# Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 231
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 19 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 15
1 ) Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths and directions act upon them (e.g., object being pushed, object being pulled, two objects colliding).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.1- Investigate ways to move different objects to include pushing, pulling, and colliding objects.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
2 ) Use observations and data from investigations to determine if a design solution (e.g., designing a ramp to increase the speed of an object in order to move a stationary object) solves the problem of using force to change the speed or direction of an object.*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.2- Observe the movement of objects in a variety of real-world environments.

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 21 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 17
3 ) Distinguish between living and nonliving things and verify what living things need to survive (e.g., animals needing food, water, and air; plants needing nutrients, water, sunlight, and air).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.5: Natural materials have different properties that sustain plant and animal life.

NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.3- Sort a group of items based on whether the items are living or nonliving.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 10 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 7
4 ) Gather evidence to support how plants and animals provide for their needs by altering their environment (e.g., tree roots breaking a sidewalk to provide space, red fox burrowing to create a den to raise young, humans growing gardens for food and building roads for transportation).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.4- Observe and/or identify ways plants and animals alter their environment to live.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Construct a model of a natural habitat (e.g., terrarium, ant farm, diorama) conducive to meeting the needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.5- Participate in the construction and/or care of a model habitat of plants and animals native to Alabama.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 15 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 9 Unit Plans: 1
6 ) Identify and plan possible solutions (e.g., reducing, reusing, recycling) to lessen the human impact on the local environment.*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.10: The supply of many Earth resources such as fuels, metals, fresh water, and farmland is limited. Humans have devised methods for extending the use of Earth resources through recycling, reuse, and renewal.

NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.6- Classify human activities as harmful or helpful to the environment.

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
7 ) Observe and describe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface (e.g., heat from the sun causing evaporation of water or increased temperature of soil, rocks, sand, and water).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.7- Give examples of the sun's effects on the Earth (limited to heat and light).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
8 ) Design and construct a device (e.g., hat, canopy, umbrella, tent) to reduce the effects of sunlight.*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.8- Participate in the construction of a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 14 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 11
9 ) Observe, record, and share findings of local weather patterns over a period of time (e.g., increase in daily temperature from morning to afternoon, typical rain and storm patterns from season to season).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.9- Participate in daily weather activities with common symbols (e.g., sun, cloud, rain, wind, snowflake).

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
10 ) Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasts in planning for, preparing for, and responding to severe weather.*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.10- Associate seasons of the year with various weather conditions and identify how to prepare for certain conditions (e.g., tornados, floods, snow).

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 10 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 6
1 ) Conduct experiments to provide evidence that vibrations of matter can create sound (e.g., striking a tuning fork, plucking a guitar string) and sound can make matter vibrate (e.g., holding a piece of paper near a sound system speaker, touching your throat while speaking).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.10: Vibrating objects produce sound. The pitch of sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 12 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 9
2 ) Construct explanations from observations that objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them (e.g., moon being illuminated by the sun, colors and patterns in a kaleidoscope being illuminated when held toward a light).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.2- Recognize that light illuminates objects so they can be seen.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 12 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 8
3 ) Investigate materials to determine which types allow light to pass through (e.g., transparent materials such as clear plastic wrap), allow only partial light to pass through (e.g., translucent materials such as wax paper), block light (e.g., opaque materials such as construction paper), or reflect light (e.g., shiny materials such as aluminum foil).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.9: Light travels in straight lines. When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result. When light travels obliquely from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.3- Identify objects that are see through (transparent) and objects that are not see through (opaque).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
4 ) Design and construct a device that uses light or sound to send a communication signal over a distance (e.g., using a flashlight and a piece of cardboard to simulate a signal lamp for sending a coded message to a classmate, using a paper cup and string to simulate a telephone for talking to a classmate).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.10: Vibrating objects produce sound. The pitch of sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.

NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.9: Light travels in straight lines. When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result. When light travels obliquely from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.4- Participate in the construction of a device and/or activities that use light or sound.

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 5 Classroom Resources: 4
5 ) Design a solution to a human problem by using materials to imitate how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs (e.g., outerwear imitating animal furs for insulation, gear mimicking tree bark or shells for protection).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.5- Match an environmental situation with an appropriate human action (e.g., wearing a jacket when it is cold; animals growing a thick coat during the winter; wearing protective gear like a turtle has a shell).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
6 ) Obtain information to provide evidence that parents and their offspring engage in patterns of behavior that help the offspring survive (e.g., crying of offspring indicating need for feeding, quacking or barking by parents indicating protection of young).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.6- Identify ways parents and their babies communicate to help babies survive and grow.

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
7 ) Make observations to identify the similarities and differences of offspring to their parents and to other members of the same species (e.g., flowers from the same kind of plant being the same shape, but differing in size; dog being same breed as parent, but differing in fur color or pattern).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.6: Plants and animals closely resemble their parents.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.7-Identify similarities and differences between parents and offspring in animals.

Earth's Place in the Universe
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 24 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 22
8 ) Observe, describe, and predict patterns of the sun, moon, and stars as they appear in the sky (e.g., sun and moon appearing to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; stars other than our sun being visible at night, but not during the day).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.1: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The Moon appears to move across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E4.2: The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.8- Identify major celestial objects (e.g., moon, sun, other stars) and when they can be seen in the sky.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 1 All Resources: 7 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
9 ) Observe seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of year (e.g., more hours of daylight during summer as compared to winter).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.1: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The Moon appears to move across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E4.2: The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.

NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.9- Identify the four seasons of the year in Alabama using common representations.

Matter and Its Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 18 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 14
1 ) Conduct an investigation to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties (e.g., milk being a liquid, not clear in color, assuming shape of its container, mixing with water; mineral oil being a liquid, clear in color, taking shape of its container, floating in water; a brick being a solid, not clear in color, rough in texture, not taking the shape of its container, sinking in water).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

NAEP Statement::
P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.*

NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.1- Participate in investigations to describe and sort various substances according to physical properties.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 13 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 10
2 ) Collect and evaluate data to determine appropriate uses of materials based on their properties (e.g., strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, absorbency).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

NAEP Statement::
P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.*

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.2- Identify common materials and appropriate uses based on their physical properties (e.g., rubber bands stretch, sidewalks are hard, paper tears).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
3 ) Demonstrate and explain how structures made from small pieces (e.g., linking cubes, blocks, building bricks, creative construction toys) can be disassembled and then rearranged to make new and different structures.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

NAEP Statement::
P4.4: Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.3 Participate in building then disassembling structures to make new structures.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 16 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 13
4 ) Provide evidence that some changes in matter caused by heating or cooling can be reversed (e.g., heating or freezing of water) and some changes are irreversible (e.g., baking a cake, boiling an egg).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.6: One way to change matter from one state to another and back again is by heating and cooling.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.4- Predict changes to matter, reversible and irreversible, that may occur when matter is heated or cooled (e.g., heating or freezing water, boiling an egg, baking a cake).

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
5 ) Plan and carry out an investigation, using one variable at a time (e.g., water, light, soil, air), to determine the growth needs of plants.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.5: Natural materials have different properties that sustain plant and animal life.

NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.5- Participate in investigations of the growth needs of plants (e.g., water, light, soil, air) over a period of time.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
6 ) Design and construct models to simulate how animals disperse seeds or pollinate plants (e.g., animals brushing fur against seed pods and seeds falling off in other areas, birds and bees extracting nectar from flowers and transferring pollen from one plant to another).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.6- Recognize that most plants produce seeds and the seeds can be transferred by animals to cause new plants to be planted in other areas.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 28 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 5 Classroom Resources: 20 Unit Plans: 1
7 ) Obtain information from literature and other media to illustrate that there are many different kinds of living things and that they exist in different places on land and in water (e.g., woodland, tundra, desert, rainforest, ocean, river).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.7- Participate in activities that show many different living things in different environments.

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 18 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 15
8 ) Make observations from media to obtain information about Earth's events that happen over a short period of time (e.g., tornados, volcanic explosions, earthquakes) or over a time period longer than one can observe (e.g., erosion of rocks, melting of glaciers).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.8- Participate in multimedia activities (i.e., reading and video) that show Earth events happening over the short term or long term (e.g., volcano, earthquake, erosion, glacier).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 9 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 6
9 ) Create models to identify physical features of Earth (e.g., mountains, valleys, plains, deserts, lakes, rivers, oceans).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.9- Identify physical features of Earth (e.g., mountain, valley, river, lake).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
10 ) Collect and evaluate data to identify water found on Earth and determine whether it is a solid or a liquid (e.g., glaciers as solid forms of water; oceans, lakes, rivers, streams as liquid forms of water).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.4: Earth materials that occur in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.10- Identify places water is found on Earth as a liquid (e.g., river, lake, ocean) and as a solid (ice/glacier).

