Courses of Study: Social Studies

Social Studies, Grade K, Living and Working Together in Family and Community, 2010

1.) Sequence events using schedules, calendars, and timelines.

Examples: daily classroom activities, significant events in students' lives

•  Differentiating among broad categories of historical time
Examples: long ago, yesterday, today, tomorrow

2.) Identify rights and responsibilities of citizens within the family, classroom, school, and community.

Examples: taking care of personal belongings and respecting the property of others, following rules and recognizing consequences of breaking rules, taking responsibility for assigned duties

3.) Describe how rules provide order, security, and safety in the home, school, and community.

•  Constructing classroom rules and procedures
•  Determining consequences for not following classroom rules and procedures
4.) Differentiate between needs and wants of family, school, and community.

•  Comparing wants among different families, schools, and communities
5.) Differentiate between goods and services.

Examples: goods—food, toys, clothing

services—medical care, fire protection, law enforcement, library resources

6.) Compare cultural similarities and differences in individuals, families, and communities.

Examples: celebrations, food, traditions

7.) Describe roles of helpers and leaders, including school principal, school custodian, volunteers, police officers, and fire and rescue workers.

8.) Recognize maps, globes, and satellite images.

9.) Differentiate between land forms and bodies of water on maps and globes.

10.) Apply vocabulary related to giving and following directions.

Example: locating objects and places to the right or left, up or down, in or out, above or below

11.) Identify symbols, customs, famous individuals, and celebrations representative of our state and nation. (Alabama)

Examples: symbols—United States flag, Alabama flag, bald eagle (Alabama)

customs—pledging allegiance to the United States flag, singing "The Star-Spangled Banner"

individuals—George Washington; Abraham Lincoln; Squanto; Martin Luther King, Jr.

celebrations—Fourth of July, Memorial Day, Veterans Day

12.) Describe families and communities of the past, including jobs, education, transportation, communication, and recreation.

•  Identifying ways everyday life has both changed and remained the same

Social Studies, Grade 1, Living and Working Together in Family and Community and State, 2010

1.) Construct daily schedules, calendars, and timelines.

•  Using vocabulary associated with time, including past, present, and future
2.) Identify rights and responsibilities of citizens within the local community and state.

•  Describing how rules in the community and laws in the state protect citizens' rights and property
•  Describing ways, including paying taxes, responsible citizens contribute to the common good of the community and state
•  Demonstrating voting as a way of making choices and decisions
3.) Recognize leaders and their roles in the local community and state. (Alabama)

•  Describing roles of public officials, including mayor and governor (Alabama)
•  Identifying on a map Montgomery as the capital of the state of Alabama (Alabama)
4.) Identify contributions of diverse significant figures that influenced the local community and state in the past and present. (Alabama)

Example: Admiral Raphael Semmes' and Emma Sansom's roles during the Civil War (Alabama)

5.) Identify historical events and celebrations within the local community and throughout Alabama. (Alabama)

Examples: Selma Bridge Crossing Jubilee, Mardi Gras, Boll Weevil Festival, Montgomery Bus Boycott, Black History Month (Alabama)

•  Differentiating between fact and fiction when sharing stories or retelling events using primary and secondary sources
Example: fictional version of Pocahontas compared to an authentic historical account

6.) Compare ways individuals and groups in the local community and state lived in the past to how they live today. (Alabama)

•  Identifying past and present forms of communication
Examples: past—letter, radio, rotary-dial telephone

present—e-mail, television, cellular telephone

•  Identifying past and present types of apparel
•  Identifying past and present types of technology
Examples: past—record player, typewriter, wood-burning stove

present—compact diskette (CD) and digital video diskette (DVD) players, video cassette recorder (VCR), computer, microwave oven

•  Identifying past and present types of recreation
Examples: past—marbles, hopscotch, jump rope

present—video games, computer games

•  Identifying past and present primary sources
Examples: past—letters, newspapers

present—e-mail, Internet articles

7.) Describe how occupational and recreational opportunities in the local community and state are affected by the physical environment. (Alabama)

Examples: occupational—commercial fishing and tourism in Gulf coast areas (Alabama)

recreational—camping and hiking in mountain areas, fishing and waterskiing in lake areas

8.) Identify land masses, bodies of water, and other physical features on maps and globes.

•  Explaining the use of cardinal directions and the compass rose
•  Measuring distance using nonstandard units
Example: measuring with pencils, strings, hands, feet

•  Using vocabulary associated with geographical features, including river, lake, ocean, and mountain
9.) Differentiate between natural resources and human-made products.

•  Listing ways to protect our natural resources
Examples: conserving forests by recycling newspapers, conserving energy by turning off lights, promoting protection of resources by participating in activities such as Earth Day and Arbor Day

10.) Describe the role of money in everyday life.

•  Categorizing purchases families make as needs or wants
•  Explaining the concepts of saving and borrowing
•  Identifying differences between buyers and sellers
•  Classifying specialized jobs of workers with regard to the production of goods and services
•  Using vocabulary associated with the function of money, including barter, trade, spend, and save
11.) Identify traditions and contributions of various cultures in the local community and state. (Alabama)

Examples: Kwanzaa, Christmas, Hanukkah, Fourth of July, Cinco de Mayo

12.) Compare common and unique characteristics in societal groups, including age, religious beliefs, ethnicity, persons with disabilities, and equality between genders.

Social Studies, Grade 2, Living and Working Together in State and Nation, 2010

1.) Relate principles of American democracy to the founding of the nation.

•  Identifying reasons for the settlement of the thirteen colonies
•  Recognizing basic principles of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, the establishment of the three branches of government, and the Emancipation Proclamation
•  Demonstrating the voting process, including roles of major political parties
•  Utilizing school and classroom rules to reinforce democratic values
2.) Identify national historical figures and celebrations that exemplify fundamental democratic values, including equality, justice, and responsibility for the common good.

•  Recognizing our country's founding fathers, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, John Adams, John Hancock, and James Madison
•  Recognizing historical female figures, including Abigail Adams, Dolley Madison, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe
•  Describing the significance of national holidays, including the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.; Presidents' Day; Memorial Day; the Fourth of July; Veterans Day; and Thanksgiving Day
•  Describing the history of American symbols and monuments
Examples: Liberty Bell, Statue of Liberty, bald eagle, United States flag, Washington Monument, Lincoln Memorial

3.) Use various primary sources, including calendars and timelines, for reconstructing the past.

Examples: historical letters, stories, interviews with elders, photographs, maps, artifacts

4.) Use vocabulary to describe segments of time, including year, decade, score, and century.

5.) Differentiate between a physical map and a political map.

Examples: physical—illustrating rivers and mountains

political—illustrating symbols for states and capitals

•  Using vocabulary associated with geographical features, including latitude, longitude, and border
6.) Identify states, continents, oceans, and the equator using maps, globes, and technology.

•  Identifying map elements, including title, legend, compass rose, and scale
•  Identifying the intermediate directions of northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest
•  Recognizing technological resources such as a virtual globe, satellite images, and radar
•  Locating points on a grid
7.) Explain production and distribution processes.

Example: tracing milk supply from dairy to consumer

•  Identifying examples of imported and exported goods
•  Describing the impact of consumer choices and decisions on supply and demand
8.) Describe how scarcity affects supply and demand of natural resources and human-made products.

Examples: cost of gasoline during oil shortages, price and expiration date of perishable foods

9.) Describe how and why people from various cultures immigrate to the United States.

Examples: how—ships, planes, automobiles

why—improved quality of life, family connections, disasters

•  Describing the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
10.) Identify ways people throughout the country are affected by their human and physical environments.

Examples: land use, housing, occupation

•  Comparing physical features of regions throughout the United States
Example: differences in a desert environment, a tropical rain forest, and a polar region

•  Identifying positive and negative ways people affect the environment
Examples: positive—restocking fish in lakes, reforesting cleared land

negative—polluting water, littering roadways, eroding soil

•  Recognizing benefits of recreation and tourism at state and national parks (Alabama)
11.) Interpret legends, stories, and songs that contributed to the development of the cultural history of the United States.

Examples: American Indian legends, African-American stories, tall tales, stories of folk heroes

Social Studies, Grade 3, Geographic and Historical Studies: People, Places, and Regions, 2010

1.) Locate the prime meridian, equator, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer, International Date Line, and lines of latitude and longitude on maps and globes.

•  Using cardinal and intermediate directions to locate on a map or globe an area in Alabama or the world (Alabama)
•  Using coordinates to locate points on a grid
•  Determining distance between places on a map using a scale
•  Locating physical and cultural regions using labels, symbols, and legends on an Alabama or world map (Alabama)
•  Describing the use of geospatial technologies
Examples: Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS)

•  Interpreting information on thematic maps
Examples: population, vegetation, climate, growing season, irrigation

•  Using vocabulary associated with maps and globes, including megalopolis, landlocked, border, and elevation
2.) Locate the continents on a map or globe

•  Using vocabulary associated with geographical features of Earth, including hill, plateau, valley, peninsula, island, isthmus, ice cap, and glacier
•  Locating major mountain ranges, oceans, rivers, and lakes throughout the world (Alabama)
3.) Describe ways the environment is affected by humans in Alabama and the world. (Alabama)

Examples: crop rotation, oil spills, landfills, clearing of forests, replacement of cleared lands, restocking of fish in waterways

•  Using vocabulary associated with human influence on the environment, including irrigation, aeration, urbanization, reforestation, erosion, and migration
4.) Relate population dispersion to geographic, economic, and historic changes in Alabama and the world. (Alabama)

Examples: geographic—flood, hurricane, tsunami

economic—crop failure

historic—disease, war, migration

•  Identifying human and physical criteria used to define regions and boundaries
Examples: human—city boundaries, school district lines

physical—hemispheres, regions within continents or countries

5.) Compare trading patterns between countries and regions.

•  Differentiating between producers and consumers
•  Differentiating between imports and exports
Examples: imports—coffee, crude oil

exports—corn, wheat, automobiles

6.) Identify conflicts within and between geographic areas involving use of land, economic competition for scarce resources, opposing political views, boundary disputes, and cultural differences.

•  Identifying examples of cooperation among governmental agencies within and between different geographic areas
Examples: American Red Cross, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), World Health Organization (WHO)

•  Locating areas of political conflict on maps and globes
•  Explaining the role of the United Nations (UN) and the United States in resolving conflict within and between geographic areas
7.) Describe the relationship between locations of resources and patterns of population distribution.

Examples: presence of trees for building homes, availability of natural gas supply for heating, availability of water supply for drinking and for irrigating crops

•  Locating major natural resources and deposits throughout the world on topographical maps
•  Comparing present-day mechanization of labor with the historical use of human labor for harvesting natural resources
Example: present-day practices of using machinery versus human labor to mine coal and harvest cotton and pecans

•  Explaining the geographic impact of using petroleum, coal, nuclear power, and solar power as major energy sources in the twenty-first century
8.) Identify geographic links of land regions, river systems, and interstate highways between Alabama and other states. (Alabama)

Examples: Appalachian Mountains, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, Interstate Highway 65 (I-65), Natchez Trace Parkway (Alabama)

•  Locating the five geographic regions of Alabama (Alabama)
•  Locating state and national parks on a map or globe (Alabama)
9.) Identify ways to prepare for natural disasters.

