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the anatomy of the muscular system, including muscle locations and groups, actions, origins and insertions.

      a. Plan and conduct investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system (e.g., muscle contraction/relaxation, muscle fatigue, muscle tone), including pathological conditions (e.g., muscular dystrophy).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Design and use models to show the different types of muscles and muscle groups to include where they are located in the human body.
      • Design and use models to show the muscles and muscle group actions.
      • Design and use models to show the muscles and muscle groups, origins, insertions, and locations.
      • Design and carry out scientific investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system.
      • Design and carry out scientific investigations to explain pathological conditions (diseases) of the muscular system.
      • Assess an ergonomic design solution to decrease work-related musculoskeletal disorders including the associated costs and benefits.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Muscular Dystrophy
      • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Each muscle has a stabel immovable attachment point known as its origin and a second attachment point which connects it to the body part that it moves called the insertion.
      • Parallel muscles are sheets of muscle cells that provide contractions for moving light loads over long distances, while pinnate muscles are feather patterned adn provide great strength for moving large loads over short distances.
      • There are different gross muscle shapes such as deltoid, trapezoid, rhomboideus, rectus, and serratus muscles.
      • Biceps muscles have two origins while triceps have three.
      • The largest muscle of a group is referred to as maximus while the smallest is called the minimus, the longest is called the longus and the shortest is called the brevis muscle.
      • There are many types of muscle actions, including: abductor, adductor, depressor, extensor, flexor, levator, pronator, rotator, sphincter, supinator, tensor.
      • Muscles can counteract (antagonistic) or assist (synergistic) other muscles.
      • Muscle contractions can be categorized as isotonic or isometric.
      • Overuse of muscles can cause strains, stiffness or sprains.
      • Muscle damage can produce muscle pathology such as contusions, cramps, paralysis, and sensitivity.
      • Some muscle diseases are genetic or developmental—including myopethies
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Develop a model that allows for manipulation and testing of a proposed process or system (different types of muscles and muscle groups).
      • Develop and/or use a model to generate data to support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems and show the different types of muscles and muscle groups to include where they are located in the human body.
      • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources, (theories, simulations, peer review).
      • Apply scientific ideas, principles, and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems taking into account possible unanticipated results.
      • Design, evaluate and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
      • Collect data about a complex model of a proposed process or system (ergonomic design solution to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) to identify failure points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables (to include cost and benefit).
      • Evaluate the impact of new data (ergonomic design to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) on a working explanation and/or model of a proposed process or system.
      • Analyze data to identify design features or characteristics of the components of a proposed process or system related to ergonomic design to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders) to optimize it relative to criteria for success (cost and benefits).
      • Use mathematical, computational, and/or algorithmic representations of phenomena to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations (cost benefit analysis of solutions to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders).
      • Compare, integrate, and evaluate sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address/solve the problem of how to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders to include cost and benefit).
      • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source in relation to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The arrangement of muscles enables them to work congruently to yield an assortment of movements. In order for these movements to take place the muscular system must work with several other body systems (skeletal, circulatory, nervous). Muscles function produces movement, stabilizes joints, maintains posture and body position, generates heat, and assists in protecting internal organs.
      • There are several phases that lead to muscle fiber contraction. At the neuromuscular junction the muscle fiber is activated so that there is a change in membrane potential which precipitates the formation of an electrical current (action potential). This action potential is then disseminated along the sarcolemma which prompts a rise in calcium ions that in turn leads to the stimulation of muscle contraction. In a disease such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the patient's sarcolemma tears during a contraction which permits extra calcium ions that damages contractile fibers, lymphocytes, and macrophages that accumulate in surrounding connective tissue. This homeostatic imbalance causes the damaged cells to atrophy resulting in a debilitating loss in muscle mass for the patient with DMD.
      • Work-related musculoskeletal disorders/ injuries are a major concern for employers. Therefore it is imperative that ergonomic design solutions prevent and or reduce the incidence of these disorders. Annually, these disorders/injuries cost employers vast amounts of money, time, and resources. With that said, employers are continually seeking ergonomic design solutions to remedy this dilemma.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Build a Muscle
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Unit Plans: 0
      6 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information regarding how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate, including how these systems affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.

      a. Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology on the nervous system (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral palsy, head trauma) and argue possible prevention and treatment options.