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 2 All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
11 ) Examine and test solutions that address changes caused by Earth's events (e.g., dams for minimizing flooding, plants for controlling erosion).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.11- Participate in activities that model changes caused by Earth's events.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 11 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
1 ) Plan and carry out an experiment to determine the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object using one variable at a time, including number, size, direction, speed, position, friction, or air resistance (e.g., balanced forces pushing from both sides on an object, such as a box, producing no motion; unbalanced force on one side of an object, such as a ball, producing motion), and communicate these findings graphically.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.1- Identify the effect of a force (e.g., push, pull, gravity) applied to an object.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
2 ) Investigate, measure, and communicate in a graphical format how an observed pattern of motion (e.g., a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, two children teetering on a see-saw, a model vehicle rolling down a ramp of varying heights, a pendulum swinging) can be used to predict the future motion of an object.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.2- Recognize patterns of motion (e.g., straight, back and forth, zigzag, fast, slow, falling, rolling); predict the motion of a common object when a force (push, pull, gravity) is applied.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
3 ) Explore objects that can be manipulated in order to determine cause-and-effect relationships (e.g., distance between objects affecting strength of a force, orientation of magnets affecting direction of a magnetic force) of electric interactions between two objects not in contact with one another (e.g., force on hair from an electrically charged balloon, electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper) or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with one another (e.g., force between two permanent magnets or between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.5: Magnets can repel or attract other magnets. They can also attract certain nonmagnetic objects at a distance.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.3- Recognize cause-and-effect relationships of magnetic interactions between two objects (opposite poles attract, similar poles repel).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Apply scientific ideas about magnets to solve a problem through an engineering design project (e.g., constructing a latch to keep a door shut, creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other such as a maglev system).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.5: Magnets can repel or attract other magnets. They can also attract certain nonmagnetic objects at a distance.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.4- Apply scientific ideas about magnets to solve a problem. (e.g., using a magnet to pick up an object, using a magnet to push or pull an object)

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 14 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 12
5 ) Obtain and combine information to describe that organisms are classified as living things, rather than nonliving things, based on their ability to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.5: Plants and animals have life cycles. Both plants and animals begin life and develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.7: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.5- Classify common objects as living, rather than nonliving, based on their ability to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and adapt to the environment.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 15 Learning Activities: 3 Classroom Resources: 12
6 ) Create representations to explain the unique and diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans (e.g., flowering plants, frogs, butterflies), including commonalities such as birth, growth, reproduction, and death.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.5: Plants and animals have life cycles. Both plants and animals begin life and develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.6- Observe and recognize the major stages (birth, growth, reproduction, and death) in the life cycles of organisms other than humans (e.g., flowering plants, frogs, butterflies).

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 5 Classroom Resources: 5
7 ) Examine data to provide evidence that plants and animals, excluding humans, have traits inherited from parents and that variations of these traits exist in groups of similar organisms (e.g., flower colors in pea plants, fur color and pattern in animal offspring).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.6: Plants and animals closely resemble their parents.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.7- Recognize similarities between traits of plant and animal (other than human) parents and their offspring.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
8 ) Engage in argument from evidence to justify that traits can be influenced by the environment (e.g., stunted growth in normally tall plants due to insufficient water, change in an arctic fox's fur color due to light and/or temperature, stunted growth of a normally large animal due to malnourishment).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.8- Recognize that living things have specific needs (water, light, temperature, food, shelter) to live and grow in an environment.

Unity and Diversity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 5 Classroom Resources: 5
9 ) Analyze and interpret data from fossils (e.g., type, size, distribution) to provide evidence of organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago (e.g., marine fossils on dry land, tropical plant fossils in arctic areas, fossils of extinct organisms in any environment).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.3: Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed in a given location.

NAEP Statement::
E8.4: Earth processes seen today, such as erosion and mountain building, make it possible to measure geologic time through methods such as observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.9- Match a fossil to the organism from which it was formed.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
10 ) Investigate how variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing (e.g., plants having larger thorns being less likely to be eaten by predators, animals having better camouflage coloration being more likely to survive and bear offspring).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.10- Sort common plants and animals by observable characteristics needed for survival.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 23 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 19
11 ) Construct an argument from evidence to explain the likelihood of an organism's ability to survive when compared to the resources in a certain habitat (e.g., freshwater organisms survive well, less well, or not at all in saltwater; desert organisms survive well, less well, or not at all in woodlands).

a. Construct explanations that forming groups helps some organisms survive.

b. Create models that illustrate how organisms and their habitats make up a system in which the parts depend on each other.

c. Categorize resources in various habitats as basic materials (e.g., sunlight, air, freshwater, soil), produced materials (e.g., food, fuel, shelter), or as nonmaterial (e.g., safety, instinct, nature-learned behaviors).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.7: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.11- Match common plants and animals with their best environment for growth and survival.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
12 ) Evaluate engineered solutions to a problem created by environmental changes and any resulting impacts on the types and density of plant and animal populations living in the environment (e.g., replanting of sea oats in coastal areas due to destruction by hurricanes, creating property development restrictions in vacation areas to reduce displacement and loss of native animal populations).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L8.7: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.12- Predict the effect of a simple change in habitat on a plant or animal (e.g., lack of water, lack of plants).

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 11 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 10
13 ) Display data graphically and in tables to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season (e.g., average temperature, precipitation, wind direction).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2 Unit Plans: 1
14 ) Collect information from a variety of sources to describe climates in different regions of the world.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.14- Identify differences in climate regions (e.g., desert, oceans).

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 3 All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2 Unit Plans: 2
15 ) Evaluate a design solution (e.g., flood barriers, wind resistant roofs, lightning rods) that reduces the impact of a weather-related hazard.*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.3.15- Identify practices that keep people safe during severe weather.

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2
1 ) Use evidence to explain the relationship of the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.1- Recognize that objects move at different speeds.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 25 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 21
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

a. Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., rubbing hands together, burning leaves) and can move from one object to another by conduction.

b. Demonstrate that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.

c. Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop through which an electric current can pass.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.11: Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires. In an electrical circuit containing a battery, a bulb, and a bell, energy from the battery is transferred to the bulb and the bell, which in turn transfer the energy to their surroundings as light, sound, and heat (thermal energy).

NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.7: Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy.§

NAEP Statement::
P4.8: Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.2- Recognize different sources of heat; Identify materials that are conductors of heat, such as metals.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
3 ) Investigate to determine changes in energy resulting from increases or decreases in speed that occur when objects collide.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.3- Identify the effect of an opposing force on a moving object.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 15 Lesson Plans: 5 Classroom Resources: 10
4 ) Design, construct, and test a device that changes energy from one form to another (e.g., electric circuits converting electrical energy into motion, light, or sound energy; a passive solar heater converting light energy into heat energy).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.11: Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires. In an electrical circuit containing a battery, a bulb, and a bell, energy from the battery is transferred to the bulb and the bell, which in turn transfer the energy to their surroundings as light, sound, and heat (thermal energy).

NAEP Statement::
P4.7: Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy.§

NAEP Statement::
P4.8: Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.4- Identify common sources of energy used every day (e.g., electricity, gas, sun).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 13 Classroom Resources: 13
5 ) Compile information to describe how the use of energy derived from natural renewable and nonrenewable resources affects the environment (e.g., constructing dams to harness energy from water, a renewable resource, while causing a loss of animal habitats; burning of fossil fuels, a nonrenewable resource, while causing an increase in air pollution; installing solar panels to harness energy from the sun, a renewable resource, while requiring specialized materials that necessitate mining).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.5- Identify common resources as renewable or nonrenewable.

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 17 Learning Activities: 4 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 10
6 ) Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and including that waves can cause objects to move.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.6- Using given models, identify patterns found in waves.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
7 ) Develop and use models to show multiple solutions in which patterns are used to transfer information (e.g., using a grid of 1s and 0s representing black and white to send information about a picture, using drums to send coded information through sound waves, using Morse code to send a message).*

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.7- Identify models that show ways in which patterns are used to transfer information (using drums to send coded information through sound waves, using Morse code to send a message).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 11 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 8
8 ) Construct a model to explain that an object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.9: Light travels in straight lines. When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result. When light travels obliquely from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.8- Identify a model that shows the path of light reflected from the surface of an object to be seen by the eye.

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 31 Learning Activities: 7 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 21
9 ) Examine evidence to support an argument that the internal and external structures of plants (e.g., thorns, leaves, stems, roots, colored petals, xylem, phloem) and animals (e.g., heart, stomach, lung, brain, skin) function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.9- Identify basic parts of plants and animals.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 18 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 16
10 ) Obtain and communicate information explaining that humans have systems that interact with one another for digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, control, coordination, and protection from disease.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.10- Identify human systems (i.e. digestive, circulatory, and respiratory).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 24 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 19
11 ) Investigate different ways animals receive information through the senses, process that information, and respond to it in different ways (e.g., skunks lifting tails and spraying an odor when threatened, dogs moving ears when reacting to sound, snakes coiling or striking when sensing vibrations).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.11- Identify the sense organs and the information they receive (eyes/sight, tongue/taste, ears/hearing, skin/touch, nose/smell).

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 3
12 ) Construct explanations by citing evidence found in patterns of rock formations and fossils in rock layers that Earth changes over time through both slow and rapid processes (e.g., rock layers containing shell fossils appearing above rock layers containing plant fossils and no shells indicating a change from land to water over time, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom indicating that over time a river cut through the rock).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

NAEP Statement::
E4.4: Earth materials that occur in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.4: Earth processes seen today, such as erosion and mountain building, make it possible to measure geologic time through methods such as observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.