Examples: constructing houses on stilts in flood-prone areas, buying earthquake and flood insurance, providing hurricane or tornado shelters, establishing emergency evacuation routes

10.) Recognize functions of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.

•  Describing the process by which a bill becomes law
•  Explaining the relationship between the federal government and state governments, including the three branches of government (Alabama)
•  Defining governmental systems, including democracy, monarchy, and dictatorship
11.) Interpret various primary sources for reconstructing the past, including documents, letters, diaries, maps, and photographs.

•  Comparing maps of the past to maps of the present
12.) Explain the significance of representations of American values and beliefs, including the Statue of Liberty, the statue of Lady Justice, the United States flag, and the national anthem.

13.) Describe prehistoric and historic American Indian cultures, governments, and economics in Alabama. (Alabama)

Examples: prehistoric—Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian

historic—Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek (Alabama)

•  Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists

Social Studies, Grade 4, Alabama Studies, 2010

1.) Compare historical and current economic, political, and geographic information about Alabama on thematic maps, including weather and climate, physical-relief, waterway, transportation, political, economic development, land-use, and population maps.

•  Describing types of migrations as they affect the environment, agriculture, economic development, and population changes in Alabama
2.) Relate reasons for European exploration and settlement in Alabama to the impact of European explorers on trade, health, and land expansion in Alabama.

•  Locating on maps European settlements in early Alabama, including Fort Condé, Fort Toulouse, and Fort Mims
•  Tracing on maps and globes, the routes of early explorers of the New World, including Juan Ponce de León, Hernando de Soto, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa
•  Explaining reasons for conflicts between Europeans and American Indians in Alabama from 1519 to 1840, including differing beliefs regarding land ownership, religion, and culture
3.) Explain the social, political, and economic impact of the War of 1812, including battles and significant leaders of the Creek War, on Alabama.

Examples: social—adoption of European culture by American Indians, opening of Alabama land for settlement

political—forced relocation of American Indians, labeling of Andrew Jackson as a hero and propelling him toward Presidency

economic—acquisition of tribal land in Alabama by the United States

•  Explaining the impact of the Trail of Tears on Alabama American Indians' lives, rights, and territories
4.) Relate the relationship of the five geographic regions of Alabama to the movement of Alabama settlers during the early nineteenth century.

•  Identifying natural resources of Alabama during the early nineteenth century
•  Describing human environments of Alabama as they relate to settlement during the early nineteenth century, including housing, roads, and place names
5.) Describe Alabama's entry into statehood and establishment of its three branches of government and the constitutions.

•  Explaining political and geographic reasons for changes in location of Alabama's state capital
•  Recognizing roles of prominent political leaders during early statehood in Alabama, including William Wyatt Bibb, Thomas Bibb, Israel Pickens, William Rufus King, and John W. Walker
6.) Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.

Examples: cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation

economic—transportation, means of support

political—inequity of legal codes

•  Describing major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys
7.) Explain reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements.

•  Identifying Alabama's role in the organization of the Confederacy, including hosting the secession convention and the inauguration ceremony for leaders
•  Recognizing Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy
•  Interpreting the Articles of the Confederation and the Gettysburg Address
8.) Explain Alabama's economic and military role during the Civil War.

Examples: economic—production of iron products, munitions, textiles, and ships

military—provision of military supplies through the Port of Mobile, provision of an armament center at Selma

•  Recognizing military leaders from Alabama during the Civil War
•  Comparing roles of women on the home front and the battlefront during and after the Civil War
•  Explaining economic conditions as a result of the Civil War, including the collapse of the economic structure, destruction of the transportation infrastructure, and high casualty rates
9.) Analyze political and economic issues facing Alabama during Reconstruction for their impact on various social groups.

Examples: political—military rule, presence of Freedmen's Bureau, Alabama's readmittance to the Union

economic—sharecropping, tenant farming, scarcity of goods and money

•  Interpreting the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
•  Identifying African Americans who had an impact on Alabama during Reconstruction in Alabama
•  Identifying major political parties in Alabama during Reconstruction
10.) Analyze social and educational changes during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for their impact on Alabama.

Examples: social—implementation of the Plessey versus Ferguson "separate but not equal" court decision, birth of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

educational—establishment of normal schools and land-grant colleges such as Huntsville Normal School (Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical [A&M] University), Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama (Auburn University), Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (Tuskegee University), Lincoln Normal School (Alabama State University)

•  Explaining the development and changing role of industry, trade, and agriculture in Alabama during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including the rise of Populism
•  Explaining the Jim Crow laws
•  Identifying Alabamians who made contributions in the fields of science, education, the arts, politics, and business during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
11.) Describe the impact of World War I on Alabamians, including the migration of African Americans from Alabama to the North and West, utilization of Alabama's military installations and training facilities, and increased production of goods for the war effort.

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War I, including Alabama's 167th Regiment of the Rainbow Division
•  Identifying World War I technologies, including airplanes, machine guns, and chemical warfare
12.) Explain the impact the 1920s and Great Depression had on different socioeconomic groups in Alabama.

Examples: 1920s—increase in availability of electricity, employment opportunities, wages, products, consumption of goods and services; overproduction of goods; stock market crash

Great Depression—overcropping of land, unemployment, poverty, establishment of new federal programs

•  Explaining how supply and demand impacted economies of Alabama and the United States during the 1920s and the Great Depression
13.) Describe the economic and social impact of World War II on Alabamians, including entry of women into the workforce, increase in job opportunities, rationing, utilization of Alabama's military installations, military recruitment, the draft, and a rise in racial consciousness.

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War II, including the Tuskegee Airmen and women in the military
•  Justifying the strategic placement of military bases in Alabama, including Redstone Arsenal, Fort Rucker, Fort McClellan, and Craig Air Force Base
14.) Analyze the modern Civil Rights Movement to determine the social, political, and economic impact on Alabama.

•  Recognizing important persons of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr.; George C. Wallace; Rosa Parks; Fred Shuttlesworth; John Lewis; Malcolm X; Thurgood Marshall; Hugo Black; and Ralph David Abernathy
•  Describing events of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, the Freedom Riders bus bombing, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March
•  Explaining benefits of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and Brown versus Board of Education Supreme Court case of 1954
•  Using vocabulary associated with the modern Civil Rights Movement, including discrimination, prejudice, segregation, integration, suffrage, and rights
15.) Identify major world events that influenced Alabama since 1950, including the Korean Conflict, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the War on Terrorism.

16.) Determine the impact of population growth on cities, major road systems, demographics, natural resources, and the natural environment of Alabama during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

•  Describing how technological advancements brought change to Alabamians, including the telephone; refrigerator; automobile; television; and wireless, Internet, and space technologies
•  Relating Alabama's economy to the influence of foreign-based industry, including the automobile industry

Social Studies, Grade 5, United States Studies: Beginnings to the Industrial Revolution, 2010

1.) Locate on a map physical features that impacted the exploration and settlement of the Americas, including ocean currents, prevailing winds, large forests, major rivers, and significant mountain ranges.

•  Locating on a map states and capitals east of the Mississippi River
•  Identifying natural harbors in North America
Examples: Mobile, Boston, New York, New Orleans, Savannah (Alabama)

2.) Identify causes and effects of early migration and settlement of North America.

3.) Distinguish differences among major American Indian cultures in North America according to geographic region, natural resources, community organization, economy, and belief systems.

•  Locating on a map American Indian nations according to geographic region
4.) Determine the economic and cultural impact of European exploration during the Age of Discovery upon European society and American Indians.

•  Identifying significant early European patrons, explorers, and their countries of origin, including early settlements in the New World
Examples: patrons—King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

explorers—Christopher Columbus

early settlements—St. Augustine, Quebec, Jamestown

•  Tracing the development and impact of the Columbian Exchange
5.) Explain the early colonization of North America and reasons for settlement in the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies, including geographic features, landforms, and differences in climate among the colonies.

•  Recognizing how colonial development was influenced by the desire for religious freedom
Example: development in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Maryland colonies

•  Identifying influential leaders in colonial society
•  Describing emerging colonial government
Examples: Mayflower Compact, representative government, town meetings, rule of law

6.) Describe colonial economic life and labor systems in the Americas.

•  Recognizing centers of slave trade in the Western Hemisphere and the establishment of the Triangular Trade Route
7.) Determine causes and events leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Intolerable Acts, the Boston Massacre, and the Boston Tea Party.

8.) Identify major events of the American Revolution, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill, Saratoga, and Yorktown.

•  Describing principles contained in the Declaration of Independence
•  Explaining contributions of Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, George Washington, Haym Solomon, and supporters from other countries to the American Revolution
•  Explaining contributions of ordinary citizens, including African Americans and women, to the American Revolution
•  Describing efforts to mobilize support for the American Revolution by the Minutemen, Committees of Correspondence, First Continental Congress, Sons of Liberty, boycotts, and the Second Continental Congress
•  Locating on a map major battle sites of the American Revolution, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Bunker Hill, Saratoga, and Yorktown
•  Recognizing reasons for colonial victory in the American Revolution
•  Explaining the effect of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 on the development of the United States
9.) Explain how inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation led to the creation and eventual ratification of the Constitution of the United States.

•  Describing major ideas, concepts, and limitations of the Constitution of the United States, including duties and powers of the three branches of government
•  Identifying factions in favor of and opposed to ratification of the Constitution of the United States
Example: Federalist and Anti-Federalist factions

•  Identifying main principles in the Bill of Rights
•  Analyzing the election of George Washington as President of the United States for its impact on the role of president in a republic
10.) Describe political, social, and economic events between 1803 and 1860 that led to the expansion of the territory of the United States, including the War of 1812, the Indian Removal Act, the Texas-Mexican War, the Mexican-American War, and the Gold Rush of 1849.

•  Analyzing the role of the Louisiana Purchase and explorations of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark for their impact on Westward Expansion
•  Explaining the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
•  Identifying Alabama's role in the expansion movement in the United States, including the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and the Trail of Tears (Alabama)
•  Identifying the impact of technological developments on United States' expansion
Examples: steamboat, steam locomotive, telegraph, barbed wire

11.) Identify causes of the Civil War, including states' rights and the issue of slavery.

•  Describing the importance of the Missouri Compromise, Nat Turner's insurrection, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown's rebellion, and the election of 1860
•  Recognizing key Northern and Southern personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Joseph Wheeler (Alabama)
•  Describing social, economic, and political conditions that affected citizens during the Civil War
•  Identifying Alabama's role in the Civil War (Alabama)
Examples: Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy, Winston County's opposition to Alabama's secession (Alabama)

•  Locating on a map sites important to the Civil War
Examples: Mason-Dixon Line, Fort Sumter, Appomattox, Gettysburg, Confederate states, Union states (Alabama)

•  Explaining events that led to the conclusion of the Civil War
12.) Summarize successes and failures of the Reconstruction Era.

•  Evaluating the extension of citizenship rights to African Americans included in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
•  Analyzing the impact of Reconstruction for its effect on education and social institutions in the United States
Examples: Horace Mann and education reform, Freedmen's Bureau, establishment of segregated schools, African-American churches

•  Explaining the black codes and the Jim Crow laws
•  Describing post-Civil War land distribution, including tenant farming and sharecropping
13.) Describe social and economic influences on United States' expansion prior to World War I.