      b. Design a medication to treat a disorder associated with neurotransmission, including mode of entry into the body, form of medication, and desired effects.*

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Engaging in Argument from Evidence; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain and evaluate information about the central nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Obtain and evaluate information about the peripheral nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Evaluate how the central and peripheral nervous systems interrelate.
      • Communication information to explain how the central and peripheral nervous systems interrelate, including how they affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Obtain information about pathology of the nervous system.
      • Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology of the nervous system on the human body.
      • Obtain information about possible prevention options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
      • Obtain information about possible treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
      • Develop and argument based on evidence about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
      • Identify and describe major neurotransmitters and receptors.
      • Classify neurotransmitters by function.
      • Identify and describe disorders associated with neurotransmission and how they affect the body.
      • Identify medications that act as neurotransmitters.
      • Identify different modes of entry for neurotransmitter medications into the body.
      • Identify, compare and contrast side effects of neurotransmitter medications that are associated with different modes of transmission into the human body.
      • Identify desired effects of neurotransmitter medications.
      • Hypothesize and design a medication that will show desired outcomes of neurotransmitters in the body with the least amount of adverse side effects.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Lumbar puncture
      • MRI Scan
      • PET Scan
      • SPECT Scan
      • Parkinson's disease
      • Alzheimer's disease
      • cerebral palsy
      • traumatic brain injury
      • Glutamate and Aspartate
      • GABA
      • Serotonin
      • Acetylcholine
      • Dopamine
      • Norepinephrine
      • Endorphins and Enkephalins
      • Dynorphins
      • Channel link receptors (ionotopic)
      • G-Protein-Linked receptors
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The nervous system is a complex arrangement of neuroglia and neurons bundled into the central and peripheral nervous systems.
      • The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
      • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) extends beyond the brain and sprinal cord—composed of somatic nerves, autonomic nerves, and ganglia.
      • Nerves are bundles of neurons—afferent nerves carry sensory information while efferent nerves carry motor information.
      • The PNS is divided into the somatic nervous system, which enables the voluntary control of body movements and the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions in order to maintain a stable internal environment for body.
      • The autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic nerve system which promotes relaxation and digestion and the sympathetic nervous system which prepares the body to react to stress. These two systems tend to counteract each other to maintain homeostasis.
      • Structural diseases of the nervous system are categorized as trauma, cerebrovascular and neurovascular diseases, CNS tumors, developmental disorders, metabolic and toxic diseases, nervous system infection, or neurodegenerative disease.
      • Neurons communicate to other cells with neurotransmitters which can be excitatory(stimulate a neuron) or inhibitory (hinder a neuron).
      • A neuron must be excited past its threshold before propgating an action potential.
      • The actions of neurotransmitters are the basis of many diseaseas and many drugs modify their actions.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the central nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the peripheral nervous system, including how it affects all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the nervous system.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention and treatment options in regards to pathology of the nervous system.
      • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system.
      • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options with regard to pathology of the nervous system
      • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
      • Define a design problem that involves the development of a process or system with interacting components, criteria, and constraints (medication to treat homeostatic brain imbalance).
      • Create a hypothesis that specifies what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is manipulated.
      • Collect data about a complex model of a proposed process or system to identify failure points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables (nervous system functionality in regards to neurotransmitter medications and their effect on the homeostatic imbalances in the disease process).
      • Analyze data to identify design features or characteristics of the components of a proposed process or system to optimize it relative to criteria for success (action and effect of different neurotransmitter medications on the nervous system).
      • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and or models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
      • Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.
      • Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources, assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source.
      • Evaluate the validity and reliability of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and ;or designs that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible.
      • Use empirical evidence to identify patterns use empirical evidence to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
      • Design a medication to cause a desired effect investigating a system or structure requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal their function and /or solve a problem.
      • The functions and properties of natural and designed objects and systems can be inferred from their overall structure, the way their components are shaped and used, and the molecular substructures of their various materials.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves). This nervous system is responsible for aiding and sustaining homeostasis in the human body where it monitors and analyzes environmental information and responds).
      • Homeostatic imbalances may occur in the brain for various reasons. The causes of these imbalances include traumatic brain injuries (contusions, concussions), degenerative brain disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease), and cerebrovascular accidents (strokes).
      • Degenerative brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease occur when beta-amyloid peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles occur. These tangles are delineated by an insufficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Whereas degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are caused by too much or too little of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Treatments for the symptoms of these diseases include medications such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, glutamate pathway modifiers, and MAO-B inhibitors). These medication treatments are not a cure for the diseases; they only slow disease progression. Research for new medication therapy is ongoing with the hope of developing better medications that halt the disease process and have minimal adverse side effects.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Unit Plans: 0
      7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

      a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).