NAEP Statement::
E8.6: Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers with each having a different chemical composition and texture.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.12- Identify patterns in rock formations and rock layers; explain how Earth changes over time.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
13 ) Plan and carry out investigations to examine properties of soils and soil types (e.g., color, texture, capacity to retain water, ability to support growth of plants).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.4: Earth materials that occur in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.6: Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers with each having a different chemical composition and texture.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.13- Observe the properties of soils (e.g., color, texture, capacity to retain water, ability to support growth of plants); Identify different types of soil (e.g., silt, clay, sand).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
14 ) Explore information to support the claim that landforms are the result of a combination of constructive forces, including crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and sediment deposition as well as a result of destructive forces, including erosion and weathering.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.14- Identify relationships between landforms and both constructive (volcanic eruptions and sediment deposition) and deconstructive (erosion and weathering) forces

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
15 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., angle of slope in downhill movement of water, volume of water flow, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling of water, speed of wind, relative rate of soil deposition, amount of vegetation) to determine effects of weathering and rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, and vegetation using one single form of weathering or erosion at a time.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.3: The surface of Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.15- Identify the effects of weathering by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 3
16 ) Describe patterns of Earth's features on land and in the ocean using data from maps (e.g., topographic maps of Earth's land and ocean floor; maps of locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.16- Use a map key to identify land and water features on a map.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 4 All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
17 ) Formulate and evaluate solutions to limit the effects of natural Earth processes on humans (e.g., designing earthquake, tornado, or hurricane-resistant buildings; improving monitoring of volcanic activity).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.17- Predict the best option for human safety in a given weather situation.

Matter and Its Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 10 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 9
1 ) Plan and carry out investigations (e.g., adding air to expand a basketball, compressing air in a syringe, dissolving sugar in water, evaporating salt water) to provide evidence that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

NAEP Statement::
P4.4: Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.

NAEP Statement::
P8.1: Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter that is composed of tiny particles in motion.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.1- Recognize that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 11 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 10
2 ) Investigate matter to provide mathematical evidence, including graphs, to show that regardless of the type of reaction (e.g., new substance forming due to dissolving or mixing) or change (e.g., phase change) that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of the matter is conserved.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.*

NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

NAEP Statement::
P4.6: One way to change matter from one state to another and back again is by heating and cooling.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.2- Recognize that regardless of the type of reaction (e.g., new substance forming due to dissolving or mixing) or change (e.g., phase change) that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of the matter is conserved.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 16 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 15
3 ) Examine matter through observations and measurements to identify materials (e.g., powders, metals, minerals, liquids) based on their properties (e.g., color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, solubility, density).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.*

NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.3- Classify materials (e.g., powders, metals, minerals, liquids) based on their properties (e.g., color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, solubility, density).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 11 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 10
4 ) Investigate whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances (e.g., mixing of baking soda and vinegar resulting in the formation of a new substance, gas; mixing of sand and water resulting in no new substance being formed).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

NAEP Statement::
P4.4: Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.4- Predict whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances (e.g., mixing of baking soda and vinegar resulting in the formation of a new substance, gas; mixing of sand and water resulting in no new substance being formed).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 4
5 ) Construct explanations from observations to determine how the density of an object affects whether the object sinks or floats when placed in a liquid.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.5- Observe how the density of an object affects whether the object sinks or floats when placed in a liquid; predict whether an object will float or sink in water.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 3
6 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to illustrate that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed downward towards the center of Earth.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.6- Identify examples of objects being affected by Earth's downward gravitational force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
7 ) Design and conduct a test to modify the speed of a falling object due to gravity (e.g., constructing a parachute to keep an attached object from breaking).*

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.7- Identify solutions designed to reduce the effects of a falling object due to gravity (e.g., a parachute to keep an attached object from breaking).

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
8 ) Defend the position that plants obtain materials needed for growth primarily from air and water.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.8- Recognize that plants obtain materials needed for growth primarily from air and water.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 10 Learning Activities: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
9 ) Construct an illustration to explain how plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into a storable fuel, carbohydrates, and a waste product, oxygen, during the process of photosynthesis.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.9- Using a given model, recognize that plants use light energy to make their own food during the process of photosynthesis.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
10 ) Construct and interpret models (e.g., diagrams, flow charts) to explain that energy in animals' food is used for body repair, growth, motion, and maintenance of body warmth and was once energy from the sun.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.10- Identify that animals get their energy to grow and move from food (plants and animals); recognize that this energy was once from the sun.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 13 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 7 Unit Plans: 1
11 ) Create a model to illustrate the transfer of matter among producers; consumers, including scavengers and decomposers; and the environment.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.11- Using a given model, identify a missing part of a simple food chain.

Earth's Place in the Universe
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
12 ) Defend the claim that one factor determining the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is the relative distance from Earth.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.12- Using a model, identify that distance affects the brightness of stars.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
13 ) Analyze data and represent with graphs to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky (e.g., shadows and the position and motion of Earth with respect to the sun, visibility of select stars only in particular months).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.1: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The Moon appears to move across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E8.12: Seasons result from annual variations in the intensity of sunlight and length of day, due to the tilt of Earth's rotation axis relative to the plane of its yearly orbit around the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E8.2: Gravity is the force that keeps most objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.13- Identify patterns of change caused by the position and/or motion of the Earth.

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 12 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 8
14 ) Use a model to represent how any two systems, specifically the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and/or hydrosphere, interact and support life (e.g., influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.14- Identify how the atmosphere and hydrosphere interact to support life (e.g. air, water).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 3
15 ) Identify the distribution of freshwater and salt water on Earth (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, ground water, polar ice caps) and construct a graphical representation depicting the amounts and percentages found in different reservoirs.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.10: The supply of many Earth resources such as fuels, metals, fresh water, and farmland is limited. Humans have devised methods for extending the use of Earth resources through recycling, reuse, and renewal.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.15- Identify the distribution of freshwater and saltwater on Earth (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, ground water, polar ice caps).

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 10 Learning Activities: 2 Classroom Resources: 8
16 ) Collect and organize scientific ideas that individuals and communities can use to protect Earth's natural resources and its environment (e.g., terracing land to prevent soil erosion, utilizing no-till farming to improve soil fertility, regulating emissions from factories and automobiles to reduce air pollution, recycling to reduce overuse of landfill areas).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.10: The supply of many Earth resources such as fuels, metals, fresh water, and farmland is limited. Humans have devised methods for extending the use of Earth resources through recycling, reuse, and renewal.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.16- Identify a human action that can help the environment.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 5 All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
17 ) Design solutions, test, and revise a process for cleaning a polluted environment (e.g., simulating an oil spill in the ocean or a flood in a city and creating a solution for containment and/or cleanup).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.10: The supply of many Earth resources such as fuels, metals, fresh water, and farmland is limited. Humans have devised methods for extending the use of Earth resources through recycling, reuse, and renewal.

NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.17- Identify a way humans can prevent or reverse pollution of the environment.

Earth's Place in the Universe
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 21 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 18
1 ) Create and manipulate models (e.g., physical, graphical, conceptual) to explain the occurrences of day/night cycles, length of year, seasons, tides, eclipses, and lunar phases based on patterns of the observed motions of celestial bodies.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.12: Seasons result from annual variations in the intensity of sunlight and length of day, due to the tilt of Earth's rotation axis relative to the plane of its yearly orbit around the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E8.2: Gravity is the force that keeps most objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.1- Use a model to show that Earth's moon moves around Earth, and Earth and its moon move around the sun; recognize the movements responsible for day/night and the length of a year.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 8 Classroom Resources: 8
2 ) Construct models and use simulations (e.g., diagrams of the relationship between Earth and man-made satellites, rocket launch, International Space Station, elliptical orbits, black holes, life cycles of stars, orbital periods of objects within the solar system, astronomical units and light years) to explain the role of gravity in affecting the motions of celestial bodies bodies (e.g., planets, moons, comets, asteroids, meteors) within galaxies and the solar system.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.2: Early in the history of the universe, matter (primarily the light atoms hydrogen and helium) clumped together by gravitational attraction to form countless trillions of stars and billions of galaxies.

NAEP Statement::
E8.1a: In contrast to an earlier theory that Earth is the center of the universe, it is now known that the Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.

NAEP Statement::
E8.1b: Earth is the third planet from the Sun in a system that includes seven other planets and their moons, as well as smaller objects such as asteroids and comets.

NAEP Statement::
E8.2: Gravity is the force that keeps most objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.2- Recognize that gravity is responsible for the moon's orbit around Earth, and Earth's orbit around the sun.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 4
3 ) Develop and use models to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system (e.g., scale model representing sizes and distances of the sun, Earth, moon system based on a one-meter diameter sun).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.3- Use a model to compare the relative sizes of objects in the solar system (e.g., sun, Earth, moon).

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
4 ) Construct explanations from geologic evidence (e.g., change or extinction of particular living organisms; field evidence or representations, including models of geologic cross-sections; sedimentary layering) to identify patterns of Earth's major historical events (e.g., formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, significant volcanic eruptions, fossilization, folding, faulting, igneous intrusion, erosion).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.3: Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed in a given location.

NAEP Statement::
E8.4: Earth processes seen today, such as erosion and mountain building, make it possible to measure geologic time through methods such as observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.