•  Explaining how the development of transcontinental railroads helped the United States achieve its Manifest Destiny
•  Locating on a map states, capitals, and important geographic features west of the Mississippi River
•  Explaining how the United States acquired Alaska and Hawaii
•  Identifying major groups and individuals involved with the Westward Expansion, including farmers, ranchers, Jewish merchants, Mormons, and Hispanics
•  Analyzing the impact of closing the frontier on American Indians' way of life
•  Explaining how the Spanish-American War led to the emergence of the United States as a world power

Social Studies, Grade 6, United States Studies: The Industrial Revolution to the Present, 2010

1.) Explain the impact of industrialization, urbanization, communication, and cultural changes on life in the United States from the late nineteenth century to World War I.

2.) Describe reform movements and changing social conditions during the Progressive Era in the United States.

•  Relating countries of origin and experiences of new immigrants to life in the United States
Example: Ellis Island and Angel Island experiences

•  Identifying workplace reforms, including the eight-hour workday, child labor laws, and workers' compensation laws
•  Identifying political reforms of Progressive movement leaders, including Theodore Roosevelt and the establishment of the national park system
•  Identifying social reforms of the Progressive movement, including efforts by Jane Adams, Clara Barton, and Julia Tutwiler (Alabama)
•  Recognizing goals of the early civil rights movement and the purpose of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
•  Explaining Progressive movement provisions of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-first Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
3.) Identify causes and consequences of World War I and reasons for the United States' entry into the war.

Examples: sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmerman Note, alliances, militarism, imperialism, nationalism

•  Describing military and civilian roles in the United States during World War I
•  Explaining roles of important persons associated with World War I, including Woodrow Wilson and Archduke Franz Ferdinand
•  Analyzing technological advances of the World War I era for their impact on modern warfare
Examples: machine gun, tank, submarine, airplane, poisonous gas, gas mask

•  Locating on a map major countries involved in World War I and boundary changes after the war
•  Explaining the intensification of isolationism in the United States after World War I
Example: reaction of the Congress of the United States to the Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, and Red Scare

•  Recognizing the strategic placement of military bases in Alabama (Alabama)
4.) Identify cultural and economic developments in the United States from 1900 through the 1930s.

•  Describing the impact of various writers, musicians, and artists on American culture during the Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age
Examples: Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Andrew Wyeth, Frederic Remington, W. C. Handy, Erskine Hawkins, George Gershwin, Zora Neale Hurston (Alabama)

•  Identifying contributions of turn-of-the-century inventors
Examples: George Washington Carver, Henry Ford, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Alva Edison, Wilbur and Orville Wright (Alabama)

•  Describing the emergence of the modern woman during the early 1900s
Examples: Amelia Earhart, Zelda Fitzgerald, Helen Keller, Susan B. Anthony, Margaret Washington, suffragettes, suffragists, flappers (Alabama)

•  Identifying notable persons of the early 1900s
Examples: Babe Ruth, Charles A. Lindbergh, W. E. B. Du Bois, John T. Scopes (Alabama)

•  Comparing results of the economic policies of the Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover Administrations
Examples: higher wages, increase in consumer goods, collapse of farm economy, extension of personal credit, stock market crash, Immigration Act of 1924

5.) Explain causes and effects of the Great Depression on the people of the United States.

Examples: economic failure, loss of farms, rising unemployment, building of Hoovervilles

•  Identifying patterns of migration during the Great Depression
•  Locating on a map the area of the United States known as the Dust Bowl
•  Describing the importance of the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President of the United States, including the New Deal alphabet agencies
•  Locating on a map the river systems utilized by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (Alabama)
6.) Identify causes and consequences of World War II and reasons for the United States' entry into the war.

•  Locating on a map Allied countries and Axis Powers
•  Locating on a map key engagements of World War II, including Pearl Harbor; the battles of Normandy, Stalingrad, and Midway; and the Battle of the Bulge
•  Identifying key figures of World War II, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Sir Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Michinomiya Hirohito, and Hideki Tōjō
•  Describing the development of and the decision to use the atomic bomb
•  Describing human costs associated with World War II
Examples: the Holocaust, civilian and military casualties

•  Explaining the importance of the surrender of the Axis Powers ending World War II
7.) Identify changes on the American home front during World War II.

Example: rationing

•  Recognizing the retooling of factories from consumer to military production
•  Identifying new roles of women and African Americans in the workforce
•  Describing increased demand on the Birmingham steel industry and Port of Mobile facilities (Alabama)
•  Describing the experience of African Americans and Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II, including the Tuskegee Airmen and occupants of internment camps (Alabama)
8.) Describe how the United States' role in the Cold War influenced domestic and international events.

•  Describing the origin and meaning of the Iron Curtain and communism
•  Recognizing how the Cold War conflict manifested itself through sports
Examples: Olympic Games, international chess tournaments, Ping-Pong diplomacy

•  Identifying strategic diplomatic initiatives that intensified the Cold War, including the policies of Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and John F. Kennedy
Examples: trade embargoes, Marshall Plan, arms race, Berlin blockade and airlift, Berlin Wall, mutually assured destruction, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact, Cuban missile crisis, Bay of Pigs invasion

•  Identifying how Cold War tensions resulted in armed conflict
Examples: Korean Conflict, Vietnam War, proxy wars

•  Describing the impact of the Cold War on technological innovations
Examples: Sputnik; space race; weapons of mass destruction; accessibility of microwave ovens, calculators, and computers

•  Recognizing Alabama's role in the Cold War (Alabama)
Examples: rocket production at Redstone Arsenal, helicopter training at Fort Rucker (Alabama)

•  Assessing effects of the end of the Cold War Era
Examples: policies of Mikhail Gorbachev; collapse of the Soviet Union; Ronald W. Reagan's foreign policies, including the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or Star Wars)

9.) Critique major social and cultural changes in the United States since World War II.

•  Identifying key persons and events of the modern Civil Rights Movement
Examples: persons—Martin Luther King Jr.; Rosa Parks; Fred Shuttlesworth; John Lewis (Alabama)

events—Brown versus Board of Education, Montgomery Bus Boycott, student protests, Freedom Rides, Selma-to-Montgomery Voting Rights March, political assassinations (Alabama)

•  Describing the changing role of women in United States' society and how it affected the family unit
Examples: women in the workplace, latchkey children

•  Recognizing the impact of music genres and artists on United States' culture since World War II
Examples: genres—protest songs; Motown, rock and roll, rap, folk, and country music

artists—Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Bob Dylan, Aretha Franklin, Hank Williams (Alabama)

•  Identifying the impact of media, including newspapers, AM and FM radio, television, twenty-four hour sports and news programming, talk radio, and Internet social networking, on United States' culture since World War II
10.) Analyze changing economic priorities and cycles of economic expansion and contraction for their impact on society since World War II.

Examples: shift from manufacturing to service economy, higher standard of living, globalization, outsourcing, insourcing, "boom and bust," economic bubbles

•  Identifying policies and programs that had an economic impact on society since World War II
Examples: Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (G. I. Bill of Rights), Medicare and Medicaid, Head Start programs, space exploration, Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), environmental protection issues (Alabama)

•  Analyzing consequences of immigration for their impact on national and Alabama economies since World War II (Alabama)
11.) Identify technological advancements on society in the United States since World War II.

Examples: 1950s—fashion doll, audio cassette

1960s—action figure, artificial heart, Internet, calculator

1970s—word processor, video game, cellular telephone

1980s—personal computer, Doppler radar, digital cellular telephone

1990s—World Wide Web, digital video diskette (DVD)

2000s—digital music player, social networking technology, personal Global Positioning System (GPS) device

12.) Evaluate significant political issues and policies of presidential administrations since World War II.

•  Identifying domestic policies that shaped the United States since World War II
Examples: desegregation of the military, Interstate Highway System, federal funding for education, Great Society, affirmative action, Americans with Disabilities Act, welfare reform, Patriot Act, No Child Left Behind Act

•  Recognizing domestic issues that shaped the United States since World War II
Examples: McCarthyism, Watergate scandal, political assassinations, health care, impeachment, Hurricane Katrina

•  Identifying issues of foreign affairs that shaped the United States since World War II
Examples: Vietnam Conflict, Richard Nixon's China initiative, Jimmy Carter's human rights initiative, emergence of China and India as economic powers

•  Explaining how conflict in the Middle East impacted life in the United States since World War II
Examples: oil embargoes; Iranian hostage situation; Camp David Accords; Persian Gulf Wars; 1993 World Trade Center bombing; terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001; War on Terrorism; homeland security

•  Recognizing the election of Barack Obama as the culmination of a movement in the United States to realize equal opportunity for all Americans
•  Identifying the 2008 presidential election as a watershed in the use of new technology and mass participation in the electoral process

Social Studies, Grade 7, Civics, 2010

1.) Compare influences of ancient Greece, the Roman Republic, the Judeo-Christian tradition, the Magna Carta, federalism, the Mayflower Compact, the English Bill of Rights, the House of Burgesses, and the Petition of Rights on the government of the United States.

2.) Explain essential characteristics of the political system of the United States, including the organization and function of political parties and the process of selecting political leaders.

•  Describing the influence of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccolò Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, and François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) on the political system of the United States
3.) Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems, including monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and pure democracy.

4.) Describe structures of state and local governments in the United States, including major Alabama offices and officeholders. (Alabama)

•  Describing how local and state governments are funded (Alabama)
5.) Compare duties and functions of members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama's local and state governments and of the national government. (Alabama)

•  Locating political and geographic districts of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama's local and state governments and of the national government (Alabama)
•  Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts at the local, state, and national levels within the judicial system of the United States (Alabama)
•  Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments (Alabama)
6.) Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States.

•  Explaining rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights under the Constitution of the United States
•  Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law
•  Justifying consequences of committing a civil or criminal offense
•  Contrasting juvenile and adult laws at local, state, and federal levels (Alabama)
7.) Determine how people organize economic systems to address basic economic questions regarding which goods and services will be produced, how they will be distributed, and who will consume them.

•  Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, state, or local contexts (Alabama)
Example: increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand

•  Analyzing agriculture, tourism, and urban growth in Alabama for their impact on economic development (Alabama)
8.) Appraise the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, and the stock market.

•  Describing effects of government policies on the free market
•  Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated
•  Comparing economic systems, including market, command, and traditional
9.) Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, insurance, checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping.

10.) Describe individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States.

Examples: individual—respect for rights of others, self-discipline, negotiation, compromise, fiscal responsibility

civic—respect for law, patriotism, participation in political process, fiscal responsibility

•  Differentiating rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens
•  Explaining how United States' citizenship is acquired by immigrants
•  Explaining character traits that are beneficial to individuals and society
Examples: honesty, courage, compassion, civility, loyalty

11.) Compare changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Examples: social—family values, peer pressure, education opportunities, women in the workplace

economic—career opportunities, disposable income, consumption of goods and services

•  Determining benefits of Alabama's role in world trade (Alabama)
•  Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabama's role (Alabama)
12.) Describe how the United States can be improved by individual and group participation in civic and community activities.

•  Identifying options for civic and community action
Examples: investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about best locations for public facilities

•  Determining ways to participate in the political process
Examples: voting, running for office, serving on a jury, writing letters, being involved in political parties and political campaigns

13.) Identify contemporary American issues since 2001, including the establishment of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the enactment of the Patriot Act of 2001, and the impact of media analysis.

Social Studies, Grade 7, Geography, 2010

1.) Describe the world in spatial terms using maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies.