      b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information about the structure of the cardiovascular system, including various types of structures that aid in circulation through the heart and throughout the systems of the body.
      • Obtain information about the function of the cardiovascular system.
      • Use models to explain the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and its accessory structures.
      • Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and function of the cardiovascular system.
      • Obtain information about the structure of blood and it's function, including information about the ABO blood groups.
      • Use models to describe how structure is related to function in the components of blood.
      • Obtain and evaluate information on pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
      • Obtain and evaluate information on possible prevention options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Obtain and evaluate information on possible treatment options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about possible prevention or treatment options related to pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system.
      • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
      • Obtain and evaluate information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular system function.
      • Design an experiment that can be used to test cardiovascular function in varying conditions.
      • Describe the data that wil be collected and the evidence to be derived from the data during the experiment.
      • Conduct the experiment and collect data and record changes to the external environment and organism responses.
      • Evaluate experiment by assessing the accuracy and precision of the data as well as limitations of the investigation.
      • Make suggestions for refinement if needed.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • blood pressure
      • blood vessels
      • circulatory system
      • heart
      • pulse
      • vascularization
      • arteries
      • veins
      • lymphatic vessels
      • hydrostatic pressure
      • microcirculation
      • tunica adventitia
      • tunica media
      • tunica intima
      • lumen
      • constriction/ vasoconstriction
      • dilation/ vasodilation
      • arterioles
      • venules
      • capillaries
      • circulation (systemic, pulmonary)
      • pericardium (fibrous, serous, epicardium)
      • myocardium
      • endocardium
      • coronary arteries, veins
      • cardiac infarction
      • vasculature
      • septum
      • chambers
      • atrium
      • ventricle
      • valves (atrioventricular, semilunar, mitral, bicuspid, tricuspid)
      • Papillary muscles
      • venae cavae
      • superior/ inferior vena cava
      • aorta
      • pulmonary artery, valve, veins
      • SA node, AV node
      • bundle of His
      • Purkinje system
      • diastole
      • systole
      • heart rate
      • stroke volume
      • cardiac output
      • electrocardiogram
      • plasma
      • RBC's/ erythrocytes
      • hemoglobin
      • reticulocytes/ erythroblasts
      • complete blood count (CBC)
      • blood type
      • ABO blood group system
      • Rh factor
      • erythroblastosis fetalis
      • WBC's/ leukocytes
      • neutrophils
      • lymphocytes
      • eosinophils
      • monocytes
      • basophils
      • differential white blood cell count
      • granulocytes/ polymorphonuclear WBC
      • agranulocytes/ mononuclear WBC
      • B or T lymphocytes
      • platelet/ thrombocyte
      • megakaryocyte
      • percent saturation
      • carbon dioxide intoxication
      • phagocytosis
      • macrophages
      • kupffer cell
      • prostacyclin
      • clotting factors
      • prothrombin
      • thrombin
      • Fibrinogen/ fibrin
      • plasminogen
      • erythropoiesis
      • hematopoietic stem cell
      • Myeloid stem cell
      • lymphoid stem cell
      • myocardial infarction
      • mitral valve prolapse
      • varicose veins
      • arteriosclerosis,
      • anemia
      • hypertension
      • angina
      • systolic
      • diastolic
      • electrocardiogram
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • Arteries and arterioles carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
      • Veins and venules carry blood from the body to the heart.
      • Capillaries are small blood vessels that exchange materials with tissues.
      • Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of a vessel while vasodialation is the widening of a vessel.
      • The heart is made of mycardium covered by pericardium and is composed of four chambers.
      • The left half of the heart controls systemic circulation while the right half controls pulmonary circulation.
      • One pumping action of the heart is called the cardiac cycle—diastole is the filling of the atria and ventricles and systole is the emptying of the ventricles.
      • Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements and transports materials needed to maintain body homeostasis.
      • Blood cell types: 1) RBC's—contain the protein hemaglobin which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 2) WBC's—granulocytic (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) produce secretions that kill micoorganisms and agrnulocytic (lymphocytes and monocytes)—lymphocytes produce an immune respons and monocytes are phagocytic. 3) Platelets—assist with blood clotting.
      • Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow by hematopoiesis and are derived from a multipotent stem cell.
      • Blood type is a way of categorizing RBCs according to variations in proteins on the cell membrane surface—these proteins can be classified as types A, B or D.
      • Diseases of the cardiovascular system affect either blood vessels or the heart and are either congenital, produced by lifestyle factors, or produced by microorganisms.
      • Common vascular diseases interrupt blood flow while common heart diseases prevent the chambers and/or valves from working properly.
      • Electrocardiography measures the electrical activity of the heart.
      • Pulse is an indicator of heartbeat and heartbeat is produced by blood pressure.
      • Heart rate is the number of cardiac cycles per minute.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the cardiovascular system, including its structures and their function.
      • Use a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the cardiovascular system and its components.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the ABO blood groups.
      • Use models to relate structure to function for the components of blood.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
      • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular function.
      • Design a experiment to collect data in relation to cardiovascular function.
      • Determine how the change in the variables will be measured or identified.
      • Determine how the response within the cardiovascular system will be measured or identified.
      • Use a tool to collect and record changes in the external environment (variables) and the organism responses.
      • Evaluate experiment for accuracy and precision of data collection, as well as limitations.
      • Make revisions to experiment if needed to produce more accurate and precise results.
      • Manipulate variables that will cause changes in cardiovascular test investigation results.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The cardiovascular system's main function is to transport various items throughout the body (oxygen, digested nutrients, systemic waste, etc.).
      • Various cardiovascular organs serve in different capacities to move blood (its transport agent) around the body.
      • Cardiovascular organs are made up of various tissues that work together to carry out the organs' functions.
      • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. affect cardiovascular health.
      • Lifestyle changes can be used to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease.
      • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. change cardiovascular output.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Blood Typing; Electrocardiogram
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Unit Plans: 0
      8 ) Communicate scientific information to explain the relationship between the structures and functions, both mechanical (e.g., chewing, churning in stomach) and chemical (e.g., enzymes, hydrochloric acid [HCl] in stomach), of the digestive system, including the accessory organs (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas).