NAEP Statement::
E8.9b: Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from these plate motions.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.4- Identify sedimentary layering in Earth as evidence of the formation of mountains.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
5 ) Use evidence to explain how different geologic processes shape Earth's history over widely varying scales of space and time (e.g., chemical and physical erosion; tectonic plate processes; volcanic eruptions; meteor impacts; regional geographical features, including Alabama fault lines, Rickwood Caverns, and Wetumpka Impact Crater).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.4: Earth processes seen today, such as erosion and mountain building, make it possible to measure geologic time through methods such as observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.

NAEP Statement::
E8.9a: Lithospheric plates on the scale of continents and oceans constantly move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.

NAEP Statement::
E8.9b: Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from these plate motions.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10e: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.5- Recognize that changes in Earth's features are brought on by slow processes such as mountain building and fast processes such as volcanic eruptions; identify erosion as a process that changes Earth's surface.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Provide evidence from data of the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to explain past plate motions.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.3: Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed in a given location.

NAEP Statement::
E8.4: Earth processes seen today, such as erosion and mountain building, make it possible to measure geologic time through methods such as observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.6- Recognize that the distribution of specific fossils and rocks as well as the shapes of the continents provide evidence of tectonic plate movement.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 24 Learning Activities: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 19
7 ) Use models to construct explanations of the various biogeochemical cycles of Earth (e.g., water, carbon, nitrogen) and the flow of energy that drives these processes.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.11: Earth is a system containing essentially a fixed amount of each stable chemical atom or element. Most elements can exist in several different chemical forms. Earth elements move within and between the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere as part of biogeochemical cycles.

NAEP Statement::
E8.14a: Water, which covers the majority of Earth's surface, circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the water cycle.

NAEP Statement::
E8.14b: Water evaporates from Earth's surface, rises and cools as it moves to higher elevations, condenses as clouds, falls as rain or snow, and collects in lakes, oceans, soil, and underground.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.7- Use a model to explain the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, and precipitation; recognize that the sun provides the energy which drives the water cycle.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 8 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 7
8 ) Plan and carry out investigations that demonstrate the chemical and physical processes that form rocks and cycle Earth's materials (e.g., processes of crystallization, heating and cooling, weathering, deformation, and sedimentation).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.5a: Rocks and rock formations bear evidence of the minerals, materials, temperature/pressure conditions, and forces that created them.

NAEP Statement::
E8.5b: Some formations show evidence that they were deposited by volcanic eruptions.

NAEP Statement::
E8.5c: Others are composed of sand and smaller particles that are buried and cemented by dissolved minerals to form solid rock again.

NAEP Statement::
E8.5d: Still others show evidence that they were once earlier rock types that were exposed to heat and pressure until they changed shape and, in some cases, melted and recrystallized.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.8- Identify the physical process (sedimentation, heat and pressure, weathering, cooling) that results in the formation of rocks; use a model to demonstrate the rock cycle.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
9 ) Use models to explain how the flow of Earth's internal energy drives a cycling of matter between Earth's surface and deep interior causing plate movements (e.g., mid-ocean ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes, earthquakes, mountains, rift valleys, volcanic islands).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.12a: Movement of matter through Earth's systems is driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy.

NAEP Statement::
E8.8: Earth is layered with a lithosphere; a hot, convecting mantle; and a dense, metallic core.

NAEP Statement::
E8.9a: Lithospheric plates on the scale of continents and oceans constantly move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.

NAEP Statement::
E8.9b: Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from these plate motions.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.9- Recognize that volcanic action, earthquakes, and mountain building are caused by the flow of matter beneath Earth's surface.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
10 ) Use research-based evidence to propose a scientific explanation regarding how the distribution of Earth's resources such as minerals, fossil fuels, and groundwater are the result of ongoing geoscience processes (e.g., past volcanic and hydrothermal activity, burial of organic sediments, active weathering of rock).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
11 ) Develop and use models of Earth's interior composition to illustrate the resulting magnetic field (e.g., magnetic poles) and to explain its measureable effects (e.g., protection from cosmic radiation).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.10a: Earth as a whole has a magnetic field that is detectable at the surface with a compass.

NAEP Statement::
E8.10b: Earth's magnetic field is similar to the field of a natural or manmade magnet with north and south poles and lines of force.

NAEP Statement::
E8.10c: For thousands of years, people have used compasses to aid in navigation on land and sea.

NAEP Statement::
E8.8: Earth is layered with a lithosphere; a hot, convecting mantle; and a dense, metallic core.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.11- Illustrate the layers of the interior of Earth; recognize that Earth has a magnetic field which protects us from some harmful effects of the sun.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 8
12 ) Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information (e.g., weather maps; diagrams; other visualizations, including radar and computer simulations) to support the claim that motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.

a. Use various instruments (e.g., thermometers, barometers, anemometers, wet bulbs) to monitor local weather and examine weather patterns to predict various weather events, especially the impact of severe weather (e.g., fronts, hurricanes, tornados, blizzards, ice storms, droughts).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.12- Recognize interactions of air masses as the cause of changes in weather.
SCI.AAS.6.12a- Distinguish which scientific instrument would be used to measure weather conditions (i.e., temperature, wind speed, and air pressure); identify weather conditions including sunshine, clouds, rain, ice storms, and blizzards.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 8 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 6
13 ) Use models (e.g., diagrams, maps, globes, digital representations) to explain how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

a. Use experiments to investigate how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection and radiation (e.g., warmer water in a pan rising as cooler water sinks, warming one's hands by a campfire).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.11a: The Sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
E8.11b: It provides energy for plants to grow and drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.

NAEP Statement::
E8.13a: Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather.

NAEP Statement::
E8.13b: Oceans have a major effect on climate because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10a: Energy is transferred from place to place.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10b: Light energy from the Sun travels through space to Earth (radiation).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10c: Thermal energy travels from a flame through the metal of a cooking pan to the water in the pan (conduction).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10d: Air warmed by a fireplace moves around a room (convection).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10e: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter.

NAEP Statement::
P8.11a: A tiny fraction of the light energy from the Sun reaches Earth.

NAEP Statement::
P8.11b: Light energy from the Sun is Earth's primary source of energy, heating Earth surfaces and providing the energy that results in wind, ocean currents, and storms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.13 - Use models to investigate how energy from the sun impacts Earth's surface; recognize that uneven heating of Earth's surface causes patterns in weather and climate. SCI.AAS.6.13a - Recognize that the sun's thermal energy is distributed throughout Earth's atmosphere by convection and radiation.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 8 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 5
14 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., tables, graphs, maps of global and regional temperatures; atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane; rates of human activities) to describe how various human activities (e.g., use of fossil fuels, creation of urban heat islands, agricultural practices) and natural processes (e.g., solar radiation, greenhouse effect, volcanic activity) may cause changes in local and global temperatures over time.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.7a: The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor.

NAEP Statement::
E8.7b: The atmosphere has a different physical and chemical composition at different elevations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.14- Interpret data (e.g., tables, graphs) to determine changes in local and global temperatures over time; identify human activities (e.g. the use of fossil fuels) and natural processes (e.g. volcanic activity) as causes of these changes in temperatures.

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 2
15 ) Analyze evidence (e.g., databases on human populations, rates of consumption of food and other natural resources) to explain how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities (e.g., land use, resource development, water and air pollution, urbanization) affect Earth's systems.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.15a: Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.15b: Studies of plant and animal populations have shown that such activities can reduce the number and variety of wild plants and animals and sometimes result in the extinction of species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.15- Compare the relationship between human population and food consumption, water use, and land use.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 6 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 13 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 11
16 ) Implement scientific principles to design processes for monitoring and minimizing human impact on the environment (e.g., water usage, including withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or construction of dams and levees; land usage, including urban development, agriculture, or removal of wetlands; pollution of air, water, and land).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.15a: Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.15b: Studies of plant and animal populations have shown that such activities can reduce the number and variety of wild plants and animals and sometimes result in the extinction of species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.16- Assess how human behaviors impact the environment (e.g., recycling, conservation, pollution); suggest processes to minimize human impact on the environment.

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
1 ) Engage in argument from evidence to support claims of the cell theory.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.1a: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.3a: Cells carry out the many functions needed to sustain life.

NAEP Statement::
L8.3b: They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.1- Recognize that cells are the basic units of life; identify the ability to see cells in living tissue using a microscope as evidence that living things are made of cells.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
2 ) Gather and synthesize information to explain how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in structure and function, including the methods of asexual and sexual reproduction.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.1e: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.2: Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that then differentiate by appearance and function to form the basic tissues of an embryo.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9a: Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems; because no individual organism lives forever, reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9b: Some organisms reproduce asexually.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9c: Other organisms reproduce sexually.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
3 ) Construct an explanation of the function (e.g., mitochondria releasing energy during cellular respiration) of specific cell structures (i.e., nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and vacuoles) for maintaining a stable environment.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.1b: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.3- Label the nucleus of a cell in a cell diagram; distinguish at least one structural difference between plant and animal cells (e.g., cell wall, chloroplasts); match specific cell structures (e.g., nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane) with their functions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 8
4 ) Construct models and representations of organ systems (e.g., circulatory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, nervous) to demonstrate how multiple interacting organs and systems work together to accomplish specific functions.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.1c: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.1d: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.4- Label major organs of the human body (e.g., heart, lungs, diaphragm, bones, muscles, stomach, brain, intestines); use a model to demonstrate how organs are connected in an organ system; recognize how organ systems support the survival of humans (e.g., circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive).