•  Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, projections, scale, legend, distance, direction, grid, and symbols
Examples: type—reference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globe and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images

distance—fractional, graphic, and verbal scales

direction—lines of latitude and longitude, cardinal and intermediate directions

•  Identifying geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
Examples: Google Earth, Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), satellite-remote sensing, aerial photography

•  Utilizing maps to explain relationships and environments among people and places, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns
•  Applying mental maps to answer geographic questions, including how experiences and cultures influence perceptions and decisions
•  Categorizing the geographic organization of people, places, and environments using spatial models
Examples: urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population-density patterns, spread of culture traits, spread of contagious diseases through a population

2.) Determine how regions are used to describe the organization of Earth's surface.

•  Identifying physical and human features used as criteria for mapping formal, functional, and perceptual regions
Examples: physical—landforms, climates, bodies of water, resources

human—language, religion, culture, economy, government

•  Interpreting processes and reasons for regional change, including land use, urban growth, population, natural disasters, and trade
•  Analyzing interactions among regions to show transnational relationships, including the flow of commodities and Internet connectivity
Examples: winter produce to Alabama from Chile and California, poultry from Alabama to other countries (Alabama)

•  Comparing how culture and experience influence individual perceptions of places and regions
Examples: cultural influences—language, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes

•  Explaining globalization and its impact on people in all regions of the world
Examples: quality and sustainability of life, international cooperation

3.) Compare geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth's physical systems.

•  Comparing Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfalls, and tornadoes
•  Explaining processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena
Examples: processes—plate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Niño

long-range effects—erosion on agriculture, typhoons on coastal ecosystems

•  Describing characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth's surface
•  Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time
Examples: place to place—differences in soil, climate, and topography

over time—alteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts

•  Comparing geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes
Examples: human—increase or decrease in population, land-use change in tropical forests

natural—hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods

4.) Evaluate spatial patterns and the demographic structure of population on Earth's surface in terms of density, dispersion, growth and mortality rates, natural increase, and doubling time.

Examples: spatial patterns—major population clusters

demographic structure—age and sex distribution using population pyramids

•  Predicting reasons and consequences of migration, including push and pull factors
Examples: push—politics, war, famine

pull—potential jobs, family

5.) Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions, including religious structures, agricultural patterns, ethnic enclaves, ethnic restaurants, and the spread of Islam.

6.) Illustrate how primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns.

Examples: primary—forestry, agriculture, mining

secondary—manufacturing furniture, grinding coffee beans, assembling automobiles

tertiary—selling furniture, selling caffé latte, selling automobiles

•  Comparing one location to another for production of goods and services
Examples: fast food restaurants in highly accessible locations, medical offices near hospitals, legal offices near courthouses, industries near major transportation routes

•  Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and globalization on places and their populations
Examples: seed corn produced in Iowa and planted in South America, silicon chips manufactured in California and installed in a computer made in China that is purchased in Australia

•  Explaining why countries enter into global trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the European Union (EU), the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
7.) Classify spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, including types and sizes of settlement patterns.

Examples: types—linear, clustered, grid

sizes—large urban, small urban, and rural areas

•  Explaining human activities that resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources
Examples: Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor (Alabama)

•  Describing settlement patterns in association with the location of resources
Examples: fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements

•  Describing ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions
Examples: daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production

8.) Determine political, military, cultural, and economic forces that contribute to cooperation and conflict among people.

•  Identifying political boundaries based on physical and human systems
Examples: physical—rivers as boundaries between counties

human—streets as boundaries between local government units

•  Identifying effects of cooperation among countries in controlling territories
Examples: Great Lakes environmental management by United States and Canada, United Nations (UN) Heritage sites and host countries, Antarctic Treaty on scientific research

•  Describing the eruption of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity
Examples: India and Pakistan conflict over Jammu and Kashmir, the West Bank, the Sudan, Somalia piracy, ocean fishing and mineral rights, local land-use disputes

9.) Explain how human actions modify the physical environment within and between places, including how human-induced changes affect the environment.

Examples: within—construction of dams and downstream water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and aquatic ecosystems

between—urban heat islands and global climate change, desertification and land degradation, pollution and ozone depletion

10.) Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions.

Example: farming practices in different regions, including slash-and-burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation

•  Identifying types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides
•  Differentiating ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction
11.) Explain the cultural concept of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution, quantity, and quality through time and by location.

•  Evaluating various cultural viewpoints regarding the use or value of natural resources
Examples: salt and gold as valued commodities, petroleum product use and the invention of the internal combustion engine

•  Identifying issues regarding depletion of nonrenewable resources and the sustainability of renewable resources
Examples: ocean shelf and Arctic exploration for petroleum, hybrid engines in cars, wind-powered generators, solar collection panels

12.) Explain ways geographic features and environmental issues have influenced historical events.

Examples: geographic features—fall line, Cumberland Gap, Westward Expansion in the United States, weather conditions at Valley Forge and the outcome of the American Revolution, role of ocean currents and winds during exploration by Christopher Columbus

environmental issues—boundary disputes, ownership of ocean resources, revitalization of downtown areas

Social Studies, Grade 8, World History to 1500, 2010

1.) Explain how artifacts and other archaeological findings provide evidence of the nature and movement of prehistoric groups of people.

Examples: cave paintings, Ice Man, Lucy, fossils, pottery

•  Identifying the founding of Rome as the basis of the calendar established by Julius Caesar and used in early Western civilization for over a thousand years
•  Identifying the birth of Christ as the basis of the Gregorian calendar used in the United States since its beginning and in most countries of the world today, signified by B.C. and A.D.
•  Using vocabulary terms other than B.C. and A.D. to describe time
Examples: B.C.E., C.E.

•  Identifying terms used to describe characteristics of early societies and family structures
Examples: monogamous, polygamous, nomadic

2.) Analyze characteristics of early civilizations in respect to technology, division of labor, government, calendar, and writings.

•  Comparing significant features of civilizations that developed in the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and Huang He River Valleys
Examples: natural environment, urban development, social hierarchy, written language, ethical and religious belief systems, government and military institutions, economic systems

•  Identifying on a map locations of cultural hearths of early civilizations
Examples: Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley

3.) Compare the development of early world religions and philosophies and their key tenets.

Examples: Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Greek and Roman gods

•  Identifying cultural contributions of early world religions and philosophies
Examples: Judaism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Greek and Roman gods, Phoenicians

4.) Identify cultural contributions of Classical Greece, including politics, intellectual life, arts, literature, architecture, and science.

5.) Describe the role of Alexander the Great in the Hellenistic world.

Examples: serving as political and military leader, encouraging cultural interaction, allowing religious diversity

•  Defining boundaries of Alexander the Great's empire and its economic impact
•  Identifying reasons for the separation of Alexander the Great's empire into successor kingdoms
•  Evaluating major contributions of Hellenistic art, philosophy, science, and political thought
6.) Trace the expansion of the Roman Republic and its transformation into an empire, including key geographic, political, and economic elements.

Examples: expansion—illustrating the spread of Roman influence with charts, graphs, timelines, or maps

transformation—noting reforms of Augustus, listing effects of Pax Romana

•  Interpreting spatial distributions and patterns of the Roman Republic using geographic tools and technologies
7.) Describe the widespread impact of the Roman Empire.

Example: spread of Roman law and political theory, citizenship and slavery, architecture and engineering, religions, sculptures and paintings, literature, and the Latin language

•  Tracing important aspects of the diffusion of Christianity, including its relationship to Judaism, missionary impulse, organizational development, transition from persecution to acceptance in the Roman Empire, and church doctrine
•  Explaining the role of economics, societal changes, Christianity, political and military problems, external factors, and the size and diversity of the Roman Empire in its decline and fall
8.) Describe the development of a classical civilization in India and China.

Examples: India—religions, arts and literature, philosophies, empires, caste system

China—religions, politics, centrality of the family, Zhou and Han Dynasties, inventions, economic impact of the Silk Road and European trade, dynastic transitions

•  Identifying the effect of monsoons on India
•  Identifying landforms and climate regions of China
Example: marking landforms and climate regions of China on a map

9.) Describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire, its institutions, and its legacy, including the influence of the Emperors Constantine and Justinian and the effect of the Byzantine Empire on art, religion, architecture, and law.

•  Identifying factors leading to the establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church
10.) Trace the development of the early Russian state and the expansion of its trade systems.

Examples: rise of Kiev and Muscovy, conversion to Orthodox Christianity, movement of peoples of Central Asia, Mongol conquest, rise of czars

11.) Describe early Islamic civilizations, including the development of religious, social, and political systems.

•  Tracing the spread of Islamic ideas through invasion and conquest throughout the Middle East, northern Africa, and western Europe
12.) Describe China's influence on culture, politics, and economics in Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia.

Examples: culture—describing the influence on art, architecture, language, and religion

politics—describing changes in civil service

economics—introducing patterns of trade

13.) Compare the African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai to include geography, religions, slave trade, economic systems, empires, and cultures.

•  Tracing the spread of language, religion, and customs from one African civilization to another
•  Illustrating the impact of trade among Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Examples: using map symbols, interpreting distribution maps, creating a timeline

14.) Describe key aspects of pre-Columbian cultures in the Americas including the Olmecs, Mayas, Aztecs, Incas, and North American tribes.

Examples: pyramids, wars among pre-Columbian people, religious rituals, irrigation, Iroquois Confederacy

•  Locating on a map sites of pre-Columbian cultures
Examples: Maya, Inca, Inuit, Creek, Cherokee

15.) Describe military and governmental events that shaped Europe in the early Middle Ages (600-1000 A.D.).

Examples: invasions, military leaders

•  Describing the role of the early medieval church
•  Describing the impact of new agricultural methods on manorialism and feudalism
16.) Describe major cultural changes in Western Europe in the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 A.D.).

Examples: the Church, scholasticism, the Crusades

•  Describing changing roles of church and governmental leadership
•  Comparing political developments in France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire, including the signing of the Magna Carta
•  Describing the growth of trade and towns resulting in the rise of the middle class
17.) Explain how events and conditions fostered political and economic changes in the late Middle Ages and led to the origins of the Renaissance.

Examples: the Crusades, Hundred Years' War, Black Death, rise of the middle class, commercial prosperity

•  Identifying changes in the arts, architecture, literature, and science in the late Middle Ages (1300-1400 A.D.)

Social Studies, Grade 9, World History: 1500 to the Present, 2010

1.) Describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology.

2.) Describe the role of mercantilism and imperialism in European exploration and colonization in the sixteenth century, including the Columbian Exchange.

•  Describing the impact of the Commercial Revolution on European society
•  Identifying major ocean currents, wind patterns, landforms, and climates affecting European exploration
Example: marking ocean currents and wind patterns on a map

3.) Explain causes of the Reformation and its impact, including tensions between religious and secular authorities, reformers and doctrines, the Counter-Reformation, the English Reformation, and wars of religion.

4.) Explain the relationship between physical geography and cultural development in India, Africa, Japan, and China in the early Global Age, including trade and travel, natural resources, and movement and isolation of peoples and ideas.

•  Depicting the general location of, size of, and distance between regions in the early Global Age
Example: drawing sketch maps

5.) Describe the rise of absolutism and constitutionalism and their impact on European nations.

•  Contrasting philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the belief in the divine right of kings
•  Comparing absolutism as it developed in France, Russia, and Prussia, including the reigns of Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick the Great
•  Identifying major provisions of the Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights
6.) Identify significant ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment.