      a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the digestive system (e.g., ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Analyze scientific information about the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion and their function.
      • Analyze scientific information about the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion and their function.
      • Communicate information to explain the relationship between structures of the digestive system that contribute to both chemical and mechanical digestion and how their structure is related to their function.
      • Communicate synthesized information to differentiate among the causes and effects of digestive disorders.
      • Communicate synthesized information to differentiate among the treatment and prevention of digestive disorders.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • digestive tract/ alimentary canal
      • accessory digestive organs: salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
      • gastrulation
      • ingestion
      • mastication
      • salivary amylase
      • esophagus
      • reverse peristalsis
      • protease
      • mucosa
      • cholecystokinin
      • gastrin
      • secretin
      • chyme
      • enerokinases
      • parenteral nutrition
      • hepatic
      • flatulence
      • feces
      • buccal/ oral cavity
      • palate (hard and soft)
      • intrinsic/ extrinsic tongue muscles
      • glands (salivary, parotid, sublingual, submandibular)
      • teeth (incisors, canine/ cuspid, bicuspid/ premolars, molars, wisdom)
      • esophagus
      • stomach
      • lamina propria
      • mucosae, submucosa
      • adventitia/ serosa
      • cardiac sphincter
      • reflux
      • regions—upper (cardiac), middle (fundic), lower (pyloric)
      • cells (parietal, chief, mucous neck, gastric stem)
      • glands (cardiac, fundic, pyloric)
      • pyloric sphincter
      • intestine (small and large)
      • duodenum
      • jejunum
      • ileum
      • villi
      • mesentery
      • cecum
      • cecum
      • appendix
      • colon (transverse, descending, sigmoid)
      • rectum
      • anus
      • dysphagia
      • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
      • Crohn's disease
      • Celiac disease
      • Diverticulitus
      • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
      • Ameobic dysentery
      • polyps
      • hepatitis
      • hernia
      • pancreatitis
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The digestive system is composed of the digestive tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) and accessory digestive organs (salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder).
      • Mechanical digestion includes chewing (mastication), swallowing, peristalsis, churning in the stomach).
      • Chemical digestion is contributed to by enzymes, acids, and hormones.
      • The hypothalamus regulates hunger and thirst.
      • Chemical and mechanical digestion begin in the mouth.
      • Perstalsis moves food through the digestive tract.
      • The stomach uses enzymes and acids (chemical) and churning(mechanical) to digest proteins.
      • Hormones produced by the stomach and small intestine regulate digestion.
      • Digestion of most food takes place in the proximal portions of the small intestine while absorption of digested food takes place in the distal portions.
      • The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes in its proximal components and feces is formed in the distal portions.
      • Exocrine functions of the pancreas involve the production of digestive enzymes.
      • The endocrine function of the pancreas involves insulin and glucagon, which regulate sugar.
      • Bile production is a major function of the liver.
      • The gallbladder stores and releases bile, which helps with fat digestion.
      • Food intolerances are caused by the inability to absorb or digest food.
      • Polyps are outgrowths of the mucosa that can devlop into cancer.
      • Ulcers are caused by erosion fo the digestive tract mucosa.
      • Digestive system gland disorders include cirrhosis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the function of the structures of the digestive system that contribute to mechanical digestion.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the function of the structures of the digestive system that contribute to chemical digestion.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the mechanical and chemical digestive system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the digestive system.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The digestive system is made of several different tissues, organs, and accessory organs that ultimately break down food into smaller, usable molecules that can be absorbed and transported by the blood to the rest of the body's tissues.
      • The digestive system creates and eliminates solid waste from the parts of foods that aren't transported into the bloodstream.
      • Numerous organs/accessory organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the digestion process.
      • Several reactions/systems (glycolysis, electron transport chain, glucogenesis, amination, TCA cycle, etc. occur and contribute to metabolism.
      • Several factors (genetics, diet, exercise, stress, etc.) can contribute to the development of digestive disorders.
      • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate digestive disorders.
      • Multiple systems interact to play a part in digestive pathology.
      • Various organs and locations within those organs are affected, depending on each digestive disorder.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      9 ) Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.