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 5
5 ) Examine the cycling of matter between abiotic and biotic parts of ecosystems to explain the flow of energy and the conservation of matter.

a. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how food is broken down through chemical reactions to create new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as it moves through an organism.

b. Generate a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.3c: Food is used to provide energy for the work that cells do and is a source of the molecular building blocks from which needed materials are assembled.

NAEP Statement::
L8.4a: Plants are producers; that is, they use the energy from light to make sugar molecules from the atoms of carbon dioxide and water.

NAEP Statement::
L8.5a: All animals, including humans, are consumers that meet their energy needs by eating other organisms or their products.

NAEP Statement::
L8.5b: Consumers break down the structures of the organisms they eat to make the materials they need to grow and function.

NAEP Statement::
L8.5c: Decomposers, including bacteria and fungi, use dead organisms or their products to meet their energy needs.

NAEP Statement::
P8.13a: Nuclear reactions take place in the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
P8.13b: In plants, light from the Sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which, in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.5- Distinguish between abiotic and biotic parts of an ecosystem.
SCI.AAS.7.5a- Recognize that food is broken down through chemical reactions to provide energy needed for the growth of organisms.
SCI.AAS.7.5b- Recognize that plants and animals depend on one another for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; identify photosynthesis as the process by which plants transfer energy from the sun into materials needed for growth.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 14 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 12
6 ) Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence regarding how resource availability impacts individual organisms as well as populations of organisms within an ecosystem.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.7: The number of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.6- Use data as evidence that the availability of natural resources (e.g., food, light, water) influences the growth of organisms.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 21 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 18
7 ) Use empirical evidence from patterns and data to demonstrate how changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem (e.g., deforestation, succession, drought, fire, disease, human activities, invasive species) can lead to shifts in populations.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.8a: All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live.

NAEP Statement::
L8.8b: Some of these changes are detrimental to the organisms or other organisms, whereas others are beneficial.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.7- Interpret data to see how changes in an ecosystem (e.g., drought, forest fires) affect the animal population in an area.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
8 ) Construct an explanation to predict patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships between and among organisms (e.g., competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.6a: Two types of organisms may interact with one another in several ways: They may be in a producer/ consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/ host relationship.

NAEP Statement::
L8.6b: Or, one organism may scavenge or decompose another.

NAEP Statement::
L8.6c: Relationships may be competitive or mutually beneficial. Some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive without the other.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.8- Identify relationships among organisms as competitive, mutually beneficial, parasitic, or neutral.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
9 ) Engage in argument to defend the effectiveness of a design solution that maintains biodiversity and ecosystem services (e.g., using scientific, economic, and social considerations regarding purifying water, recycling nutrients, preventing soil erosion).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.9- Identify human behaviors that are harmful to the environment; compare the effectiveness of various solutions to these problems (e.g. recycling, preventing soil erosion, organic gardening).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 10 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 9
10 ) Use evidence and scientific reasoning to explain how characteristic animal behaviors (e.g., building nests to protect young from cold, herding to protect young from predators, attracting mates for breeding by producing special sounds and displaying colorful plumage, transferring pollen or seeds to create conditions for seed germination and growth) and specialized plant structures (e.g., flower brightness, nectar, and odor attracting birds that transfer pollen; hard outer shells on seeds providing protection prior to germination) affect the probability of successful reproduction of both animals and plants.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
11 ) Analyze and interpret data to predict how environmental conditions (e.g., weather, availability of nutrients, location) and genetic factors (e.g., selective breeding of cattle or crops) influence the growth of organisms (e.g., drought decreasing plant growth, adequate supply of nutrients for maintaining normal plant growth, identical plant seeds growing at different rates in different weather conditions, fish growing larger in large ponds than in small ponds).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.10a: For some characteristics, inheritance is more important; for other characteristics, interactions with the environment are more important.

NAEP Statement::
L8.10b: The characteristics of organisms are influenced by heredity and environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.11- Predict how various environmental conditions affect our food supply; recognize that farmers use selective breeding of plants and animals to influence the growth and other factors of those plants and animals.

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
12 ) Construct and use models (e.g., monohybrid crosses using Punnett squares, diagrams, simulations) to explain that genetic variations between parent and offspring (e.g., different alleles, mutations) occur as a result of genetic differences in randomly inherited genes located on chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.12- Compare and contrast traits of animal parents and their offspring (e.g., eye color, hair/fur color, size); recognize that variations between parents and offspring are the result of randomly inherited genes; recognize that genes are located on chromosomes which are found in the cells of living things.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
13 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to describe how genetic mutations result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
14 ) Gather and synthesize information regarding the impact of technologies (e.g., hand pollination, selective breeding, genetic engineering, genetic modification, gene therapy) on the inheritance and/or appearance of desired traits in organisms.

Unity and Diversity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
15 ) Analyze and interpret data for patterns of change in anatomical structures of organisms using the fossil record and the chronological order of fossil appearance in rock layers.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.11d: Fossils indicate that many organisms that lived long ago are extinct.

NAEP Statement::
L8.11e: Extinction of a species is common; most of the species that have lived on the Earth no longer exist.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.15- Identify patterns that indicate a change in a species over time.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
16 ) Construct an explanation based on evidence (e.g., cladogram, phylogenetic tree) for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms, including living fossils (e.g., alligator, horseshoe crab, nautilus, coelacanth).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.12a: Similarities among organisms are found in anatomical features, which can be used to infer the degree of relatedness among organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.12b: In classifying organisms, biologists consider details of internal and external structures to be more important than behavior or general appearance.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
17 ) Obtain and evaluate pictorial data to compare patterns in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the adult anatomy.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.17- Compare pictorial data of embryological development in multiple species; identify relationships in embryos of different species that are not evident in the adults of those species.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 7 Life Science All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
18 ) Construct an explanation from evidence that natural selection acting over generations may lead to the predominance of certain traits that support successful survival and reproduction of a population and to the suppression of other traits.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.11a: Individual organisms with certain traits in particular environments are more likely than others to survive and have offspring.

NAEP Statement::
L8.11b: When an environment changes, the advantage or disadvantage of characteristics can change.

NAEP Statement::
L8.11c: Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow survival.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.18- Recognize that healthy specimens of organisms live longer and reproduce in larger numbers than unhealthy specimens; recognize that natural selection may lead to the successful survival of a population by supporting certain traits and suppressing others.

Matter and Its Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 20 Learning Activities: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 15
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 8
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.4c: Each element and compound has physical and chemical properties, such as boiling point, density, color, and conductivity, which are independent of the amount of the sample.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5a: Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5d: Acids are a class of compounds that exhibit common chemical properties, including a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.2- Identify characteristics that distinguish one pure substance from another (e.g., color, hardness, flammability).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 3 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
3 ) Construct explanations based on evidence from investigations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.

a. Collect and analyze information to illustrate how synthetic materials (e.g., medicine, food additives, alternative fuels, plastics) are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4c: Each element and compound has physical and chemical properties, such as boiling point, density, color, and conductivity, which are independent of the amount of the sample.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.3- Differentiate between compounds and mixtures.
SCI.AAS.8.3a- Recognize that synthetic materials are made from natural resources; identify a synthetic material and the natural resource from which it is derived.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 18 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 17
4 ) Design and conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.5: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has a very high specific heat, meaning it can absorb a large amount of energy while producing only small changes in temperature.

NAEP Statement::
P12.8: Atoms and molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, or vibrational).

NAEP Statement::
P8.1: Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter that is composed of tiny particles in motion.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6a: Changes of state are explained by a model of matter composed of tiny particles that are in motion.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6b: When substances undergo changes of state, neither atoms nor molecules themselves are changed in structure.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6c: Mass is conserved when substances undergo changes of state.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.4- Recognize that changes in temperature can cause changes in the state of matter of a substance; recognize that these changes are a result of changes in particle motion.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 20 Learning Activities: 6 Classroom Resources: 14
5 ) Observe and analyze characteristic properties of substances (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point) before and after the substances combine to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.2: Chemical properties of substances are explained by the arrangement of atoms and molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P8.7a: Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds react and produce one or more different substances whose physical and chemical properties are different from the reacting substances.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.5- Compare the properties of substances (color, texture, odor, state of matter) before and after chemical changes have occurred (e.g. burning sugar, burning steel wool, rust, effervescent tablets).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
6 ) Create a model, diagram, or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction and explain the resulting differences between products and reactants.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.7b: When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products.

NAEP Statement::
P8.7c: Mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
7 ) Design, construct, and test a device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap) that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water) and modify the device as needed based on criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature).*

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.7- Critique objects or materials used to minimize or maximize thermal energy transfer (e.g., gloves, insulated hot pad, foam cup).

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 3 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.14a: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.8- Compare an object at rest and an object in motion; recognize that an object at rest remains at rest if not acted on by an outside force; demonstrate a method to change an object's motion; identify forces that cause an object in motion to slow down or stop moving.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.9- Investigate and identify ways to change the motion of an object (e.g., change an incline's slope, change the mass of the object).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.10- Describe the motion of two colliding objects before and after the collision.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
11 ) Plan and carry out investigations to evaluate how various factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.10: Electromagnetic waves are produced by changing the motion of charges or by changing magnetic fields. The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred to matter in packets. The energy content of the packets is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.11- Investigate the effect of distance on the magnetic force of two magnets; use a simple electromagnet to pick up paper clips; investigate the effect of increasing the number of wire turns in the electromagnet on its strength.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
12 ) Construct an argument from evidence explaining that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other (e.g., interactions of magnets, electrically charged strips of tape, electrically charged pith balls, gravitational pull of the moon creating tides) even when the objects are not in contact.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

NAEP Statement::
P8.15a: Some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.