Examples: Scientific Revolution—astronomical theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton's law of gravity

Age of Enlightenment—philosophies of Charles de Montesquieu, François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

7.) Describe the impact of the French Revolution on Europe, including political evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of nationalism and liberalism.

•  Identifying causes of the French Revolution
•  Describing the influence of the American Revolution on the French Revolution
•  Identifying objectives of different groups participating in the French Revolution
•  Describing the role of Napoléon Bonaparte as an empire builder
8.) Compare revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.

•  Identifying the location of countries in Latin America
9.) Describe the impact of technological inventions, conditions of labor, and the economic theories of capitalism, liberalism, socialism, and Marxism during the Industrial Revolution on the economies, societies, and politics of Europe.

•  Identifying important inventors in Europe during the Industrial Revolution
•  Comparing the Industrial Revolution in England to later revolutions in Europe
10.) Describe the influence of urbanization on the Western World during the nineteenth century.

Examples: interaction with the environment, provisions for public health, increased opportunities for upward mobility, changes in social stratification, development of Romanticism and Realism, development of Impressionism and Cubism

•  Describing the search for political democracy and social justice in the Western World
Examples: European Revolution of 1848, slavery and emancipation in the United States, emancipation of serfs in Russia, universal manhood suffrage, women's suffrage

11.) Describe the impact of European nationalism and Western imperialism as forces of global transformation, including the unification of Italy and Germany, the rise of Japan's power in East Asia, economic roots of imperialism, imperialist ideology, colonialism and national rivalries, and United States' imperialism.

•  Describing resistance to European imperialism in Africa, Japan, and China
12.) Explain causes and consequences of World War I, including imperialism, militarism, nationalism, and the alliance system.

•  Describing the rise of Communism in Russia during World War I
Examples: return of Vladimir Lenin, rise of the Bolsheviks

•  Describing military technology used during World War I
•  Identifying problems created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919
Examples: Germany's reparations and war guilt, international controversy over the League of Nations

•  Identifying alliances during World War I and boundary changes after World War I
13.) Explain challenges of the post-World War I period.

Examples: 1920s cultural disillusionment, colonial rebellion and turmoil in Ireland and India, attempts to achieve political stability in Europe

•  Identifying causes of the Great Depression
•  Characterizing the global impact of the Great Depression
14.) Describe causes and consequences of World War II.

Examples: causes—unanswered aggression, Axis goal of world conquest

consequences—changes in political boundaries; Allied goals; lasting issues such as the Holocaust, Atomic Age, and Nuremberg Trials

•  Explaining the rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan
•  Identifying turning points of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters
•  Depicting geographic locations of world events between 1939 and 1945
•  Identifying on a map changes in national borders as a result of World War II
15.) Describe post-World War II realignment and reconstruction in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including the end of colonial empires.

Examples: reconstruction of Japan; nationalism in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Africa; Chinese Communist Revolution; creation of the Jewish state of Israel; Cuban Revolution; Central American conflicts

•  Explaining origins of the Cold War
Examples: Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, "Iron Curtain," Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact

•  Tracing the progression of the Cold War
Examples: nuclear weapons, European power struggles, Korean War, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War

16.) Describe the role of nationalism, militarism, and civil war in today's world, including the use of terrorism and modern weapons at the close of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries.

•  Describing the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Russia's struggle for democracy, free markets, and economic recovery and the roles of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin
Examples: economic failures, demands for national and human rights, resistance from Eastern Europe, reunification of Germany

•  Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans
•  Characterizing the War on Terrorism, including the significance of the Iran Hostage Crisis; the Gulf Wars; the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
•  Depicting geographic locations of major world events from 1945 to the present
17.) Describe emerging democracies from the late twentieth century to the present.

•  Discussing problems and opportunities involving science, technology, and the environment in the late twentieth century
Examples: genetic engineering, space exploration

•  Identifying problems involving civil liberties and human rights from 1945 to the present and ways in which these problems have been addressed
•  Relating economic changes to social changes in countries adopting democratic forms of government

Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, Contemporary World Issues and Civic Engagement, 2010

1.) Describe current news stories from various perspectives, including geographical, historical, political, social, and cultural.

•  Evaluating the impact of current news stories on the individual and on local, state, national, and international communities (Alabama)
•  Comparing current news stories to related past events
•  Analyzing news stories for implications regarding nations of the world
•  Locating on a map areas affected by events described in news stories
•  Interpreting statistical data related to political, social, and economic issues in current events
2.) Compare the relationship of governments and economies to events occurring in specific nations.

•  Identifying recurring historical patterns in regions around the world
•  Describing costs and benefits of trade among nations in an interdependent world
•  Comparing ways different countries address individual and national economic and social problems, including child care, tax rates, economic regulations, health care, national debt, and unemployment
3.) Compare civic responsibilities, individual rights, opportunities, and privileges of citizens of the United States to those of citizens of other nations.

4.) Analyze scientific and technological changes for their impact on the United States and the world.

5.) Analyze cultural elements, including language, art, music, literature, and belief systems, to determine how they facilitate global understanding or misunderstanding.

6.) Compare information presented through various media, including television, newspapers, magazines, journals, and the Internet.

•  Explaining the reliability of news stories and their sources
•  Describing the use, misuse, and meaning of different media materials, including photographs, artwork, and film clips
•  Critiquing viewpoints presented in editorial writing and political cartoons, including the use of symbols that represent viewpoints
•  Describing the role of intentional and unintentional bias and flawed samplings
7.) Identify strategies that facilitate public discussion on societal issues, including debating various positions, using a deliberative process, blogging, and presenting public forums.

8.) Organize a service-learning project, including research and implementation, that addresses an identified community or global issue having an impact on the quality of life of individuals and groups.

Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, Human Geography, 2010

1.) Describe spatial patterns of world populations to discern major clusters of population density and reasons for these patterns.

Examples: East Asia, India

2.) Identify world migration patterns caused by displacement issues.

Example: African refugees relocating from the Republic of Sierra Leone to Scandinavia

•  Explaining how Southeast Asian ethnic minorities, including Hmong, Lhasa, and Akha, adapt to life in the United States
•  Tracing the migration of ethnic minorities in Kunming to urban cities in China
•  Explaining how the displacement of American Indians to reservations affected many areas of the United States, including Alabama (Alabama)
3.) Identify the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.

•  Explaining essential aspects of culture, including social structure, languages, belief systems, customs, religion, traditions, art, food, architecture, and technology
4.) Describe elements of the landscape as a mirror of culture.

•  Explaining how landscapes reflect cultural traits and preferences
•  Distinguishing various types of architecture, including rural, urban, and religious structures
Examples: religious land uses, advertisements for ethnic restaurants

5.) Compare the geographic distribution of linguistic features around the world.

•  Identifying the world's most widely spoken languages
•  Describing how linguistic diversity creates cultural conflict
6.) Explain how religion influences cultures around the globe.

•  Identifying major religions, their source areas, and spatial expansion
•  Interpreting different ceremonies based on religious traditions, including marriages, funerals, and coming-of-age
•  Describing how religion influences political views around the world
7.) Describe patterns of settlement in different regions of the world.

Examples: linear, grid, cluster, urban sprawl

8.) Analyze the interaction of urban places for their impact on surrounding regions.

•  Describing urban hinterlands
•  Explaining dimensions of urban sprawl
9.) Explain how economic interdependence and globalization impact many countries and their populations.

•  Tracing the flow of commodities from one region to another
•  Comparing advantages and disadvantages of global trade agreements
10.) Recognize how human-environmental interaction affects culture in today's society.

Examples: population growth in the Galapagos Islands damaging the environment of endemic plant and animal species, deforestation in the Pantanal affecting the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, green technologies affecting humans and the environment

11.) Interpret human geography as it relates to gender.

•  Contrasting roles of men and women around the world
•  Describing ways the diffusion of ideas affects gender roles within societies
Example: effects of Grameen Bank loans

12.) Distinguish among cultural health patterns around the world.

Example: exercise patterns and mortality rates in Asia, the United States, Europe, South America, and Australia

•  Comparing dietary trends in Africa, Asia, the United States, Europe, and South America
•  Tracing disease prevalence and efficiency of treatment around the world, including malaria, dengue fever, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), parasites, and obesity
13.) Critique music, art, and dance as vehicles for understanding world cultures.

•  Categorizing musical instruments as a means to understanding culture, including the didgeridoo in the aboriginal culture in Australia
•  Identifying music genres and dance styles around the world
Examples: genres—Naxi, Peruvian, pop

dance styles—reggae, folk

•  Explaining how culture from various countries is expressed through adornments
Examples: jewelry, clothing

•  Relating artwork and artists to history
Examples: Fabergé eggs, commissioned paintings and sculptures

14.) Describe how tourism shapes cultural traditions and population growth.

•  Explaining how regions become major business centers of tourism and trade, including the cities of Dubai, Bangkok, New York, and Shanghai
•  Identifying how trends, including ecotourism and the cruise industry, affect island culture in tropical areas

Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, Psychology, 2010

1.) Trace the development of psychology as a scientific discipline evolving from other fields of study.

•  Describing early psychological and biological inquiries that led to contemporary approaches and methods of experimentation, including ideologies of Aristotle, John Locke, Wilhelm Wundt, Charles Darwin, William James, Frantz Fanon, and G. Stanley Hall
•  Differentiating among various modern schools of thought and perspectives in psychology that have evolved since 1879, including each school's view on concepts of aggression or appetite
•  Illustrating how modern psychologists utilize multiple perspectives to understand behavior and mental processes
•  Identifying major subfields and career opportunities related to psychology
2.) Describe research strategies used by psychologists to explore mental processes and behavior.

•  Describing the type of methodology and strategies used by researchers in different psychological studies
Examples: surveys, naturalistic observations, case studies, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies

•  Contrasting independent, dependent, and confounding variables and control and experimental groups
•  Identifying systematic procedures necessary for conducting an experiment and improving the validity of results
•  Describing the use of statistics in evaluating research, including calculating the mean, median, and mode from a set of data; conducting a simple correlational analysis using either calculators or computer software; and explaining the meaning of statistical significance
3.) Explain how processes of the central and peripheral nervous systems underlie behavior and mental processes, including how neurons are the basis for neural communication.

•  Describing how neurons communicate, including the role of neurotransmitters in behavior and the electrochemical process
•  Comparing the effect of drugs and toxins on the brain and neurotransmitters
•  Describing how different sections of the brain have specialized yet interdependent functions, including functions of different lobes and hemispheres of the cerebral cortex and consequences of damage to specific sections of the brain
•  Describing different technologies used to study the brain and nervous system
•  Analyzing behavior genetics for its contribution to the understanding of behavior and mental processes, including differentiating between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromosomes, and genes; identifying effects of chromosomal abnormalities; and explaining how genetics and environmental factors work together to determine inherited traits
4.) Describe the interconnected processes of sensation and perception.

•  Explaining the role of sensory systems in human behavior, including sight, sound, smell, touch, and pain
•  Explaining how what is perceived can be different from what is sensed, including how attention and environmental cues can affect the ability to accurately sense and perceive the world
•  Describing the role of Gestalt principles and concepts in perception
5.) Explain ways to promote psychological wellness.