      a. Engage in argument from evidence describing how environmental (e.g., cigarette smoke, polluted air) and genetic factors may affect the respiratory system, possibly leading to pathological conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain and analyze information about the respiratory system, including its structure and function.
      • Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.
      • Develop and use a model to test respiratory function.
      • Use a model to predict and explain relationships between parts of the respiratory system and its function.
      • Obtain and evaluate information on environmental factors that may affect the respiratory system.
      • Obtain and evaluate information on genetic factors that may affect the respiratory system.
      • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about environmental or genetic factors that may lead to pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
      • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Lung
      • ventilation
      • lower/ upper respiratory system
      • nose
      • quadrangular cartilage
      • nostrils/ nares
      • nasal cavity
      • paranasal sinuses
      • turbinates
      • pharynx
      • nasopharynx
      • adenoids
      • oropharynx
      • tonsils
      • laryngopharynx
      • glottis
      • larynx
      • vocal cords
      • epiglottis
      • thyroid cartilage
      • laryngeal prominence (adam's apple)
      • cricoid cartilage
      • arytenoid cartilage
      • trachea
      • primary bronchi
      • tracheal cartilage
      • bronchial tree
      • bronchi (secondary and tertiary)
      • bronchioles (terminal, respiratory)
      • brochoconstriction
      • bronchodilation
      • pleura (parietal, visceral), pleuritis
      • lobes, lobule
      • surfactant
      • alveolus
      • diaphragm
      • inspiration/ inhalation
      • expiration/ exhalation
      • phrenic nerve
      • intrapleural pressure
      • partial pressure
      • bronchitis
      • emphysema
      • ARDS
      • atelectasis
      • pneumothorax
      • bronchiectasis
      • COPD
      • sleep apnea
      • lung cancer
      • pneumonia
      • tuberculosis
      • tidal volume
      • vital capacity
      • residual volume
      • lung capacity
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The respiratory system is composed of the upper respiratory system (nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx),and the lower respiratory system (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and lungs).
      • Breathing is due to the action of the muscles and bones of the thorax and is controled by the antonomic and somatic nervous systems.
      • Inspiration is due to the contraction of the diaphram and expansion of the rib cage.
      • Alveoli expand and fill with air upon inspiration
      • The partial pressure of gases in the air determines the direction of diffusion during breathing.
      • Diseases of the respiratory system are either developmental (due to genetic conditions or lifestyle factors) or infectious (due to microorganisms).
      • Lifestyle plays a significant role in respiratory system aging. Aging can lead to a reduced ability to carry out respiration and reduced diffusion of gases across the alveoli.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the respiratory system including its structures and their function.
      • Use evidence to develop a model of the respiratory system.
      • Develop a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the respiratory system and its components.
      • Use a model to collect respiratory function data.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about environmental factors that may affect the respiratory system.
      • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about genetic factors that may affect the respiratory system.
      • Use evidence to form an argument about environmental or genetic factors that may cause pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
      • Use evidence to defend an argument about environmental or genetic factors that may cause pathological conditions in the respiratory system.
      • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The respiratory system is made of several different tissues, and organs that move air in and out of the body.
      • The respiratory system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system performing gas exchange between capillaries and alveoli.
      • Numerous organs organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the respiratory process.
      • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of respiratory disorders.
      • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate respiratory disorders.
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      10 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to differentiate between the male and female reproductive systems, including pathological conditions that affect each.