NAEP Statement::
P8.15b: Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance.

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
13 ) Create and analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object (e.g., riding a bicycle at different speeds, hitting a table tennis ball versus a golf ball, rolling similar toy cars with different masses down an incline).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.14b: An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement::
P8.14c: An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.13-Investigate how the mass of an object affects the speed at which it travels (e.g., toy car traveling down an incline).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 9 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 6
14 ) Use models to construct an explanation of how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy (e.g., observing the movement of a roller coaster cart at various inclines, changing the tension in a rubber band, varying the number of batteries connected in a series, observing a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9a: Three forms of potential energy are gravitational, elastic, and chemical.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9b: Gravitational potential energy changes in a system as the relative positions of objects are changed.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9c: Objects can have elastic potential energy due to their compression, or chemical potential energy due to the nature and arrangement of the atoms.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
15 ) Analyze and interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature (e.g., comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melt in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, observing the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass and the same material with different masses when adding a specific amount of energy).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
16 ) Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a car).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12a: When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12b: For example, as an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently, its kinetic energy increases.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12c: While an object is falling, some of the object's kinetic energy is transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.

NAEP Statement::
P8.8a: Objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy.

NAEP Statement::
P8.8b: For example, a moving baseball can break a window; water flowing down a stream moves pebbles and floating objects along with it.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.16- Make observations about energy transfers in common everyday occurrences (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a bicycle or car).

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
17 ) Create and manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.

a. Analyze and interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.10a: Energy is transferred from place to place.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10b: Light energy from the Sun travels through space to Earth (radiation).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10c: Thermal energy travels from a flame through the metal of a cooking pan to the water in the pan (conduction).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10d: Air warmed by a fireplace moves around a room (convection).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10e: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.17- Use a model to investigate ways to change the properties of a simple wave (frequency, amplitude, wavelength).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
18 ) Use models to demonstrate how light and sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.18- Investigate and describe how light and sound waves travel through a variety of media.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 8 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
19 ) Integrate qualitative information to explain that common communication devices (e.g., cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems [GPS], wireless technology components) use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.19- Recognize that common communication devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit information, and that these electromagnetic waves are invisible to the human eye.

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 4
1 ) Use models to compare and contrast how the structural characteristics of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids define their function in organisms.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.1: Living systems are made of complex molecules (including carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids) that consist mostly of a few elements, especially carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous.

NAEP Statement::
L12.2: Cellular processes are carried out by many different types of molecules, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from combinations of amino-acid molecules. Protein molecules assemble fats and carbohydrates and carry out other cellular functions. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and the shape of the molecule.

NAEP Statement::
L12.4: Plants have the capability (through photosynthesis) to take energy from light to form higher energy sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from lower energy molecules. These sugar molecules can be used to make amino acids and other carbon-containing (organic) molecules and assembled into larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and fats).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.2- Recognize organelles (e.g., mitochondria, ribosomes, chloroplasts) and their functions within plant and animal cells.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 5 Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe the function and diversity of organelles and structures in various types of cells (e.g., muscle cells having a large amount of mitochondria, plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plant cells).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.3: Cellular processes are regulated both internally and externally by environments in which cells exist, including local environments that lead to cell differentiation during the development of multicellular organisms. During the development of complex multicellular organisms, cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
3 ) Formulate an evidence-based explanation regarding how the composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determines the structural organization of proteins.

a. Obtain and evaluate experiments of major scientists and communicate their contributions to the development of the structure of DNA and to the development of the central dogma of molecular biology.

b. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that explains how advancements in genetic technology (e.g., Human Genome Project, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] project, 1000 Genomes Project) have contributed to the understanding as to how a genetic change at the DNA level may affect proteins and, in turn, influence the appearance of traits.

c. Obtain information to identify errors that occur during DNA replication (e.g., deletion, insertion, translocation, substitution, inversion, frame-shift, point mutations).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.3- Recognize the structure of DNA which determines the characteristics of living organisms.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 2
4 ) Develop and use models to explain the role of the cell cycle during growth and maintenance in multicellular organisms (e.g., normal growth and/or uncontrolled growth resulting in tumors).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.3: Cellular processes are regulated both internally and externally by environments in which cells exist, including local environments that lead to cell differentiation during the development of multicellular organisms. During the development of complex multicellular organisms, cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.4- Use a model to illustrate how growth occurs when cells multiply and recognize that uncontrolled growth can lead to the development of tumors (e.g., cancer).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 0
5 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) and cellular processes (e.g., active and passive transport) that maintain homeostasis.

a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain how the unique properties of water (e.g., polarity, cohesion, adhesion) are vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.5- Recognize feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) that maintain homeostasis.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 0
6 ) Analyze and interpret data from investigations to explain the role of products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.

a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain the interactions among pigments, absorption of light, and reflection of light.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.4: Plants have the capability (through photosynthesis) to take energy from light to form higher energy sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from lower energy molecules. These sugar molecules can be used to make amino acids and other carbon-containing (organic) molecules and assembled into larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and fats).

NAEP Statement::
L12.5: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, some energy is stored in newly made structures, but much is dissipated into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.6- Recognize the components necessary for plants to produce their own food and oxygen (e.g., water, sunlight, carbon dioxide).

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
7 ) Develop and use models to illustrate examples of ecological hierarchy levels, including biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, and organism.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.7- Use models to recognize an organism, a population, and an ecosystem.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 3
8 ) Develop and use models to describe the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, water) and flow of energy (e.g., food chains, food webs, biomass pyramids, ten percent law) between abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.5: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, some energy is stored in newly made structures, but much is dissipated into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going.

NAEP Statement::
L12.6: As matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems (cells, organs, organisms, communities) and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. Each recombination results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat. Matter and energy are conserved in each change.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.8- Identify living and nonliving components in an ecosystem; identify the flow of energy within a common food chain.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 0
9 ) Use mathematical comparisons and visual representations to support or refute explanations of factors that affect population growth (e.g., exponential, linear, logistic).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.9- Recognize the relationship between population size and available resources for food and shelter from a graphical representation.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
10 ) Construct an explanation and design a real-world solution to address changing conditions and ecological succession caused by density-dependent and/or density-independent factors.*

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
11 ) Analyze and interpret data collected from probability calculations to explain the variation of expressed traits within a population.

a. Use mathematics and computation to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and percentages by constructing Punnett squares, including using both homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs.

b. Develop and use models to demonstrate codominance, incomplete dominance, and Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

c. Analyze and interpret data (e.g., pedigree charts, family and population studies) regarding Mendelian and complex genetic disorders (e.g., sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, type 2 diabetes) to determine patterns of genetic inheritance and disease risks from both genetic and environmental factors.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.10: Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents.

NAEP Statement::
L12.8: Hereditary information is contained in genes, which are located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes. One or many genes can determine an inherited trait of an individual, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.

NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.11- Recognize that parents and offspring may have different traits.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
12 ) Develop and use a model to analyze the structure of chromosomes and how new genetic combinations occur through the process of meiosis.

a. Analyze data to draw conclusions about genetic disorders caused by errors in meiosis (e.g., Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.10: Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents.

NAEP Statement::
L12.8: Hereditary information is contained in genes, which are located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes. One or many genes can determine an inherited trait of an individual, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.

NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.

Unity and Diversity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how organisms are classified by physical characteristics, organized into levels of taxonomy, and identified by binomial nomenclature (e.g., taxonomic classification, dichotomous keys).

a. Engage in argument to justify the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.13- Classify organisms into similar groups based on physical characteristics.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
14 ) Analyze and interpret data to evaluate adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g., antibiotic-resistant bacteria, beak types, peppered moths, pest-resistant crops).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.12: Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.

NAEP Statement::
L12.13: Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection from environmental pressure of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
15 ) Engage in argument from evidence (e.g., mathematical models such as distribution graphs) to explain how the diversity of organisms is affected by overpopulation of species, variation due to genetic mutations, and competition for limited resources.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.11: Modern ideas about evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L12.13: Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection from environmental pressure of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Biology All Resources: 0
16 ) Analyze scientific evidence (e.g., DNA, fossil records, cladograms, biogeography) to support hypotheses of common ancestry and biological evolution.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.11: Modern ideas about evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L12.12: Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.16- Using fossil evidence, recognize that humans have changed in appearance over a very long period of time.

Matter and Its Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 5 Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Develop and use models of atomic nuclei to explain why the abundance-weighted average of isotopes of an element yields the published atomic mass.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.4: In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 20 Learning Activities: 3 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 15
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
5 ) Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.

b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 11 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 9
6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.

a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.

b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.

c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.7: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. An important example is carbon atoms, which can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form, along with other kinds of atoms (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur), a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 5
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.

a. Use mathematics to describe the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas when only the amount of gas is constant.

b. Use mathematical and computational thinking based on the ideal gas law to determine molar quantities.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
8 ) Refine the design of a given chemical system to illustrate how LeChâtelier's principle affects a dynamic chemical equilibrium when subjected to an outside stress (e.g., heating and cooling a saturated sugar- water solution).*

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
9 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 0
10 ) Plan and conduct experiments that demonstrate how changes in a system (e.g., phase changes, pressure of a gas) validate the kinetic molecular theory.

a. Develop a model to explain the relationship between the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance and the temperature of the substance (e.g., no kinetic energy equaling absolute zero [0K or -273.15oC]).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.