•  Describing physiological processes associated with stress, including hormones associated with stress responses
•  Describing Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
•  Describing the flight-or-fight response in terms of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems
•  Contrasting positive and negative ways of coping with stress related to problem-focused coping, aggression, and emotion-focused coping
•  Explaining approach-approach, approach-avoidance, and avoidance-avoidance conflicts
•  Identifying various eating disorders and conditions
Examples: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity

6.) Describe the physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span of a person from the prenatal through aging stages.

•  Outlining the stage-of-development theories of Jean Piaget, Erik H. Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan, and Lawrence Kohlberg
7.) Describe the processes and importance of memory, including how information is encoded and stored, mnemonic devices, schemas related to short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory.

•  Distinguishing between surface and deep processing in memory development
•  Comparing ways memories are stored in the brain, including episodic and procedural
•  Identifying different parts of the brain that store memory
•  Differentiating among different types of amnesia
•  Describing how information is retrieved from memory
•  Explaining how memories can be reconstructed and misremembered
8.) Describe ways in which organisms learn, including the processes of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational conditioning.

•  Identifying unconditioned stimuli (UCS), conditioned stimuli (CS), unconditioned responses (UCR), and conditioned responses (CR)
•  Describing the law of effect
•  Describing original experiments conducted by B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and Rosalie Rayner
•  Differentiating between reinforcement and punishment, positive and negative reinforcement, and various schedules of reinforcement
•  Describing biological limitations on operantly conditioned learning
•  Differentiating between observational learning and modeling
•  Analyzing watching violent media for effects on violent behavior
9.) Describe how organisms think and solve problems, including processes involved in accurate thinking.

•  Identifying the role of mental images and verbal symbols in the thought process
•  Explaining how concepts are formed
•  Differentiating between algorithms and heuristics
•  Analyzing different types of heuristics to determine effects on problem solving
10.) Describe the qualities and development of language.

•  Identifying common phonemes and morphemes of language
•  Describing how understanding syntax and grammar affect language comprehension
•  Demonstrating how qualities of sign language are similar to spoken language
•  Describing how infants move from babbling to usage of complete sentences
•  Explaining how hearing loss in infants and children can affect the development of spoken language
11.) Compare various states of consciousness evident in human behavior, including the process of sleeping and dreaming.

•  Explaining states of sleep throughout an average night's sleep, including nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM)
•  Describing the mechanism of the circadian rhythm
•  Evaluating the importance of sleep to good performance
•  Comparing theories regarding the use and meaning of dreams
•  Analyzing the use of psychoactive drugs for effects on people, including the mechanisms of addiction, withdrawal, and tolerance
•  Evaluating the phenomenon of hypnosis and its possible uses
12.) Describe the role of motivation and emotion in human behavior.

•  Identifying theories that explain motivational processes, including cognitive, biological, and psychological reasons for motivational behavior, and Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and arousal theory
•  Describing situational cues that cause emotions, including anger, curiosity, and anxiety
•  Differentiating among theories of emotion
•  Identifying universally recognized emotions
13.) Describe methods of assessing individual differences and theories of intelligence, including Charles E. Spearman's general (g) factor of intelligence, Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences, and Robert J. Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence.

•  Describing different types of intelligence tests, including the Flynn effect
•  Describing how intelligence may be influenced by differences in heredity and environment and by biases toward ethnic minority and socioeconomic groups
14.) Explain the role of personality development in human behavior.

•  Differentiating among personality theories, including psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, trait, and humanistic theories of personality
•  Describing different measures of personality, including the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and projective tests
15.) Describe major psychological disorders and their treatments.

•  Differentiating between normal and abnormal behavior
•  Describing different approaches for explaining mental illness, including biological and medical, cognitive, and sociocultural models
•  Differentiating types of mental illness, including mood, anxiety, somatoform, schizophrenic, dissociative, and personality disorders
16.) Describe how attitudes, conditions of obedience and conformity, and other influences affect actions and shape human behavior, including actor-observer, self-server, social facilitation, social loafing, bystander effect, groupthink, and group polarization.

•  Explaining the fundamental attribution error
•  Critiquing Stanley Milgram's work with obedience and S. E. Asch's work with conformity
17.) Describe various careers pursued by psychologists, including medical and mental health care fields, the business world, education, law and criminal justice, and research.

18.) Explain how culture and gender influence behavior.

•  Identifying gender differences and similarities
•  Explaining ways in which gender differences are developed
•  Describing ways in which gender roles are assigned in different cultures

Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, Sociology, 2010

1.) Describe the development of sociology as a social science field of study.

•  Identifying important figures in the field of sociology, including Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, George Herbert Mead, and W. E. B. Du Bois
•  Identifying characteristics of sociology, including functional integration, power, social action, social structure, and culture
2.) Explain methods and tools of research used by sociologists to study human society, including surveys, polls, statistics, demographic information, case studies, participant observations, and program evaluations.

•  Differentiating between qualitative and quantitative research methods
3.) Describe how values and norms influence individual behavior.

•  Comparing ways in which cultures differ, change, and resist change, including countercultures, subcultures, and ethnocentric beliefs
•  Comparing the use of various symbols within and across societies
Examples: objects, gestures, sounds, images

•  Explaining the significance of socialization in human development
•  Illustrating key concepts of socialization, including self-concept, looking-glass self, significant others, and role-taking
•  Determining the role of family, school, peer groups, and the media in socializing young people
•  Explaining the process of socialization in adulthood
4.) Identify antisocial behaviors, including social deviance, addiction, terrorism, anomie, and related arguments for the strain theory and the conflict theory.

•  Contrasting violent crime, property crime, and victimless crime with white-collar crime
•  Comparing methods for dealing with antisocial behavior, including imprisonment, restitution, community service, rehabilitation, education, and therapy
5.) Describe how environment and genetics affect personality, including self-concept and temperament.

6.) Identify stages of development across the life cycle, including birth, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, parenthood, middle age, and late adulthood.

•  Describing the value of birth cohorts as a research device
7.) Describe types and characteristics of groups.

•  Explaining the relationship between social stratification and social class, including status ascription versus achievement, intergenerational social mobility, and structural occupational change
•  Relating the importance of group dynamics, including size, leadership, decision making, and gender roles
•  Distinguishing between the terms, race and ethnicity and prejudice and discrimination
•  Describing social inequalities experienced as related to gender and age
8.) Describe the structure and function of the family unit, including traditional, extended, nuclear, single-parent, and blended families involving the roles of parent, child, and spouse.

•  Identifying problems facing families, including abuse, divorce, teen pregnancy, poverty, addiction, family violence, and care of elderly family members
9.) Explain the purpose of social systems and institutions, including schools, churches, voluntary associations, and governments.

•  Describing origins and beliefs of various religions
•  Distinguishing among the concepts of power, coercion, and authority
•  Comparing charismatic, traditional, and rational-legal authority
10.) Describe social movement and social change.

•  Comparing various forms of collective behavior, including mobs, riots, fads, and crowds
•  Identifying major ethical and social issues facing modern society
Examples: technological, governmental, medical

•  Explaining the impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement, the women's movement, the gun rights movement, the green movement, and other minority movements in the United States
11.) Contrast population patterns using the birth rate, death rate, migration rate, and dependency rate.

•  Identifying the impact of urbanization on human social patterns
•  Analyzing factors that affect the depletion of natural resources for their impact on social and economic development
•  Projecting future population patterns

Social Studies, Grade 10, United States History I: Beginnings to the Industrial Revolution, 2010

1.) Compare effects of economic, geographic, social, and political conditions before and after European explorations of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries on Europeans, American colonists, Africans, and indigenous Americans. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A. 1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

•  Describing the influence of the Crusades, Renaissance, and Reformation on European exploration
•  Comparing European motives for establishing colonies, including mercantilism, religious persecution, poverty, oppression, and new opportunities
•  Analyzing the course of the Columbian Exchange for its impact on the global economy
•  Explaining triangular trade and the development of slavery in the colonies
2.) Compare regional differences among early New England, Middle, and Southern colonies regarding economics, geography, culture, government, and American Indian relations. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

•  Explaining the role of essential documents in the establishment of colonial governments, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact
•  Explaining the significance of the House of Burgesses and New England town meetings in colonial politics
•  Describing the impact of the Great Awakening on colonial society
3.) Trace the chronology of events leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, passage of the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre, passage of the Intolerable Acts, the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the publication of Common Sense, and the signing of the Declaration of Independence. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

•  Explaining the role of key revolutionary leaders, including George Washington; John Adams; Thomas Jefferson; Patrick Henry; Samuel Adams; Paul Revere; Crispus Attucks; and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
•  Explaining the significance of revolutionary battles, including Bunker Hill, Trenton, Saratoga, and Yorktown
•  Summarizing major ideas of the Declaration of Independence, including the theories of John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
•  Comparing perspectives of differing groups in society and their roles in the American Revolution, including men, women, white settlers, free and enslaved African Americans, and American Indians
•  Describing how provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 affected relations of the United States with European nations and American Indians
4.) Describe the political system of the United States based on the Constitution of the United States. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

•  Interpreting the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States; separation of powers; federal system; elastic clause; the Bill of Rights; and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments as key elements of the Constitution of the United States
•  Describing inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation
•  Distinguishing personalities, issues, ideologies, and compromises related to the Constitutional Convention and the ratification of the Constitution of the United States, including the role of the Federalist papers
•  Identifying factors leading to the development and establishment of political parties, including Alexander Hamilton's economic policies, conflicting views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, George Washington's Farewell Address, and the election of 1800
5.) Explain key cases that helped shape the United States Supreme Court, including Marbury versus Madison, McCullough versus Maryland, and Cherokee Nation versus Georgia. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

•  Explaining concepts of loose and strict interpretations of the Constitution of the United States
6.) Describe relations of the United States with Britain and France from 1781 to 1823, including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.g., A.1.i.]

Examples: Embargo Act, Alien and Sedition Acts, impressment

7.) Describe causes, courses, and consequences of United States' expansionism prior to the Civil War, including the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the Northwest Ordinance of 1785, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Louisiana Purchase, the Indian Removal Act, the Trail of Tears, Manifest Destiny, the Mexican War and Cession, Texas Independence, the acquisition of Oregon, the California Gold Rush, and the Western Trails. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

8.) Compare major events in Alabama from 1781 to 1823, including statehood as part of the expanding nation, acquisition of land, settlement, and the Creek War, to those of the developing nation. (Alabama) [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

9.) Explain dynamics of economic nationalism during the Era of Good Feelings, including transportation systems, Henry Clay's American System, slavery and the emergence of the plantation system, and the beginning of industrialism in the Northeast. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

Examples: Waltham-Lowell system, "old" immigration, changing technologies

10.) Analyze key ideas of Jacksonian Democracy for their impact on political participation, political parties, and constitutional government. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

•  Explaining the spoils system, nullification, extension of voting rights, the Indian Removal Act, and the common man ideal
11.) Evaluate the impact of American social and political reform on the emergence of a distinct culture. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

•  Explaining the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the emergence of a national identity
•  Explaining the emergence of uniquely American writers
Examples: James Fenimore Cooper, Henry David Thoreau, Edgar Allen Poe

•  Explaining the influence of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dorothea Lynde Dix, and Susan B. Anthony on the development of social reform movements prior to the Civil War
12.) Describe the founding of the first abolitionist societies by Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin and the role played by later critics of slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Angelina and Sarah Grimké, Henry David Thoreau, and Charles Sumner. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

•  Describing the rise of religious movements in opposition to slavery, including objections of the Quakers
•  Explaining the importance of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 that banned slavery in new states north of the Ohio River
•  Describing the rise of the Underground Railroad and its leaders, including Harriet Tubman and the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, on the abolitionist movement
13.) Summarize major legislation and court decisions from 1800 to 1861 that led to increasing sectionalism, including the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Acts, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision. [A.1.a., A.1.c., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.j.]