      a. Use models to demonstrate what occurs in fetal development at each stage of pregnancy.

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Read and draw conclusions from literature concerning the female reproductive system's anatomy and processes.
      • Read and draw conclusions from literature concerning the male reproductive system's anatomy and processes.
      • Compare and contrast the male and female reproductive systems by evaluating multiple sources of evidence.
      • Communicate reproductive system contrasts in multiple formats (orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).
      • Evaluate data regarding reproductive disease, comparing multiple pieces of evidence to synthesize reliable claims.
      • Use models to explain changes that occur during fetal development at different stages of pregnancy.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • Specialized germ cells
      • sexual dimorphism
      • secondary sex characteristics
      • puberty
      • genitalia (external and internal)
      • reproductive tract
      • mammary gland
      • uterus/ womb
      • myometrium
      • endometrium
      • menstrual cycle
      • uterine fundus
      • cervix
      • ovarian ligament
      • ovum
      • ovarian follicles
      • oocytes
      • graafian follicle
      • ovulation
      • estrogen
      • fallopian tubes
      • oviducts
      • broad ligaments
      • vagina
      • perineum
      • vulva
      • labia majora
      • clitoris
      • erectile tissue
      • hymen
      • lactiferous ducts
      • nipple
      • areola
      • lactation
      • scrotum
      • undescescended testis/ cryptorchidism
      • seminiferous tubules
      • epididymis
      • vas deferens
      • seminal vesicles
      • semen
      • ejaculatory ducts
      • prostate gland
      • Cowper's glands
      • penis/ phallus
      • corpus spongiosum
      • circumcision
      • corpus cavernosum
      • dorsal vein
      • erection
      • ovarian cycle
      • uterine cycle
      • preovulation phase
      • postovulation phase
      • proliferative phase
      • menses
      • embryogenesis
      • blastula/ blastocyst
      • zygote
      • gastrula
      • embryo
      • fetus
      • germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
      • amniotic sac
      • amniotic fluid
      • sexually transmitted diseases
      • hypospadias
      • cancers (prostate, testicular, breast, cervical)
      • genital warts
      • fibroids
      • ectopic pregnancy
      • placenta previa
      • vesicoureteral reflux
      • andropause
      • impotence
      • menopause
      • prolapse
      • Prostatic hypertrophy
      • Testicular, ovarian, breast cancer
      • Endometriosis
      • Testicular torsion
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The female reproductive system is designed to produce, store, and transport eggs.
      • The female reproductive system is composed of the reproductive tract (ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina) and the mammary glands.
      • The male reproductive system is designed to produce, store and transport sperm.
      • The male reproductive system is composed of the testes, seminal vessels, and penis.
      • Diseases of the reproductive tract are 1) congenital—affect the function of the gonads or development of reproductive organs, 2) infectious—STD's caused by arthropods, bacteria, protista or viruses, or 3) degenerative—abnormal growths, including cancer.
      • Basic understanding of mitosis and meiosis.
      • Ebryogenesis occurs when the fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes it's first mitosis. It continues mitosis about once every seven hours, forming a blastula, which imbeds in the uterine lining. The blastula then develops into a gastrula, at which stage the germ layers form. The gastrula then develops into a embryo and then a fetus, at which time all the major organ systems form from the three germ layers.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the female reproductive system and its structure, including structures that help in the production, storage and transport of eggs.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the female reproductive system and its function, including the production, storage and transport of eggs.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the male reproductive system and its structure, including structures that help in the production, storage and transport of sperm.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the male reproductive system and its function, including the production, storage and transport of sperm.
      • Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the female and male reproductive systems.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain differences between the structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the reproductive system.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      • Use a model to illustrate and describe what occurs during each stage of fetal development.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The reproductive system is made of several different tissues, and organs that produce, nourish, store, and release gametes.
      • The reproductive system closely interacts with the nervous and endocrine systems to regulate several reproductive processes (menstruation, ovulation, hormonal cycles.
      • Numerous cells, tissues, and organs are structurally designed to play several different roles in the reproductive process.
      • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of reproductive disorders.
      • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate reproductive disorders.
      • Multiple systems interact to play a part in reproductive function and pathology.
      • The mother's circulatory system functions as a mode of transport (nutrient, gas, waste, etc.) for a developing baby.
      • The fetus develops various cells, tissues, organs, and systems that mature over a scheduled set of events that occur over a period of nine months.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Reproduction and Development
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      11 ) Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system and to describe their functions.