NAEP Statement::
P12.8: Atoms and molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, or vibrational).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Chemistry All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
11 ) Construct an explanation that describes how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends upon changes in the components of the system.

a. Develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.

b. Plan and conduct an investigation that demonstrates the transfer of thermal energy in a closed system (e.g., using heat capacities of two components of differing temperatures).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.14: Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

NAEP Statement::
P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement::
P12.5: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has a very high specific heat, meaning it can absorb a large amount of energy while producing only small changes in temperature.

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
1 ) Investigate and analyze the use of nonrenewable energy sources (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear, natural gas) and renewable energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal) and propose solutions for their impact on the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ES.HS.1- Distinguish between common renewable (e.g., solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal) and nonrenewable (fossil fuels, nuclear, natural gas) energy sources.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
2 ) Use models to illustrate and communicate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as carbon cycles through the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
3 ) Use mathematics and graphic models to compare factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
4 ) Engage in argument from evidence to evaluate how biological or physical changes within ecosystems (e.g., ecological succession, seasonal flooding, volcanic eruptions) affect the number and types of organisms, and that changing conditions may result in a new or altered ecosystem.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ES.HS.4- Recognize changes within ecosystems that affect the number and types of organisms in that ecosystem.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
5 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare how individual versus group behavior (e.g., flocking; cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming) may affect a species' chance to survive and reproduce over time.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe how human activity may affect biodiversity and genetic variation of organisms, including threatened and endangered species.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ES.HS.6- Describe human activities that may affect ecosystems in positive and negative ways.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
7 ) Analyze and interpret data to investigate how a single change on Earth's surface may cause changes to other Earth systems (e.g., loss of ground vegetation causing an increase in water runoff and soil erosion).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
8 ) Engage in an evidence-based argument to explain how over time Earth's systems affect the biosphere and the biosphere affects Earth's systems (e.g., microbial life increasing the formation of soil; corals creating reefs that alter patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
9 ) Develop and use models to trace the flow of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
10 ) Design solutions for protection of natural water resources (e.g., bioassessment, methods of water treatment and conservation) considering properties, uses, and pollutants (e.g., eutrophication, industrial effluents, agricultural runoffs, point and nonpoint pollution resources).*

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ES.HS.10- Recognize factors that affect natural water sources (e.g., pollution, agricultural runoffs) and identify ways humans can protect them (e.g., methods of water treatment and conservation).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
11 ) Engage in argument from evidence to defend how coastal, marine, and freshwater sources (e.g., estuaries, marshes, tidal pools, wetlands, beaches, inlets, rivers, lakes, oceans, coral reefs) support biodiversity, economic stability, and human recreation.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
12 ) Analyze and interpret data and climate models to predict how global or regional climate change can affect Earth's systems (e.g., precipitation and temperature and their associated impacts on sea level, glacial ice volumes, and atmosphere and ocean composition).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information based on evidence to explain how key natural resources (e.g., water sources, fertile soils, concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels), natural hazards, and climate changes influence human activity (e.g., mass migrations).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ES.HS.13- Recognize natural resources (e.g., water sources, fertile soil) and natural hazards (e.g., volcanoes, erosion) that influence human activity.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
14 ) Analyze cost-benefit ratios of competing solutions for developing, conserving, managing, recycling, and reusing energy and mineral resources to minimize impacts in natural systems (e.g., determining best practices for agricultural soil use, mining for coal, and exploring for petroleum and natural gas sources).*

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
15 ) Construct an explanation based on evidence to determine the relationships among management of natural resources, human sustainability, and biodiversity (e.g., resources, waste management, per capita consumption, agricultural efficiency, urban planning).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
16 ) Obtain and evaluate information from published results of scientific computational models to illustrate the relationships among Earth's systems and how these relationships may be impacted by human activity (e.g., effects of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide on photosynthetic biomass, effect of ocean acidification on marine populations).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Environmental Science All Resources: 0
17 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate geological and biological information to determine the types of organisms that live in major biomes.

a. Analyze and interpret data collected through geographic research and field investigations (e.g., relief, topographic, and physiographic maps; rivers; forest types; watersheds) to describe the biodiversity by region for the state of Alabama (e.g., terrestrial, freshwater, marine, endangered, invasive).

Earth's Place in the Universe
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
1 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the lifespan of the sun, including energy released during nuclear fusion that eventually reaches Earth through radiation.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.3a: Stars, like the Sun, transform matter into energy in nuclear reactions.

NAEP Statement::
E12.9a: Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The Sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from Earth's original formation.

NAEP Statement::
E12.9b: Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The Sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from Earth's original formation.

NAEP Statement::
E8.11a: The Sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth's surface.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.1- Describe observable effects of the sun on Earth, such as changes in light and temperature.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
2 ) Engage in argument from evidence to compare various theories for the formation and changing nature of the universe and our solar system (e.g., Big Bang Theory, Hubble's law, steady state theory, light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, composition of matter in the universe).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.1: The origin of the universe remains one of the greatest questions in science. The "big bang" theory places the origin approximately 13.7 billion years ago when the universe began in a hot, dense state. According to this theory, the universe has been expanding ever since.

NAEP Statement::
E12.5: Theories of planet formation and radioactive dating of meteorites and lunar samples have led to the conclusion that the Sun, Earth, and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
3 ) Evaluate and communicate scientific information (e.g., Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) in reference to the life cycle of stars using data of both atomic emission and absorption spectra of stars to make inferences about the presence of certain elements.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.2: Early in the history of the universe, matter (primarily the light atoms hydrogen and helium) clumped together by gravitational attraction to form countless trillions of stars and billions of galaxies.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 0
4 ) Apply mathematics and computational thinking in reference to Kepler's laws, Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's gravitational laws to predict the orbital motion of natural and man-made objects in the solar system.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.4- Identify the main components of the solar system; recognize that planets move in orbits.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
5 ) Use mathematics to explain the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis (e.g., zenith angle, solar angle, surface area) and its revolution about the sun, addressing intensity and distribution of sunlight on Earth's surface.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.5- Use a model of the Earth and the sun to recognize how Earth's tilt and orbit around the sun corresponds with the four seasons.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Obtain and evaluate information about Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein to communicate how their findings challenged conventional thinking and allowed for academic advancements and space exploration.

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
7 ) Analyze and interpret evidence regarding the theory of plate tectonics, including geologic activity along plate boundaries and magnetic patterns in undersea rocks, to explain the ages and movements of continental and oceanic crusts.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.8: Mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, evidence of sea floor spreading, and subduction provided crucial evidence in support of the theory of plate tectonics. The theory currently explains plate motion as follows: the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat propels the plates comprising Earth's surface across the face of the globe. Plates are pushed apart where magma rises to form midocean ridges, and the edges of plates are pulled back down where Earth materials sink into the crust at deep trenches.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
8 ) Develop a time scale model of Earth's biological and geological history to establish relative and absolute age of major events in Earth's history (e.g., radiometric dating, models of geologic cross sections, sedimentary layering, fossilization, early life forms, folding, faulting, igneous intrusions).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.4: Early methods of determining geologic time, such as the use of index fossils and stratigraphic sequences, allowed for the relative dating of geological events. However, absolute dating was impossible until the discovery that certain radioactive isotopes in rocks have known decay rates, making it possible to determine how many years ago a given rock sample formed.

NAEP Statement::
E12.6: Early Earth was very different from today's planet. Evidence for one-celled forms of life (bacteria) extends back more than 3.5 billion years. The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere, which did not originally contain molecular oxygen.

NAEP Statement::
E12.7: Earth's current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale; however, many geological processes, such as the building of mountain chains and shifting of entire continents, take place over hundreds of millions of years.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
9 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how constructive and destructive processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, volcanism, orogeny, plate tectonics, tectonic uplift) shape Earth's land features (e.g., mountains, valleys, plateaus) and sea features (e.g., trenches, ridges, seamounts).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.7: Earth's current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale; however, many geological processes, such as the building of mountain chains and shifting of entire continents, take place over hundreds of millions of years.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
10 ) Construct an explanation from evidence for the processes that generate the transformation of rocks in Earth's crust, including chemical composition of minerals and characteristics of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.6: Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers with each having a different chemical composition and texture.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
11 ) Obtain and communicate information about significant geologic characteristics (e.g., types of rocks and geologic ages, earthquake zones, sinkholes, caves, abundant fossil fauna, mineral and energy resources) that impact life in Alabama and the southeastern United States.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.11- Identify significant geologic characteristics of Alabama and the southeastern United States (e.g., types of rocks, mineral and energy resources).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
12 ) Develop a model of Earth's layers using available evidence to explain the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials (e.g., seismic waves, movement of tectonic plates).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.12- Using a model, identify Earth's layers.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
13 ) Analyze and interpret data of interactions between the hydrologic and rock cycles to explain the mechanical impacts (e.g., stream transportation and deposition, erosion, frost-wedging) and chemical impacts (e.g., oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonation) of Earth materials by water's properties.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
14 ) Construct explanations from evidence to describe how changes in the flow of energy through Earth's systems (e.g., volcanic eruptions, solar output, ocean circulation, surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, Coriolis effect) impact the climate.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.10a: Climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
E12.10b: This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover, atmospheric gases, and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as the positions of mountain ranges, oceans, seas, and lakes.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Earth and Space Science All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
15 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to verify that weather (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, dew point, adiabatic cooling, condensation, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, barometric pressure, wind velocity) is influenced by energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

a. Analyze patterns in weather data to predict various systems, including fronts and severe storms.

b. Use maps and other visualizations to analyze large data sets that illustrate the frequency, magnitude, and resulting damage from severe weather events in order to predict the likelihood and severity of future events.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E12.10b: This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover, atmospheric gases, and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as the positions of mountain ranges, oceans, seas, and lakes.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.ESS.HS.15- Identify weather conditions, including temperature, wind speed, humidity, and severe weather events (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, floods).