•  Describing Alabama's role in the developing sectionalism of the United States from 1819 to 1861, including participation in slavery, secession, the Indian War, and reliance on cotton (Alabama)
•  Analyzing the Westward Expansion from 1803 to 1861 to determine its effect on sectionalism, including the Louisiana Purchase, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession
•  Describing tariff debates and the nullification crisis between 1800 and 1861
•  Analyzing the formation of the Republican Party for its impact on the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States
14.) Describe how the Civil War influenced the United States, including the Anaconda Plan and the major battles of Bull Run, Antietam, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg and Sherman's March to the Sea. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Identifying key Northern and Southern Civil War personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, and William Tecumseh Sherman
Example: President Abraham Lincoln's philosophy of union, executive orders, and leadership

•  Analyzing the impact of the division of the nation during the Civil War regarding resources, population distribution, and transportation
•  Explaining reasons border states remained in the Union during the Civil War
•  Describing nonmilitary events and life during the Civil War, including the Homestead Act, the Morrill Act, Northern draft riots, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the Gettysburg Address
•  Describing the role of women in American society during the Civil War, including efforts made by Elizabeth Blackwell and Clara Barton
•  Tracing Alabama's involvement in the Civil War (Alabama)
15.) Compare congressional and presidential reconstruction plans, including African-American political participation. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Tracing economic changes in the post-Civil War period for whites and African Americans in the North and South, including the effectiveness of the Freedmen's Bureau
•  Describing social restructuring of the South, including Southern military districts, the role of carpetbaggers and scalawags, the creation of the black codes, and the Ku Klux Klan
•  Describing the Compromise of 1877
•  Summarizing post-Civil War constitutional amendments, including the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments
•  Explaining causes for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
•  Explaining the impact of the Jim Crow laws and Plessey versus Ferguson on the social and political structure of the New South after Reconstruction
•  Analyzing political and social motives that shaped the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 to determine their long-term effect on politics and economics in Alabama (Alabama)
16.) Explain the transition of the United States from an agrarian society to an industrial nation prior to World War I. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.h., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Describing the impact of Manifest Destiny on the economic and technological development of the post-Civil War West, including mining, the cattle industry, and the transcontinental railroad
•  Identifying the changing role of the American farmer, including the establishment of the Granger movement and the Populist Party and agrarian rebellion over currency issues
•  Evaluating the Dawes Act for its effect on tribal identity, land ownership, and assimilation of American Indians between Reconstruction and World War I
•  Comparing population percentages, motives, and settlement patterns of immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America, including the Chinese Exclusion Act regarding immigration quotas

*ALSDE is reproducing the QualityCore© course standards included in this Appendix with permission from ACT, Inc. ALSDE acknowledges that ACT, Inc. owns and reserves all copyrights and all other proprietary rights to the QualityCore© course standards contained in this appendix. Any use or redistribution of these QualityCore© course standards without the prior written permission of ACT, Inc. is expressly prohibited.

Social Studies, Grade 11, United States History II: The Industrial Revolution to the Present, 2010

1.) Explain the transition of the United States from an agrarian society to an industrial nation prior to World War I. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Interpreting the impact of change from workshop to factory on workers' lives, including the New Industrial Age from 1870 to 1900, the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the Pullman Strike, the Haymarket Square Riot, and the impact of John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, Eugene V. Debs, A. Philip Randolph, and Thomas Alva Edison
2.) Evaluate social and political origins, accomplishments, and limitations of Progressivism. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Explaining the impact of the Populist Movement on the role of the federal government in American society
•  Assessing the impact of muckrakers on public opinion during the Progressive movement, including Upton Sinclair, Jacob A. Riis, and Ida M. Tarbell
Examples: women's suffrage, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, temperance movement

•  Explaining national legislation affecting the Progressive movement, including the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act
•  Determining the influence of the Niagara Movement, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and Carter G. Woodson on the Progressive Era
•  Assessing the significance of the public education movement initiated by Horace Mann
•  Comparing the presidential leadership of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson in obtaining passage of measures regarding trust-busting, the Hepburn Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act, the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Reserve Act, and conservation
3.) Explain the United States' changing role in the early twentieth century as a world power. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Describing causes of the Spanish-American War, including yellow journalism, the sinking of the Battleship USS Maine, and economic interests in Cuba
•  Identifying the role of the Rough Riders on the iconic status of President Theodore Roosevelt
•  Describing consequences of the Spanish-American War, including the Treaty of Paris of 1898, insurgency in the Philippines, and territorial expansion in the Pacific and Caribbean
•  Analyzing the involvement of the United States in the Hawaiian Islands for economic and imperialistic interests
•  Appraising Alabama's contributions to the United States between Reconstruction and World War I, including those of William Crawford Gorgas, Joseph Wheeler, and John Tyler Morgan (Alabama)
•  Evaluating the role of the Open Door policy and the Roosevelt Corollary on America's expanding economic and geographic interests
•  Comparing the executive leadership represented by William Howard Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy
4.) Describe causes, events, and the impact of military involvement of the United States in World War I, including mobilization and economic and political changes. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

•  Identifying the role of militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism in World War I
•  Explaining controversies over the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the League of Nations
•  Explaining how the Treaty of Versailles led to worsening economic and political conditions in Europe, including greater opportunities for the rise of fascist states in Germany, Italy, and Spain
•  Comparing short- and long-term effects of changing boundaries in pre- and post-World War I in Europe and the Middle East, leading to the creation of new countries
5.) Evaluate the impact of social changes and the influence of key figures in the United States from World War I through the 1920s, including Prohibition, the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, the Scopes Trial, limits on immigration, Ku Klux Klan activities, the Red Scare, the Harlem Renaissance, the Great Migration, the Jazz Age, Susan B. Anthony, Margaret Sanger, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, W. C. Handy, and Zelda Fitzgerald. (Alabama) [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

•  Analyzing radio, cinema, and print media for their impact on the creation of mass culture
•  Analyzing works of major American artists and writers, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Langston Hughes, and H. L. Mencken, to characterize the era of the 1920s
•  Determining the relationship between technological innovations and the creation of increased leisure time
6.) Describe social and economic conditions from the 1920s through the Great Depression regarding factors leading to a deepening crisis, including the collapse of the farming economy and the stock market crash of 1929. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

•  Assessing effects of overproduction, stock market speculation, and restrictive monetary policies on the pending economic crisis
•  Describing the impact of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act on the global economy and the resulting worldwide depression
•  Identifying notable authors of the 1920s, including John Steinbeck, William Faulkner, and Zora Neale Hurston (Alabama)
•  Analyzing the Great Depression for its impact on the American family
Examples: Bonus Army, Hoovervilles, Dust Bowl, Dorothea Lange

7.) Explain strengths and weaknesses of the New Deal in managing problems of the Great Depression through relief, recovery, and reform programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the Social Security Act. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

•  Analyzing conditions created by the Dust Bowl for their impact on migration patterns during the Great Depression
8.) Summarize events leading to World War II, including the militarization of the Rhineland, Germany's seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia, Japan's invasion of China, and the Rape of Nanjing. [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Analyzing the impact of fascism, Nazism, and communism on growing conflicts in Europe
•  Explaining the isolationist debate as it evolved from the 1920s to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent change in United States' foreign policy
•  Identifying roles of significant World War II leaders
Examples: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, George S. Patton, Sir Winston Churchill, Bernard Montgomery, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Emperor Hirohito, Hedeki Tōjō, Erwin Rommel, Adolf Hitler

•  Evaluating the impact of the Munich Pact and the failed British policy of appeasement resulting in the invasion of Poland
9.) Describe the significance of major battles, events, and consequences of World War II campaigns, including North Africa, Midway, Normandy, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Locating on a map or globe the major battles of World War II and the extent of the Allied and Axis territorial expansion
•  Describing military strategies of World War II, including blitzkrieg, island-hopping, and amphibious landings
•  Explaining reasons for and results of dropping atomic bombs on Japan
•  Explaining events and consequences of war crimes committed during World War II, including the Holocaust, the Bataan Death March, the Nuremberg Trials, the post-war Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Genocide Convention
10.) Describe the impact of World War II on the lives of American citizens, including wartime economic measures, population shifts, growth in the middle class, growth of industrialization, advancements in science and technology, increased wealth in the African-American community, racial and ethnic tensions, Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (G. I. Bill of Rights), and desegregation of the military. [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Describing Alabama's participation in World War II, including the role of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Aliceville Prisoner of War (POW) camp, growth of the Port of Mobile, production of Birmingham steel, and the establishment of military bases (Alabama)
11.) Describe the international role of the United States from 1945 through 1960 relative to the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Blockade, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Describing Cold War policies and issues, the domino theory, McCarthyism, and their consequences, including the institution of loyalty oaths under Harry S. Truman, the Alger Hiss case, the House Un-American Activities Committee, and the execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Examples: G.I. Bill of Rights, consumer economy, Sputnik, rock and roll, bomb shelters, Federal-Aid Highway Act

•  Locating areas of conflict during the Cold War from 1945 to 1960, including East and West Germany, Hungary, Poland, Cuba, Korea, and China
12.) Describe major initiatives of the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson Administrations. [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

Examples: President Kennedy—New Frontier, President Johnson—Great Society

•  Describing Alabama's role in the space program under the New Frontier (Alabama)
Examples: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), space race, satellites

•  Describing major foreign events and issues of the John F. Kennedy Administration, including construction of the Berlin Wall, the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the Cuban missile crisis
13.) Trace the course of the involvement of the United States in Vietnam from the 1950s to 1975, including the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the Tet Offensive, destabilization of Laos, secret bombings of Cambodia, and the fall of Saigon. [A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

•  Locating on a map or globe the divisions of Vietnam, the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and major battle sites
•  Describing the creation of North and South Vietnam
14.) Trace events of the modern Civil Rights Movement from post-World War II to 1970 that resulted in social and economic changes, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School, the March on Washington, Freedom Rides, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March. (Alabama) [A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

•  Tracing the federal government's involvement in the modern Civil Rights Movement, including the abolition of the poll tax, the nationalization of state militias, Brown versus Board of Education in 1954, the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
•  Explaining contributions of individuals and groups to the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr.; James Meredith; Medgar Evers; Thurgood Marshall; the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE); the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); and the civil rights foot soldiers
•  Appraising contributions of persons and events in Alabama that influenced the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Rosa Parks, Autherine Lucy, John Patterson, George C. Wallace, Vivian Malone Jones, Fred Shuttlesworth, the Children's March, and key local persons and events (Alabama)
•  Describing the development of a Black Power movement, including the change in focus of the SNCC, the rise of Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael and the Black Panther movement
•  Describing the economic impact of African-American entrepreneurs on the modern Civil Rights Movement, including S. B. Fuller and A. G. Gaston (Alabama)
15.) Describe changing social and cultural conditions in the United States during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. [A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.f., A.1.i., A.1.j., A.1.k.]