      a. Analyze and interpret data related to the urinary system to show the relationship between homeostatic imbalances and disease (e.g., kidney stones, effects of pH imbalances).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system.
      • Obtain information about the structures of the urinary system and their functions.
      • Use models to describe how structure is related to function within the urinary system.
      • Describe the process of how urine is formed within the urinary system and how this helps the body maintain homeostasis.
      • Determine relationship between urinary system disease the body's homeostatic conditions.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • kidneys
      • umbilical cord
      • adipose capsule
      • hilus
      • renal artery
      • renal vein
      • renal fascia
      • retroperitoneal
      • renal cortex
      • renal medulla
      • renal pyramids
      • renal columns
      • renal pelvis
      • ureters
      • urinary bladder
      • transitional epithelium
      • internal urinary sphincter
      • rugae
      • urethra
      • external urethral sphincter
      • urethral orifice
      • micturition
      • incontinence
      • anuria
      • urinary retention
      • catheter
      • oliguria
      • polyuria
      • nephrons
      • renal tubules
      • glomerulus
      • bowman's capsule
      • corpuscle
      • afferent arteriole
      • peritubular capillary system
      • convoluted tubule (proximal and distal)
      • glomurular filtration
      • tubular reabsortion
      • tubular secretion
      • urinalysis
      • water conservation
      • urine concentration
      • diuresis
      • polycystic kidney disease
      • hemodialysis
      • glycosuria
      • aminoaciduria
      • urinary tract infection
      • urethritis
      • cystitis
      • pyelitis
      • pyelonephritis
      • dysuria
      • pyuria
      • glomeruleonephritis
      • hematuria
      • proteinuria
      • diuretics
      • renal failure (chronic and acute)
      • renal cell carcinoma
      • nephroptosis
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The kidneys are positioned on either side of the midline of the superior abdominal cavity. A renal vein and artery exit or enter each kidney at its hilus. The inside of the kidneys have an outer cortex, and inner medulla and a renal pelvis. Urine is collected in the renal pyramids of the medulla and then trains into calyces that lead to the renal pelvis. The ureters transport urine to the bladder for temporary storage until it is released from the body through the urethra.
      • Urination is controlled reflexively and voluntarily.
      • Urine is formed in three stages glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.
      • A combination of active and passive transport are responsible for water, nutrients and electrolytes being filtered back into the blood during reabsorption.
      • Homeostasis is maintained in the urinary system through urine formation, which is regulated by hormones.
      • Urinary system disorders are usually one of the following: congenital disorders, infection and inflammation, immune disorders, hormonal disorders, degenerative disorders or tumors. These can affect urine formation and therefore, homeostasis.
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the urinary system and its structure, including accessory structures.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the urinary system and its function, including accessory structures.
      • Use models to identify urinary system organs.
      • Use models (macro and microscopic) to observe and determine difference in structure among urinary organs and tissues.
      • Use models to describe the function of the urinary system as it relates to its structure.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the urinary system system.
      • Gather and examine urinary disease empirical evidence to draw correlations and predict cause and effect relationships.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The urinary system plays a major role in the removal of wastes to maitain homeostasis in the body by acting as a filtering system for the blood in a series of processes that ends in the production of urine.
      • The urinary system is made of several different tissues, and organs that filter blood and create liquid waste.
      • The urinary system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system performing different types of cell transport between capillaries and nephrons.
      • Homeostatic factors contribute to the development of urinary disorders.
      • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate urinary disorders.
      • Multiple systems interact to play a part in urinary function and pathology.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Blood Typing; The Urinary System
      Science (2015)
      Grade(s): 9 - 12
      Human Anatomy and Physiology
      All Resources: 0
      Learning Activities: 0
      Lesson Plans: 0
      Unit Plans: 0
      12 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the lymphatic organs and their structure and function.