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
1 ) Develop and use models and appropriate terminology to identify regions, directions, planes, and cavities in the human body to locate organs and systems.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
2 ) Analyze characteristics of tissue types (e.g., epithelial tissue) and construct an explanation of how the chemical and structural organizations of the cells that form these tissues are specialized to conduct the function of that tissue (e.g., lining, protecting).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
3 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the integumentary system's structure and function, including layers and accessories of skin and types of membranes.

a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., burns, skin cancer, bacterial and viral infections, chemical dermatitis) to determine the body's attempt to maintain homeostasis.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
4 ) Use models to identify the structure and function of the skeletal system (e.g., classification of bones by shape, classification of joints and the appendicular and axial skeletons).

a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the growth and development of the skeletal system (e.g., bone growth and remodeling).

b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate understanding of the pathology of the skeletal system (e.g., types of bone fractures and their treatment, osteoporosis, rickets, other bone diseases).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
5 ) Develop and use models to illustrate the anatomy of the muscular system, including muscle locations and groups, actions, origins and insertions.

a. Plan and conduct investigations to explain the physiology of the muscular system (e.g., muscle contraction/relaxation, muscle fatigue, muscle tone), including pathological conditions (e.g., muscular dystrophy).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
6 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information regarding how the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system interrelate, including how these systems affect all other body systems to maintain homeostasis.

a. Use scientific evidence to evaluate the effects of pathology on the nervous system (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral palsy, head trauma) and argue possible prevention and treatment options.

b. Design a medication to treat a disorder associated with neurotransmission, including mode of entry into the body, form of medication, and desired effects.*

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).

b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
8 ) Communicate scientific information to explain the relationship between the structures and functions, both mechanical (e.g., chewing, churning in stomach) and chemical (e.g., enzymes, hydrochloric acid [HCl] in stomach), of the digestive system, including the accessory organs (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas).

a. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the digestive system (e.g., ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
9 ) Develop and use a model to explain how the organs of the respiratory system function.

a. Engage in argument from evidence describing how environmental (e.g., cigarette smoke, polluted air) and genetic factors may affect the respiratory system, possibly leading to pathological conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
10 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to differentiate between the male and female reproductive systems, including pathological conditions that affect each.

a. Use models to demonstrate what occurs in fetal development at each stage of pregnancy.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
11 ) Use models to differentiate the structures of the urinary system and to describe their functions.

a. Analyze and interpret data related to the urinary system to show the relationship between homeostatic imbalances and disease (e.g., kidney stones, effects of pH imbalances).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 0
12 ) Obtain and communicate information to explain the lymphatic organs and their structure and function.

a. Develop and use a model to explain the body's lines of defense and immunity.

b. Obtain and communicate information to demonstrate an understanding of the disorders of the immune system (e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS], severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Human Anatomy and Physiology All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that the endocrine glands secrete hormones that help the body maintain homeostasis through feedback loops.

a. Analyze the effects of pathological conditions (e.g., pituitary dwarfism, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus) caused by imbalance of the hormones of the endocrine glands.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion.

a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton's second law.

b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement::
P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
3 ) Evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the relationship between the force acting on an object, the time of interaction, and the change in momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 4 Classroom Resources: 4
4 ) Identify and analyze forces responsible for changes in rotational motion and develop an understanding of the effect of rotational inertia on the motion of a rotating object (e.g., merry-go-round, spinning toy, spinning figure skater, stellar collapse [supernova], rapidly spinning pulsar).

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 3 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Investigate collisions, both elastic and inelastic, to evaluate the effects on momentum and energy conservation.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

NAEP Statement::
P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g., heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and low-temperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done).

a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction (e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight).

b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
8 ) Investigate the nature of wave behavior to illustrate the concept of the superposition principle responsible for wave patterns, constructive and destructive interference, and standing waves (e.g., organ pipes, tuned exhaust systems).

a. Predict and explore how wave behavior is applied to scientific phenomena such as the Doppler effect and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 0
9 ) Obtain and evaluate information regarding technical devices to describe wave propagation of electromagnetic radiation and compare it to sound propagation. (e.g., wireless telephones, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microwave systems, Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], SONAR, ultrasound).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
10 ) Plan and carry out investigations that evaluate the mathematical explanations of light as related to optical systems (e.g., reflection, refraction, diffraction, intensity, polarization, Snell's law, the inverse square law).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 8 Classroom Resources: 8
11 ) Develop and use models to illustrate electric and magnetic fields, including how each is created (e.g., charging by either conduction or induction and polarizing; sketching field lines for situations such as point charges, a charged straight wire, or a current carrying wires such as solenoids; calculating the forces due to Coulomb's laws), and predict the motion of charged particles in each field and the energy required to move a charge between two points in each field.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physics All Resources: 5 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 4
12 ) Use the principles of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws to design, construct, and analyze combination circuits using typical components (e.g., resistors, capacitors, diodes, sources of power).

Matter and Its Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
1 ) Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties and trends (e.g., reactivity of metals; types of bonds formed, including ionic, covalent, and polar covalent; numbers of bonds formed; reactions with oxygen) of main group elements based on the patterns of valence electrons in atoms.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations (e.g., squeezing a balloon, placing a balloon on ice) to identify the relationships that exist among the pressure, volume, density, and temperature of a confined gas .

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
3 ) Analyze and interpret data from a simple chemical reaction or combustion reaction involving main group elements.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
4 ) Analyze and interpret data using acid-base indicators (e.g., color-changing markers, pH paper) to distinguish between acids and bases, including comparisons between strong and weak acids and bases.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.7: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. An important example is carbon atoms, which can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form, along with other kinds of atoms (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur), a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
5 ) Use mathematical representations to support and verify the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a simple chemical reaction.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
6 ) Develop models to illustrate the concept of half-life for radioactive decay.

a. Research and communicate information about types of naturally occurring radiation and their properties.

b. Develop arguments for and against nuclear power generation compared to other types of power generation.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.11: Fission and fusion are reactions involving changes in the nuclei of atoms. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei and particles. Fusion involves joining two relatively light nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Fusion is the process responsible for the energy of the Sun and other stars.

NAEP Statement::
P12.15: Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into appreciable amounts of energy.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
7 ) Analyze and interpret data for one- and two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration (e.g., velocity versus time graphs, displacement versus time graphs, acceleration versus time graphs).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
8 ) Apply Newton's laws to predict the resulting motion of a system by constructing force diagrams that identify the external forces acting on the system, including friction (e.g., a book on a table, an object being pushed across a floor, an accelerating car).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
9 ) Use mathematical equations (e.g., (m1v1 + m2v2) before = (m1v1 + m2v2) after) and diagrams to explain that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net external force on the system.

a. Use the laws of conservation of mechanical energy and momentum to predict the result of one-dimensional elastic collisions.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

NAEP Statement::
P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
10 ) Construct simple series and parallel circuits containing resistors and batteries and apply Ohm's law to solve typical problems demonstrating the effect of changing values of resistors and voltages.

Energy
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 2
11 ) Design and conduct investigations to verify the law of conservation of energy, including transformations of potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and the effect of any work performed on or by the system.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement::
P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 2 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
12 ) Design, build, and test the ability of a device (e.g., Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens) to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.*

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
13 ) Use mathematical representations to demonstrate the relationships among wavelength, frequency, and speed of waves (e.g., the relation v = λ f) traveling in various media (e.g., electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, seismic waves traveling through Earth).

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.10: Electromagnetic waves are produced by changing the motion of charges or by changing magnetic fields. The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred to matter in packets. The energy content of the packets is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 1 Lesson Plans: 1
14 ) Propose and defend a hypothesis based on information gathered from published materials (e.g., trade books, magazines, Internet resources, videos) for and against various claims for the safety of electromagnetic radiation.

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.10: Electromagnetic waves are produced by changing the motion of charges or by changing magnetic fields. The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred to matter in packets. The energy content of the packets is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): 9 - 12 Physical Science All Resources: 0
15 ) Obtain and communicate information from published materials to explain how transmitting and receiving devices (e.g., cellular telephones, medical-imaging technology, solar cells, wireless Internet, scanners, Sound Navigation and Ranging [SONAR]) use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.