Examples: economic impact on the culture, feminist movement, recession, Arab oil embargo, technical revolution

16.) Describe significant foreign and domestic issues of presidential administrations from Richard M. Nixon to the present. [A.1.a., A.1.b., A.1.c., A.1.d., A.1.e., A.1.g., A.1.h., A.1.i., A.1.k.]

Examples: Nixon's policy of détente; Cambodia; Watergate scandal; pardon of Nixon; Iranian hostage situation; Reaganomics; Libyan crisis; end of the Cold War; Persian Gulf War; impeachment trial of William "Bill" Clinton; terrorist attack of September 11, 2001; Operation Iraqi Freedom; war in Afghanistan; election of the first African-American president, Barack Obama; terrorism; global warming; immigration

*ALSDE is reproducing the QualityCore© course standards included in this Appendix with permission from ACT, Inc. ALSDE acknowledges that ACT, Inc. owns and reserves all copyrights and all other proprietary rights to the QualityCore© course standards contained in this appendix. Any use or redistribution of these QualityCore© course standards without the prior written permission of ACT, Inc. is expressly prohibited.

Social Studies, Grade 12, Economics, 2010

1.) Explain why productive resources are limited and why individuals, businesses, and governments have to make choices in order to meet needs and wants.

•  Explaining scarcity as a basic condition that exists when unlimited wants exceed limited productive resources
•  Explaining land (an example of a natural resource), labor (an example of a human resource), capital (an example of a physical or human resource), and entrepreneurship to be the factors of production
•  Explaining opportunity cost as the next best alternative to relinquish when individuals, businesses, and governments confront scarcity by making choices
2.) Explain how rational decision making entails comparing additional costs of alternatives to additional benefits.

•  Illustrating on a production-possibilities curve how rational decision making involves trade-offs between two options
•  Explaining rational decision making as the comparison between marginal benefits and marginal costs of an action
3.) Describe different economic systems used to allocate scarce goods and services.

•  Defining command, market, and mixed economic systems
•  Describing how different economic systems answer the three basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce
•  Evaluating how each type of system addresses private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, and government regulation
4.) Describe the role of government in a market economy, including promoting and securing competition, protecting private property rights, promoting equity, providing public goods and services, resolving externalities and other market failures, and stabilizing growth in the economy.

•  Explaining how government regulation and deregulation policies affect consumers and producers
5.) Explain that a country's standard of living depends upon its ability to produce goods and services.

•  Explaining productivity as the amount of outputs, or goods and services, produced from inputs, or factors of production
•  Describing how investments in factories, equipment, education, new technology, training, and health improve economic growth and living standards
6.) Describe how specialization and voluntary exchange between buyers and sellers lead to mutually beneficial outcomes.

•  Illustrating on a circular-flow diagram the product market; the factor market; the real flow of goods and services between and among businesses, households, and government; and the flow of money
•  Constructing examples of specialization and exchange
•  Illustrating on a table and graph the law of supply and demand
•  Describing the role of buyers and sellers in determining market clearing price
•  Illustrating on a table and graph how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity
•  Illustrating on a graph of supply and demand how price movements eliminate shortages and surpluses
•  Illustrating on a graph how different factors cause changes in a market supply and demand
•  Explaining how prices serve as incentives in a market economy
7.) Describe the organization and role of business.

•  Comparing types of business firms, including sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations
•  Explaining the role of profit as an incentive, including short-term versus long-run decisions, for all firms
•  Describing basic characteristics of pure competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly
•  Explaining ways firms finance operations, including retained earnings, stocks, and debt, and the advantages and disadvantages of each
•  Explaining ways firms engage in price and nonprice competition
•  Recognizing the role of economic institutions, including labor unions and nonprofit organizations, in market economies
8.) Explain the impact of the labor market on the United States' economy.

•  Identifying regional characteristics of the labor force of the United States, including gender, race, socioeconomic background, education, age, and regional specialization
•  Explaining how supply of and demand for labor affect wages
•  Describing characteristics that are most likely to increase wage and nonwage benefits, including skill, productivity, education, occupation, and mobility
•  Explaining how unemployment and inflation impose costs on individuals and nations
•  Determining the relationship of Alabama and the United States to the global economy regarding current technological innovations and industries (Alabama)
Examples: World Wide Web, peanut industry, telecommunications industry, aerospace industry

•  Tracing the history of labor unions and methods of contract negotiation by labor and management (Alabama)
9.) Describe methods used to measure overall economic activity, including the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the Consumer Price Index (CPI), inflation, and unemployment.

•  Explaining how overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by spending decisions of households, businesses, and government; net exports in the short run; and production decisions of firms and technology in the long run
•  Identifying structural, cyclical, and frictional unemployment
•  Describing stages of the business cycle and how employment and inflation change during those stages
10.) Explain the structure, role, and functions of the United States Federal Reserve System.

•  Describing how the United States Federal Reserve System oversees the banking system and regulates the quantity of money in the economy
•  Defining monetary policy
•  Describing how the central bank uses its tools of monetary policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth
11.) Explain how the government uses fiscal policy to promote the economic goals of price stability, full employment, and economic growth.

•  Defining fiscal policy and the use of taxation and government purchases
•  Comparing government deficits and the national debt
12.) Explain why individuals, businesses, and governments trade goods and services in the global economy.

•  Defining absolute advantage and comparative advantage
•  Explaining how gains from trade, whether between two individuals or two countries, are based on the principle of comparative advantage
•  Defining exchange rates
•  Explaining how changes in exchange rates impact purchasing powers of individuals and businesses
•  Explaining tariffs, quotas, embargoes, standards, and subsidies as trade barriers
•  Explaining why countries sometimes impose trade barriers and sometimes advocate free trade

Social Studies, Grade 12, United States Government, 2010

1.) Explain historical and philosophical origins that shaped the government of the United States, including the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and the influence of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Charles de Montesquieu, Jean-Jaques Rousseau, and the Great Awakening.

•  Comparing characteristics of limited and unlimited governments throughout the world, including constitutional, authoritarian, and totalitarian governments
Examples: constitutional—United States


totalitarian—North Korea

2.) Summarize the significance of the First and Second Continental Congresses, the Declaration of Independence, Shays' Rebellion, and the Articles of Confederation of 1781 on the writing and ratification of the Constitution of the United States of 1787 and the Bill of Rights of 1791.

3.) Analyze major features of the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights for purposes, organization, functions, and principles, including rule of law, federalism, limited government, popular sovereignty, judicial review, separation of powers, and checks and balances.

•  Explaining main ideas of the debate over ratification that included the Federalist papers
•  Analyzing the Bill of Rights for its application to historical and current issues
•  Outlining the formal process of amending the Constitution of the United States
4.) Explain how the federal system of the United States divides powers between national and state governments. (Alabama)

•  Summarizing obligations that the Constitution of the United States places on a nation for the benefit of the states, including admitting new states and cooperative federalism
•  Evaluating the role of the national government in interstate relations
5.) Compare specific functions, organizations, and purposes of local and state governments, including implementing fiscal and monetary policies, ensuring personal security, and regulating transportation. (Alabama)

•  Analyzing the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 to determine its impact on local funding and campaign funding (Alabama)
•  Describing the influence of special interest groups on state government (Alabama)
6.) Analyze the expansion of suffrage for its effect on the political system of the United States, including suffrage for non-property owners, women, African Americans, and persons eighteen years of age.

•  Describing implications of participation of large numbers of minorities and women in parties and campaigns
•  Analyzing the black codes, the Jim Crow laws, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March for their impact on the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Alabama)
7.) Describe the process of local, state, and national elections, including the organization, role, and constituency of political parties. (Alabama)

•  Explaining campaign funding and spending
•  Evaluating the impact of reapportionment, redistricting, and voter turnout on elections
8.) Describe functions and the development of special interest groups and campaign contributions by political action committees and their impact on state and national elections. (Alabama)

•  Analyzing rulings by the United States Supreme Court, including Buckley versus Valeo, regarding campaign financing to determine the effect on the election process
9.) Trace the impact of the media on the political process and public opinion in the United States, including party press, penny press, print media, yellow journalism, radio, television, and electronic media.

•  Describing regional differences in public opinion in the United States
•  Analyzing television and electronic media for their impact on the election process and campaign spending from the John F. Kennedy-Richard M. Nixon debate to the election of Barack Obama as President of the United States
•  Explaining the effect of attack advertisements on voter selection of candidates
10.) Evaluate roles political parties play in the functioning of the political system of the United States.

•  Describing the role of third-party candidates in political elections in the United States
•  Explaining major characteristics of contemporary political parties in the United States, including the role of conventions, party leadership, formal and informal memberships, and regional strongholds
•  Describing the influence of political parties on individuals and elected officials, including the development of party machines, rise of independent voters, and disillusionment with party systems
11.) Evaluate constitutional provisions of the legislative branch of the government of the United States, including checks by the legislative branch on other branches of government.

•  Comparing rules of operations and hierarchies of Congress, including roles of the Speaker of the House, the Senate President Pro Tempore, majority and minority leaders, and party whips
•  Identifying the significance of Congressional committee structure and types of committees
•  Tracing the legislative process, including types of votes and committee action, from a bill's presentation to presidential action
12.) Evaluate constitutional provisions of the executive branch of the government of the United States, including checks by the executive branch on other branches of government and powers, duties as head of state and head of government, the electoral process, and the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

•  Critiquing informal powers of the President of the United States, including press conferences, State of the Union addresses, total media access, head of party, and symbolic powers of the Oval Office
•  Identifying the influence of White House staff on the President of the United States
•  Ranking powers held by the President's Cabinet, including roles of Cabinet secretaries, appropriations by Congress, appointment and confirmation, and operation of organization
•  Comparing diverse backgrounds, socioeconomic status, and levels of education of United States' presidents
13.) Evaluate constitutional provisions of the judicial branch of government of the United States, including checks by the judicial branch on other branches of government, limits on judicial power, and the process by which cases are argued before the United States Supreme Court.

•  Explaining the structure and jurisdiction of court systems of the United States, including lower courts and appellate courts
•  Identifying the impact of landmark United States Supreme Court cases on constitutional interpretation
Examples: Marbury versus Madison, Miranda versus Arizona, Tinker versus Des Moines, Gideon versus Wainwright, Reno versus American Civil Liberties Union, United States versus Nixon, McCulloch versus Maryland, Wallace versus Jaffree, Wyatt versus Stickney, Powell versus Alabama (Alabama)

•  Describing the shifting political balance of the court system, including the appointment process, the ideology of justices, influences on court decisions regarding executive and legislative opinion, public opinion, and the desire for impartiality
•  Contrasting strict and loose constructionist views of the Constitution of the United States
14.) Describe the role of citizens in American democracy, including the meaning, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship; due process and other rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States; and participation in the election process.

•  Explaining how the balance between individual versus majority rule and state versus national authority is essential to the functioning of the American democratic society (Alabama)
Examples: majority rule and minority rights, liberty and equality, state and national authority in a federal system, civil disobedience and rule of law, freedom of the press, right to a fair trial, relationship of religion and government (Alabama)

15.) Explain the role and consequences of domestic and foreign policy decisions, including scientific and technological advancements and humanitarian, cultural, economic, and political changes.

Examples: isolationism versus internationalism, policy of containment, policy of détente, multilateralism, war on terrorism

•  Evaluating financial, political, and social costs of national security