      a. Develop and use a model to explain the body's lines of defense and immunity.

      b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the immune system (e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]).

      Insight Unpacked Content
      Scientific and Engineering Practices:
      Developing and Using Models; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
      Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
      Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
      Evidence of Student Attainment:
      Students:
      • Obtain information about the structure of the lymphatic system and its components.
      • Obtain information about the function of the lymphatic system and its components.
      • Communication information to explain the structure and function of the lymphatic system and its components.
      • Develop and use models to explain the body's line of defense and immunity, including those of innate and acquired immunities.
      • Obtain information about disorders of the immune system.
      • Communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of disorders of the immune system.
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      • edema
      • hilum (lymph node)
      • lymph
      • lymph gland
      • lymph node
      • lymph vessel
      • lymphatic sinuses
      • lymphatic trunk
      • spleen (red pulp, white pulp)
      • tonsils
      • acquired immunity
      • antibody (IgG, IgE, IgA, IgM, and IgD)
      • antigen
      • cell-mediated immunity
      • complement
      • Immunoglobulin
      • Inflammatory response
      • innate immunity
      • interferons
      • memory cell
      • natural killer cells
      • nonspecific immunity
      • plasma cell
      • primary immune response
      • secondary immune response
      • supressor T lymphocyte
      • Human immunodeficiency virus
      • hypersensitivities
      • allergies
      • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]
      • severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]
      Knowledge:
      Students know:
      • The lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic glands, lymph nodes and lymph vessels.
      • The lymphatic system uses its own components, and cells derived from blood, to prevent and fight off infections.
      • The immune system is composed of several components: WBC's protect the body from disease and assist with repair after an injury, and the lymphatic system organs along with organs from other systems act as barriers and fight off many micoorganisms.
      • Innate immunity provides barriers agains infections while acquired immunity permits the body to recognize and fight specific infections.
      • The primary immune response is the first reaction to an antigen while the secondary immune response protects against subsequent infections.
      • A variety of disorders can diminish immune system function or increase its sensitivity
      • Immunodeficiency disorders (such as AIDS, HIV or SCID) cause the body to lose its ability to fight disease. Hypersensitivities are disorders in which the immune system overreacts to an antigen (allergies).
      Skills:
      Students are able to:
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the lymphatic system and its structure, including its various components.
      • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the lymphatic system and its function, including its various components.
      • Communicate scientific information, in multiple formats (e.g., orally, graphically, textually) to explain the structure and function of the lymphatic system, as a whole, and of its intrinsic parts.
      • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate and explain the body's lines of defense and innate immunity.
      • Develop and use models based on evidence to illustrate and explain the body's lines of defens and acquired immunity.
      • Use scientific literature to identify conditions and diseases that effect the lymphatic system.
      • Evaluate, based on evidence, how these conditions and diseases affect the body.
      • Analyze data in order to make a valid and reliable scientific claim about how the body responds to the identified conditions and diseases in its attempt to maintain homeostasis.
      Understanding:
      Students understand that:
      • The lymphatic system closely interacts with the cardiovascular system circulating along with it, helping with distributing hormones, nutrients, and wastes.
      • The lymphatic system is often called a secondary circulatory system and helps to maintain blood volume homeostasis.
      • Numerous organs and tissues are structurally designed to play several different roles in the lymphatic system.
      • The lymphatic system is made of several different tissues, and organs that provide defense again infections and environmental hazards.
      • The lymphatic system interacts with all other systems in the body to create specific immune responses.
      • Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of lymphatic disorders.
      • Lifestyle choices and various medications can help alleviate some lymphatic disorders.
      • Multiple systems interact to play a part in lymphatic function and pathology.
      AMSTI Resources:
      ASIM:

      Ly